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University  of  California  •  Berkeley 


THE  THOMAS  J.  READY  JR.  FAMILY  FUND 


JOtattonal  Cpclopebta 

of 

Coloretr 


Editor-in-Chief 

CLEMENT  RICHARDSON 

President  of  Lincoln  Institute 
Jefferson  City,  Mo. 


ASSOCIATE  EDITORS 

Dr.  C.  V.  ROMAN,  Nashville,  Tenn. 

Professor  of  Meharry  Medical  College. 

W.  T.  B.  WILLIAMS,  Hampton  Institute,  Va. 

Field  Agent  of  the  Jeannes  and  Slater  Funds. 

II.  M.  MINTON,  M.  D.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Board  of  Directors  Mercy  Hospital. 

SILAS  X.  FLOYD,  Augusta,  Ga. 
Principal  of  City  Schools. 

DR.  R.  E.  JONES,  New  Orleans,  La. 

Editor  of  South  Western  Christian  Advocate. 

DR.  A.  F.  OWENS,  Selma,  Ala. 

Dean  of  Theological  Dept.  Selma  University. 

FRED  MOORE,  New  York  City. 
Editor  New  York  Age. 


ADVISORY  BOARD 

EMMETT  J.  SCOTT,  Chairman, 

Secretary  of  Tuskegee   Institute,   Tuskegce 

Institute,  Ala. 

N.  B.  YOUNG,  Tallahassee,  Fla. 
President  of  A.  and  M.  College. 

DR.  J.  W.  E.  BOWEN,  Atlanta,  Ga. 

Dean  of  Gammon  Theological  Seminary. 

J.  R.  E.  LEE,  Kansas  City,  Mo. 

Principal  of  Lincoln  High  School. 

J.  S.  CLARK,  Baton  Route,  La. 

President  of  Southern  University. 

DR.  M.  W.  DOGAN,  Marshall,  Texas. 
President  of  Wiley  University. 


Volume  One 


NATIONAL  PUBLISHING  COMPANY,  Inc. 

PUBLISHERS 

MONTGOMERY,  ALABAMA 
1919 


COPYRIGHT  1919 

NATIONAL  PUBLISHING  CO.,  Inc. 

MONTGOMERY,  ALA. 


i  B  a  ( 


1 
1 


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• 


•••iiiia  •  ••iii»  •  maiiiiBi'iiB1  •  ••••^ 

BOOKER  TALIAFERRO  WASHINGTON,  M.  A.  LL.  D. 


Foreword 


OR  the  past  20  yearn  Negroes  have  been  coming  to  the  front  so 
rapidly  that  to  list  all  whose  names  should  appear  in  a  work  of 
this  kind  would,  I  know,  be  impossible.  As  it  is  true  of  names 
and  biographies,  so  is  it  true  of  the  general  data  concerning  the  Negro 
race.  Almost  daily  something  happens  or  some  new  development  in 
the  race  records  itself  as  monumental  and  historical.  All  of  this,  I 
know  the  Editors  cannot  record;  yet  I  am  thoroughly  convinced,  from 
what  I  have  seen  of  the  Cyclopedia  of  the  Colored  Race,  that  this 
book  will  be  of  inestimable  good  to  both  the  white  people  and  the  black 
people  of  America. 

It  will  be  of  service  to  the  white  people  because  it  is  the  one  work 
which  gives  a  comprehensive  knowledge  of  the  Negro  race,  past  and 
present. 

It  will  be  of  great  service  to  the  Negro  for  two  reasons.  In  the 
first  place  it  will  be  an  advocate  pleading  his  cause  by  setting  forth 
his  achievements  under  the  most  trying  circumstances.  It  will  show 
to  the  world  that  the  American  Negro  is  worthy  not  only  of  what  he 
has  achieved,  but  of  an  open  door  to  much  greater  achievements  and 
much  kindlier  treatment. 

In  the  second  place  it  will  teach  the  Negro  more  about  himself. 
No  Race,  white  or  black,  can  get  very  far  as  a  race  or  as  individuals 
without  a  goodly  amount  of  self-respect  and  -race  pride.  Every 
biography,  the  story  of  every  kind  of  property  ownership,  of  a  bank 
or  store,  owned  and  operated  properly,  will  be  a  source  of  great  inspi 
ration  to  Negroes  old  and  young.  Were  there  no  other  reason,  this 
one  of  valuable  racial  inspiration  would  more  than  justify  the  hard 
labor  and  careful  thought  that  the  publishers  and  editors  have  put 
into  this  work. 

Finally  the  public  can  rely  upon  the  honesty  and  integrity  of  the 
men  whose  names  appear  as  editors  of  the  Cyclopedia.  Here  and 
there  these  men  may  err  in  fact,  but  in  principle  I  do  not  believe  there 
is  a  man  on  the  list  who  can  be  doubted.  I  know  all  of  them  per 
sonally,  a  good  many  of  them  intimately.  The  editor  in  chief,  Mr. 
Clement  Richardson,  his  chief  advisor  Mr.  E.  J.  Scott,  Mr.  J.  R.  E. 
Lee,  Mr.  N.  B.  Young,  are  all  men  who  have  rendered  years  of  most 
valuable  services  on  the  staff  at  Tuskegee  Institute. 

I  commend  this  book  highly  to  all  Americans,  with  the  hope  that 
a  perusal  of  it  will  bring  a  better  understanding  and  a  warmer  spirit 
of  friendship  and  inspiration,  to  both  races. 


Principal    Tuskegee    Institute 


PREFACE 


Cyclopedia  of  the  Negro  race 
should,  it  seems  to  me,  have 
two  purposes — to  inform  and 
to  inspire.  The  ordinary  work 
of  the  kind  has  merely  the  task 
to  inform.  The  inspiration 
story,  the  tale  of  struggle  and  achievement,  is 
attended  to  by  the  daily  paper,  the  magazine, 
the  technical  journal  and  the  photographer. 
Hut  the  only  sure  hope  that  the  black  Ameri 
can  can  entertain  for  immediate  notice  comes 
through  committing  crime.  The  black  man 
who  assails  a  hen  roost,  one  who  perpetrates  a 
blind  tiger  or  commits  even  more  revolting 
crimes  is  pretty  certain  of  a  big  headline  and 
several  pages  in  the  daily  news,  while  he  who 
pays  his  taxes,  supports  his  family  and  lays 
away  a  few  shekels  or  invests  in  land,  houses 
or  brain  power,  passes  on  unheralded. 

Let  the  task  of  this  work  be  to  inform  of 
the  good  deeds.  Rapidly  the  Negro  himself  is 
casting  out  the  discriminating  hook,  with  the 
label,  "Who  is  he?"  written  in  pretty  bold  let 
ters.  Good  deeds,  a  life  of  service,  have  come 
to  be  a  passport  required  among  groups  of  col 
ored  Americans  as  well  as  among  groups  of 
other  people. 

We  have  still  also  our  weakness  toward 
education.  We  like  the  diploma  on  the  wall, 
the  cap  and  gown,  the  enriching  memories  of 
college  days.  He,  therefore,  who  would  make 
his  place  in  various  groups  must  carry  the 
stamp  of  merit  in  cultivation  of  intellect,  in  the 
acquisition  of  wealth,  in  deeds  of  good  for  the 
betterment  of  his  people. 

Therein  does  the  Clyclopedia  hope  to  fill 
what  assuredly  appears  to  be  a  crying  need. 
Negroes  over  the  country  do  not  know  one  an 
other,  neither  do  the  white  Americans  know 
what  their  darker  countrymen  are  doing  to 
make  a  stronger  and  nobler  race  and  to  make 
of  all  wholesome  citizens. 

As  a  rule,  however,  we  cannot  accomplish 
the  end  of  this  undertaking  by  cataloging  a 
few  dry,  abstract  facts.  Thus  to  set  down 
"John  Smith,  born  1884,  proprietor  of  a  drug 
store,  candidate  for  Grand  Secretary  of  K. 
P."  and  so  on,  would  not,  though  thoroughly 
informing,  give  all  that  we  want  the  Negro 
school  boy  and  the  Negro  school  girl  to  find 


A\  hen  they  go  to  search  for  our  names  in  the 
Cyclopedia.  We  want  them  to  look  there, 
both  young  and  old,  to  find  a  brief  succinct 
story, — one  that  while  it  informs,  gives  some 
measure  of  the  man,  some  measure  of  the  char 
acter  he  developed  while  becoming  the  pro 
prietor  of  a  drug  store,  or  candidate  for  Grand 
Secretary.  Here  is  the  editor  of  a  Negro  pa 
per.  How  did  he  get  his  education  in  gen 
eral?  How  did  he  get  his  particular  training 
for  the  craft?  How  many  nights,  as  Horace 
Greely  put  it,  did  he  "sleep  on  paper  and  eat 
ink" — or  support  his  family  on  unpaid  sub 
scriptions?  In  other  words,  we  want  the  Ne 
gro  boy  to  feel  inspired,  to  come  away  with  a 
thrill:  we  want  the  older  Negro  to  feel  that 
he  is  among  a  great  galaxy  of  black  folk,  great 
because  of  character,  of  education,  of  good 
ness. 

Thanks  to  the  breaking  of  a  new  day,  we 
now  have  a  great  many  friends  who  are  gen 
uinely  interested  in  our  progress.  They  want 
to  see  what  the  black  folks  have  done;  to  see 
the  fruit  of  their  labor  on  the  one  hand  and  to 
uphold  the  black  man's  cause  to  those  who  still 
doubt,  or  who  alas !  simply  do  not  know. 

As  we  feel  about  the  person  so  we  feel  about 
the  organization,  the  institution.  Here  is  a 
big  Negro  church  whose  night  classes,  rest 
rooms  and  the  like  owe  their  existence  to  the 
poor  mothers  who  sweat  over  the  wash  tub:  A 
Negro  school  whose  first  master  likely  as  not 
taught  in  the  rain,  or  waded  through  water 
and  mud  to  reach  his  classes.  Here  again  ic 
a  Negro  bank,  whose  first  president  begged 
deposits  from  door  to  door:  A  big  Negro  far 
mer  and  land  owner,  who  once  grubbed  his 
soil  or  chopped  wood  by  the  light  of  a  pine 
torch:  a  Negro  publisher  who  once  was  class 
ed  a  little  above  a  tramp:  A  Negro  insurance 
man,  who  was  once  a  cook:  A  big  Negro  physi 
cian  who  came  from  the  farm  or  from  the 
ranks  of  the  hotel  waiters.  It  is  this  we  would 
chronicle,  not  of  course  that  it  may  be  known 
merely,  but  that  there  may  be  more  and  bet 
ter  banks,  holier  churches,  finer  schools,  big 
ger  farmers,  a  larger  number  forging  forward 
from  the  ranks  typifying  the  best  in  the  race. 

To  have  undertaken  a  task  of  this  kind  was, 
in  the  eyes  of  many,  to  pursue  a  course  of  rash- 


ness,  if  not  madness.  The  territory,  it  was 
th.mght,  was  far  too  wide.  The  task  of  se 
lecting  and  rejecting  was  too  nice  and  too  haz 
ardous.  To  do  even  a  reasonable  amount  of 
justice  to  all  deserving  persons  was  impossible. 
And  so  why  risk  so  much? 

Now,  the  remarkable  feature  of  all  this  is, 
that  those  who  made  these  objections  were  cor 
rect.  Indeed,  each  point  in  itself  is  sufficient 
to  retard  one  from  undertaking  the  task.  Yet, 
there  was,  and  is,  at  least  an  equal  weight  on 
the  side  that  here  is  an  opportunity  to  render 
good  service,  service  of  help  on  the  one  hand 
and  of  enlightenment  on  the  other.  To  sit  by 
and  let  slip  so  fair  an  occasion  merely  because 
of  fear  per  se,  or  because  of  fear  of  failure 
seemed  as  criminal  as  to  try  and  even  fail. 

The  men  whose  lives  are  here  sketched,  the 
Institutions  and  Organizations  here  represent 
ed,  by  no  means  exhaust  the  list.  In  fact,  sume 
of  the  most  thrilling  tales  of  struggle  and  con 
quest  of  both  men  and  Organizations  are,  for 
one  reason  or  another,  not  here  at  all.  It  is 
doubtful,  in  many  instances,  if  they  can  be  se 
cured.  Indifference  to  fame,  a  shrinking 
from  publicity,  intense  engagement  in  one  kind 
of  work  or  another,  all  conspire  to  with-hold 
the  desired  information  from  the  public. 

The  Editor  has  drawn  freely  from  the  wj-it- 
ings  of  others.  Just  what  particular  work  he 
is  most  indebted  to,  he  is  at  a  loss  to  say.  He 
has  consulted  most  printed  matter  on  Negroes. 
He  is  therefore  grateful  to  Negro  Magazine 
Editors,  Negro  News  Paper  Editors,  and  to 
all  Authors  of  books  bearing  on  Negro  people. 
If  there  has  been  any  purloining,  such  has  not 
been  done  through  any  wish  to  arrogate  knowl 
edge  or  talent,  but  with  the  full  desire,  border 
ing,  it  is  hoped,  upon  enthusiasm,  to  send 
abroad  the  good  news  and  glad  tidings  that  the 
people  for  whom  so  many  good  tempers  have 


been  spoiled,  and  for  whom  so  much  blood  has 
been  shed,  are  not  being  redeemed  in  vain. 

One  of  the  happiest  phases  of  the  endeavor, 
both  to  the  publishers  and  to  the  Editor,  has 
been  the  quick  and  hearty  response  accorded 
by  the  leading  Negroes  and  those  White  peo 
ple  interested  in  Negroes  throughout  the 
country.  This  was  particularly  true  of  pro 
fessional  and  thinking  men  of  the  race; 
of  the  Ministers,  of  the  Doctors,  of  the 
Editors,  and  of  up-lift  workers.  So  numerous 
are  these  that  to  name  them  is  impossible. 
Again,  the  leading  schools  for  Negroes,  wheth 
er  in  the  hands  of  Colored  people  or  White, 
have  given  an  encouragement,  without  which 
the  work  could  hardly  have  progressed.  Tus- 
kegee,  Fisk,  Spelman,  and  scores  of  other  sach 
Institutions  gave  their  backing  in  every  sense 
un  reservedly. 

Two  men  must  be  spoken  of,  else  this  Cy 
clopedia  had  not  been — Dr.  R.  R.  Moton  and 
Hon.  Emett  J.  Scott.  The  former  was  com 
ing  into  the  principalship  of  Tuskegee  Insti 
tute  at  the  inception  of  this  work.  Without 
question,  without  hesitation,  he  not  only  gave 
his  endorsement,  but  took  the  occasion  when 
ever  approached  to  commend  the  undertaking, 
an  act  wholly  in  keeping  with  the  known  gen 
erous  traits  of  Dr.  Moton.  Upon  the  latter 
should  have  devolved  the  editing  of  this  work. 
While  he  occupies  the  place  of  Chairman  of 
the  Advisory  Board,  Mr.  Scott  is,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  in  many  ways  the  Cyclopedia's  spon 
sor.  His  exceeding  wide  contact,  his  host  of 
warm  personal  friends  everywhere,  made  for 
the  Editor  and  the  Publishers  a  rose  covered 
path,  which  might  otherwise  have  been  one 
strewn  with  gravel,  if  not  with  thorns. 
CLEMENT  RICHARDSON, 

Lincoln  Institute, 
Jefferson  Citv,  Mo.,  Nov.  loth,  1918. 


Booker  Taliaferro  Washington,  M.  A.  LL.  D. 


OOKER  T.  WASHINGTON,  a 
model  of  efficiency,  was  born 
a  slave — but  he  lived  to  absorb 
so  much  of  the  white  man's 
civilization  that  he  taught  not 
only  Negroes  by  a  new  method, 
but  had  his  method  adopted  by  white  men 
as  well.  Dr.  Washington  attended  Hampton 
Institute,  earning  his  way  as  he  went.  In 
deed  all  that  Dr.  Washington  had  as  a  start  for 
his  most  remarkable  career,  was  a  determination 
to  better  himself  and  his  people.  He  lived  to 
found  and  serve  till  it  was  fully  established  with 
no  possible  chance  of  failure,  the  largest  institution 
for  Negroes  in  the  world — Tuskegee  Institute. 
This  school  has  become  a  model  for  schools  in  all 
parts  of  the  world.  Dr.  Washington  also  founded 
the  National  Negro  Business  League,  The  Inter 
national  Race  Congress,  and  was  instrumental  in 
the  founding  of  the  Southern  Education  Board. 

He  was  honored  by  Harvard  University  with  the 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts  and  was  given  the  degree 
of  LL.  D.  by  Dartmouth.  In  addition  to  these  he 
was  given  honary  degrees  by  a  number  of  the 
leading  Eastern  and  Southern  Colleges.  This  was 
done  as  a  recognition  of  his  work.  Dr.  Washing 
ton  never  ceased  to  study,  he  studied  at  home,  on 
the  trains,  on  the  long  trips  through  the  country. 
He  was  as  close  a  student  of  books  as  he  was  of 
men.  His  judgments  of  men  and  things  are  brought 
out  clearly  in  the  many  books  and  periodicals  of 
which  he  is  the  author. 

Booker  T.  Washington  who  died  at  his  home 
early  Sunday  morning,  Nov.  14,  1915,  was  a  big 
man  out  in  the  world ;  he  was  a  bigger  man  at 
home  among  his  teachers.  The  world  knew  him  for 
his  eloquence,  his  homely  wit,  his  tact,  his  shrewd 
diplomacy.  We  knew  him  at  home  for  his  broad 
sympathies,  for  his  kindness,  his  attention  to  little 
things,  his  infinite  power  of  planning  and  work 
ing.  His  two  last  acts,  one  abroad  and  one  at 
home,  are  strikingly  significant  of  his  balanced 
life.  His  last  act  before  the  world  was  to  make  a 
journey  to  deliver  an  address.  His  last  act  at  home 
was  to  repair  an  old  board  fence  which  he  had  un 
wittingly  ordered  torn  down. 

At  home  or  abroad  he  was  never  too  big  for  even 
the  humblest  man  to  approach.  Indeed  he  had  a 
sort  of  craze  for  bringing  together  the  rude  illit 
erate  and  the  more  cultivated  members  of  his  race. 
He  liked  to  assemble  the  rude  black  farmer,  the 
school  teacher,  the  lawyer  and  the  business  man. 
He  had  a  fondness  for  stopping  the  half  illiterate 
preacher,  for  getting  such  in  his  office  and  looking 
into  their  minds.  An  oldtime  mamniv,  or  an  old,  old 


Negro  farmer  in  his  audiences  seemed  to  inspire 
him  more  than  the  richest  and  most  distinguished. 
He  always  rushed,  as  it  were,  into  the  arms  of  such 
at.  the  closing  of  his  big  meetings.  Probably  no 
single  organization  with  which  he  ever  had  connec 
tion  gave  him  quite  the  genuine  satisfaction  he  got 
from  the  Annual  Farmers'  Conference.  He  de 
lighted  to  banter  these  old  fellows,  to  listen  to 
their  rude  speeches  and  homely  sayings.  Many  of 
his  own  stories  and  anecdotes  sprang  out  of  these 
meetings. 

But  he  was  no  mere  stag  acquaintance.  He  wel 
comed  all  such  to  his  fireside,  to  his  office,  his  pre 
cious  time,  his  helping  hand,  the  mother  protesting 
that  her  child  did  not  make  a  class  high  enough, 
the  student  smarting  under  some  misunderstanding 
with  a  teacher,  the  white  banker  or  white  farmer 
wishing  to  transact  business — all  had  free  access 
to  him.  To  be  sure  he  kept  a  closed  office,  but  this 
was  to  gain  dispatch,  not  to  exclude.  It  was  no 
uncommon  sight  to  find  a  vagrant  Negro  preacher, 
a  distinguished  visitor,  a  Negro  farmer,  a  teacher 
or  two,  and  a  few  students  all  waiting  to  see  him. 
.  Reports  say  that  the  doctors  wondered  how  he 
lived  so  long.  The  more  is  the  marvel  when  one 
thinks  of  the  burdens  he  bore.  Having  to  raise 
thousands  of  dollars  to  provide  food,  heat,  com 
fortable  lodgings  for  1500  students,  he  neverthe 
less  kept  his  finger  on  the  smallest  details.  Now  he 
was  dictating  a  letter  asking  for  funds,  the  next 
moment  he  would  be  summoning  a  workman  or 
dictating  a  note  about  the  weeds  in  a  plot  of 
ground,  about  a  hedge,  or  a  broken  window  pane. 
One  moment  he  would  be  dictating  a  speech  for 
some  national  occasion,  the  next  he  would  be  ad 
vising  a  means  of  disposing  of  "old  Mollie,"  one 
of  the  cows  of  the  dairy  herd,  or  "old  Phil,"  a  lame 
mule.  So  it  was  with  the  eggs  and  chickens  from 
the  poultry  yard,  the  sweU  potatoes,  the  peaches, 
the  corn,  oats,  pigs,  the  power  plant,  the  lighting 
system,  the  way  a  new  teacher  was  conducting  a 
class  in  arithmetic  or  grammar.  And  this  thing 
he  kept  up  from  day  to  day,  whether  he  was  in 
New  York  or  Alabama.  I  myself  have  again  and 
again,  during  the  seven  years  in  which  I  have  had 
charge  of  the  English  work  at  Tuskegee  Institute 
gotten  notes  making  suggestions  about  a  paragraph 
or  a  sentence  in  some  student's  talk  or  commence 
ment  address. 

There  was  only  one  way  under  the  sun  he  could 
do  this.  He  regulated  his  life  to  the  very  second. 
He  husbanded  time  most  miserly,  though  he  was 
prodigal  with  his  energies.  He  had  breakfasted 
and  was  out  on  horseback  by  7:30  (he  fancied  the 
big  iron  gray  pacer).  His  hour's  ride  was  in  a 


Sense  recreative ;  in  another  sense,  it  was  work : 
for  he  inspected  the  farm,  the  orchard,  the  shops, 
the  school's  supplies,  taking  notes  and  giving  di 
rection.  If  he  rode  out  into  the  country,  he  usually 
returned  with  suggestions  about  a  torn-off  blind 
on  a  Negro  church  or  the  neglected  garden  of  a 
Negro  schoolhouse.  All  the  time  he  was  stopping 
teachers  and  workmen  by  the  way,  giving  them 
new  tasks,  requesting  them  to  come  to  his  office 
at  a  certain  hour. 

By  half  past  eight  he  was  in  his  office.  For  a 
certain  time  he  read  and  dictated  letters.  In  the 
meantime  the  office  boys  were  flying  over  the 
grounds  and  ringing  the  telephone  bells,  summon 
ing  Council  members,  the  heads  of  departments,  to 
a  committee  meeting,  a  meeting  on  the  budget,  on 
Commencement,  on  a  new  building,  on  the  actions 
of  a  student  or  a  teacher.  Up  to  the  last  second 
he  would  keep  his  mind  fixed  on  his  reading  or 
correspondence.  He  then  took  up  the  business  in 
hand,  dispensed  with  it  and  went  back  to  an  article 
on  teaching  or  on  Negro  homes  or  Negro  business. 
If  he  was  slated  to  make  a  trip  in  a  buggy  or  car 
he  kept  his  work  until  the  clock  was  on  the  second. 
Then  he  stepped  into  the  conveyance  and  was  gone. 
Woe  unto  him  who  brought  a  slow  vehicle.  Even 
so  he  would  be  at  work.  Between  one  stop  and 
another  on  a  speaking  tour  he  would  sketch  a  half 
dozen  plans— for  articles,  for  grading  a  lawn,  for 
remodeling  a  building,  for  rendering  somebody  a 
service.  Always  and  everywhere  his  plans  incul 
cated  this— to  serve  somebody,  to  make  somebody 
happier.  It  might  be  by  giving  a  body  something ; 
it  was  most  often  by  giving  one  something  to  do. 

This  having  things  to  hand,  which  to  some  minds, 
might  appear  at  times  extravagant  was  the  very 
essence  of  his  efficiency,  as  it  is  of  any  man's  effi 
ciency.  The  change  of  clothing  was  usually  ready 
to  hand.  He  had  push  bells  and  telephones  in  his 
office,  and  push  bells  and  telephones  in  his  study 
at  home.  Wherever  and  whenever  he  went  about 
the  grounds  an  office  boy,  sometimes  a  stenograph 
er,  followed  at  his  elbow  to  summon  a  workman  or 
to  take  down  a  note  on  some  weak  point  in  work 
manship.  His  pet  diversion  was  hunting.  In  the 
fall  he  would  frequently  steal  an  hour  and  run  out 
to  the  woods.  To  save  time  he  kept  a  hunting  out 
fit,  gun  cartridges,  etc.,  at  his  home  and  one  at 
the  work  place  of  the  young  man  who  usually  ac 
companied  him,  so  that  whenever  the  hunting  time 
came  he  would  not  loose  an  hour  in  getting  ready. 
To  some  this  would  be  extravagance.  To  one 
whose  time  is  precious  it  is  the  highest  economy. 

With  this  practice  of  having  things  to  hand  he 
coupled  the  habit  of  doing  the  thing  then.  His  key 
word  was  "AT  ONCE."     Alas!  how     often     Tus- 
kegee  teachers  have  seen  that  notice:     Mr    - 
will  see  the  Principal  "at  once."    The  enr;-igemen1 


might  not  last  one  third  the  time  it  required  you 
to  walk  to  the  office ;  but  he  attended  to  *he  thing 
there.  The  errand  boy  gets  the  workman  there. 
The  stenographer  took  down  the  note  on  the  spot. 
He  went  hunting  then;  he  mr.de  his  address  then; 
he  signed  his  letters  then.  Each  minute  in  i.he 
day  seemed  to  have  been  for  him  an  individual  par 
ticle,  to  be  dealt  with  and  settled  by  the  time  the 
next  one  ticked  around.  For  the  last  year  or  so 
he  pushed  this  habit  to  the  extreme,  calling  for 
teachers,  workmen,  council  members,  who  were 
the  advisory  board,  at  midnight,  at  daybreak,  at 
the  meal  hour.  Several  times  Mrs.  Washington 
protested,  seeking  to  restrain  him.  With  the  genius 
of  premonition  he  would  exclaim,  "Let  me  alone. 
Let  me  do  it  now.  I  don't  know  where  I'll  be  to 
morrow." 

Some  local  joker  tells  this  story  which,  though 
likely  enough  untrue,  illustrates  this  habit  of  at 
tending  to  one  thing  at  the  moment.  One  after 
noon  in  the  fall  while  stealing  his  hour's  hunt  he 
chanced  to  cross  a  part  of  the  school's  farm  in  order 
to  reach  the  woods.  The  name  of  the  Director  of 
the  farming  industries  is  Bridgeforth,  that  of  the 
young  man  who  went  hunting  with  Dr.  Washing 
ton,  Foster.  Just  as  the  Tuskegean  and  Foster  en 
tered  the  woods,  a  squirrel  leaped  from  the  ground 
and  went  scrambling  up  a  tree.  Quick  as  a  spark 
Dr.  Washington  leveled  his  gun.  At  the  same  mo 
ment  some  thought  about  improving  the  farm  ev 
idently  flashed  across  his  mind.  Relaxing  his  gun 
the  slightest  bit,  he  turned  to  the  young  man  and 
said: 

"Foster,  get  me  Mr.  Bridgeforth  at  once." 

Probably  few  Americans,  white  or  black,  have 
had  a  higher  sense  of  duty  than  Booker  T.  Wash 
ington.  It  mattered  little  who  imposed  the  task 
or  whether  it  was  great  or  small,  the  thing  was 
promised  and  must  be  done.  Many  of  us  here  at 
Tuskegee  feel  that  nothing  but  this  sense  of  duty 
backed  by  a  tremendous  will,  has  kept  him  alive 
for  the  last  few  years.  A  year  or  so  ago  we  were 
holding  our  Annual  Armstrong  Memorial  exercises. 
Dr.  Washington  had  said  that  he  would  speak  at 
this  exercise,  as  he  always  did  when  he  was  at 
home.  Early  in  the  afternoon  of  the  appointed 
day  he  fell  ill  with  a  throbbing  headache  and  his 
stomach  in  a  turmoil.  The  doctor  put  him  to  bed 
and  ordered  him  to  remain  there.  At  eight  o'clock 
that  night  he  appeared  and  made  his  address, 
though  he  collapsed  in  the  ante-room  immediately 
afterwards. 

Finally,  just  as  he  willed  to  do,  to  hold  on,  he 
could  will  to  let  go. 

He  was  great  in  big  things  and  in  little  things; 
great  in  the  world  and  at  home ;  but  he  was  great 
est  in  the  assertion  of  his  tremendous  will. 


FREDERICK   DOUGLASS 

REDERICK  DOUGLASS,  Orator 
and  Statesman,  born  a  slave,  rose 
to  be  one  of  the  great  men  of  his 
day.  whose  name  will  live  in 
American  history.  He  was  born 
in  Maryland,  February  14.  1817. 
Mis  name  at  first  was  Frederick  Augustus  Wash 
ington  Baily ;  he  changed  it,  being  hunted  as  a  fu 
gitive  slave,  to  Douglass.  He  chose  Douglass  be 
cause  of  his  facination  for  this  character  as  por 
trayed  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  a  character  which  the 
ex-slave  in  his  grand  manner  much  resembled. 

In  his  childhood  he  saw  little  of  his  mother,  noth 
ing  of  his  father.  The  mother  worked  on  a  planta 
tion  twelve  miles  from  her  son  and  could  only  see 
him  by  making  the  journey  on  foot  and  after  work 
time.  Whatever  training  the  boy  received  up  to 
the  age  of  eight,  he  received  it  from  his  grand 
mother. 

At  the  age  of  eight  years  he  was  put  under  Aunt 
Katy,  who  was  cruel,  often  depriving  the  little  fel 
low  of  food.  On  one  occasion  he  went  to  bed  so 
hungry  that  when  all  the  household  were  asleep 
he  rose  and  began  to  parch  and  eat  corn.  In  the 
midst  of  the  corn-parching,  his  mother  came  in, 


bringing  a  ginger  cake,  which  made  him  feel  that 
he  was  "somebody's  child."  This  was  the  last  time 
he  saw  his  mother. 

Douglass  was  sent  to  Baltimore,  where  after  a 
time  he  learned  to  read,  being  taught  by  his  new 
mistress,  Mrs.  Auld.  When  the  master  discovered 
what  the  mistress  had  done,  he  set  a  watch  over 
Douglass  lest  he  should  escape.  This  he  finally  did, 
though  he  was  long  sought  after  and  had  one  time 
to  go  to  England  to  avoid  capture.  He  was  finally 
bought  and  set  free. 

He  gave  his  life  as  a  freedman  to  liberating  his 
brethren  and  to  improving  the  ex-slave  condition 
after  freedom  came.  He  served  during  his  life 
time  as  United  States  Marshall  in  the  District  of 
Columbia,  as  Recorder  of  Deeds  in  the  District  of 
Columbia,  and  as  Consul  General  to  the  Republic 
of  Hayti.  He  was  the  first  Negro  to  hold  these 
offices.  He  was  much  traveled  and  was  admired  as 
an  orator  and  as  a  man  wherever  he  went. 

A  few  of  the  sayings  of  Douglass  follow: 

"Emancipation  has  liberated  the  land  as  well  as 
the  people." 

"Neither  the  slave  nor  his  master  can  abandon  all 
at  once  the  deeply  entrenched  errors  and  habits  of 
centuries." 

"There  is  no  work  that  men  are  required  to  do, 
which  they  cannot  better  and  more  economically 
do  with  education  than  without  it." 

"Muscle  is  mighty  but  mind  is  mightier,  and 
there  is  no  field  for  the  exercise  of  mind  other  than 
is  found  in  the  cultivation  of  the  soul." 

"As  a  race  we  have  suffered  from  two  very  op 
posite  causes,  disparagement  on  the  one  hand  and 
undue  praise  on  the  other." 

"An  important  question  to  be  answered  by  evi 
dence  of  our  progress  is:  Whether  the  black  man 
will  prove  a  better  master  to  himself  than  the  white 
man  was  to  him." 

"Accumulate  property.  This  may  sound  to  you 
like  a  new  gospel.  No  people  can  ever  make  any 
social  and  mental  improvement  whose  exertions  are 
limited.  Poverty  is  our  greatest  calamity — On  the 
other  hand,  property,  money,  if  you  please,  will  pro 
duce  for  us  the  only  condition  upon  which  any  peo 
ple  can  rise  to  the  dignity  of  genuine  manhood." 

"Without  property  there  can  be  no  leisure.  With 
out  leisure  there  can  be  no  invention,  without  in 
vention  there  can  be  no  progress." 

"We  can  work  and  by  this  means  we  can  retrieve 
all  our  losses." 

"Knowledge,  wisdom,  culture,  refinement,  man 
ners,  are  all  founded  on  work  and  the  wealth  which 
work  brings." 

"In  nine  cases  out  of  ten  a  man's  condition  is 
worse  by  changing  his  location.  You  would  better 
endeavor  to  remove  the  evil  from  your  door  than 
to  move  and  leave  it  there." 


Alexander  Dumas,  Novelist  and  Play-wright 


HACKERY,  the  English  Novelist, 
called  Dumas  "Alexander  the 
Great."  Like  Alexander  Pushkin 
of  Russia,  the  great  French  ro 
mancer  is  the  third  descent  from 
a  Negro,  only  in  this  instance 
the  line  begins  with  the  grandmother  rather  than 
the  grandfather.  Dumas'  grandfather,  who  was  a 
marquis,  married  a  Creole  of  Haiti.  The  author's 
father  was  a  dark  giant  of  a  man ;  one  of  the  heroic 
generals  of  the  army  of  Napoleon. 

The  general  married  the  daughter  of  an  inn 
keeper.  From  this  union  the  novelist  was  born  in 
1802.  The  father  died  while  the  son  was  four 
years  old.  Having  but  small  means,  Alexander 
soon  found  himself  in  Paris  seeking  his  fortune. 
For  a  time  he  attached  himself  to  the  Duke  of  Or 
leans  as  clerk.  Like  Voltaire,  Hugo  and  many 
other  French  men  of  letters,  Dumas  sought  to  make 
his  way  as  a  play-wright.  In  this  he  succeeded 
modestly,  having  presented  successfully,  Henry  III, 
Tower  of  Nelse  and  several  other  plays.  But  Du 
mas'  claim  to  fame,  a  claim  which  he  holds  undis- 
putably,  rests  upon  his  romances,  "The  three  Mus- 
kateers,"  "The  Count  of  Monte  Cristo,"  "Twenty 
Years  After,"  and  scores  of  others.  The  critics  call 
him,  "Capriceius  prolix,  fertile  puissant,"  as  having 
a  "rare  mind,  rare  attention,  subtle  spirit,  quick 
comprehension." 

The  following  is  taken  from  his  writings : 

FATALITY. 

Scarcely  had  D'Artagnan  uttered  these  words 
than  a  ringing  and  sudden  noise  was  heard  resound 
ing  through  the  felucca,  which  now  became  dim  in 
the  obscurity  of  the  night. 

"That,  you  may  be  sure,"  said  the  Gascon,  "means 
something." 

They  then,  at  the  same  instant,  perceived  a 
large  lantern  carried  on  a  pole  appear  on  the  deck, 
denning  the  forms  of  shadows  behind  it. 

Suddenly  a  terrible  cry,  a  cry  of  dispair,  was 
wafted  through  the  space,  and  as  if  the  shrieks  of 
anguish  had  driven  away  the  clouds,  the  veil  which 
hid  the  moon  was  cleared  away,  and  the  gray  sails 
and  dark  shrouds  of  the  felucca  were  plainly  visi 
ble  beneath  the  silvery  light. 

Shadows  ran,  as  if  bewildered,  to  and  fro  on  the 
vessel,  and  mournful  cries  accompanied  these  delir 
ious  walkers.  In  the  midst  of  these  screams  they 
saw  Mordaunt  upon  the  poop,  with  a  torch  in 
hand. 

The  agitated  figures,  apparently  wild  with  terror, 


consisted  of  Groslow,  who,  at  the  hour  fixed  by 
Mordaunt,  had  collected  his  men,  and  the  sailors. 
Groslow,  after  having  listened  at  the  door  of  the 
cabin  to  hear  if  the  musketeers  were  still  asleep, 
had  gone  down  into  the  cellar,  convinced  by  their 
silence  that  they  were  all  in  a  deep  slumber.  Then 
Mordaunt  had  run  to  the  train — impetuous  as  a 
man  who  is  excited  by  revenge  and  full  of  confi 
dence — as  are  those  whom  God  blinds — he  had  set 
fire  to  the  wick  of  niter. 

All  this  while,  Groslow  and  his  men  were  assem 
bled  on  the  deck. 

"Haul  up  the  cable,  and  draw  the  boat  to  us," 
said  Groslow. 

One  of  the  sailors  got  down  the  side  of  the  ship, 
seized  the  cable,  and  drew  it — it  came  without  the 
least  resistance. 

"The  cable  is  cut!"  he  cried,  "no  boat!" 

"How!  no  boat!"  exclaimed  Groslow;  "it  is  im 
possible." 

"  'Tis  true,  however,"  answered  the  sailor ; 
"there's  nothing  in  the  wake  of  the  ship,  besides 
here's  the  end  of  the  cable." 

"What's  the  matter?"  cried  Mordaunt,  who  is 
coming  up  out  of  the  hatchway,  rushed  to  the 
stern,  waving  his  torch. 

"Only  that  our  enemies  have  escaped — they  have 
cut  the  cord,  and  gone  off  with  the  boat." 

Mordaunt  bounded  with  one  step  to  the  cabin, 
and  kicked  open  the  door. 

"Empty!"  he  exclaimed;  "the  infernal  demons!" 

"We  must  pursue  them,"  said  Groslow ;  "they 
can't  be  gone  far,  and  we  will  sink  them,  passing 
over  them." 

"Yes,  but  the  fire,"  ejaculated  Mordaunt;  "I  have 
lighted  it." 

"Ten  thousand  devils !"  cried  Groslow,  rushing  to 
the  hatchway ;  "perhaps  there  is  still  time  to  save 
us." 

Mordaunt  answered  only  by  a  terrible  laugh, 
threw  his  torch  into  the  sea,  and  plunged  in  after 
it.  The  instant  Groslow  put  his  foot  upon  the 
hatchway  steps,  the  ship  opened  like  the  crater  of 
a  volcano.  A  burst  of  flames  rose  toward  the  skies 
with  an  explosion  like  that  of  a  hundred  cannon ; 
the  air  burned,  ignited  by  flaming  embers,  then  the 
frightful  lightning  disappeared,  the  brands  sank, 
one  after  another,  into  the  abyss,  where  they  were 
extinguished,  and,  save  for  a  slight  vibration  in  the 
air,  after  a  few  minutes  had  lapsed,  one  would  have 
thought  that  nothing  had  happened. 

Only — the  felucca  had  disappeared  from  the  sur 
face  of  the  sea.  and  Groslow  and  his  three  sailors 
were  consumed. 


10 


Alexander  Pushkin,  Father  of  Russian  Poetry 


LEXANDER  PUSHKIN  is  called 
the  "Russian  Byron,"  "demigod 
of  Russian  Verse,"  "father  of 
Russian  poetry,"  "the  laureate  of 
Czar  Nicholas."  The  Pushkins 
had  long  been  about  the  rulers  of 
Russia  as  cited  by  Alexander  in  "My  Pedigree." 
The  first  of  the  line  the  grandfather  of  the  poet 
was  an  Abyssinian,  who  was  stolen  as  a  slave  from 
Constantinople.  The  grandsire  was  not  only 
adopted  by  Peter  the  Great,  but  given  a  title  of 
nobility  and  rank  of  General. 

The  poet  was  proud  of  his  African  blood, which 
asserted  itself  unmistablv   in   the   curl  of  his   hair 


and  the  shape  of  his  lips.  He  regarded  himself  as 
a  drop  of  African  blood  on  Arctic  soil.  He  was 
born  in  1799.  During  his  childhood  an  old  nurse  be 
guiled  him  with  many  legends  and  fables  of  Rus 
sia.  When  he  was  twenty  these  legends  brought 
forth  fruit  in  his  first  great  poem,  "Ruslan  and 
Liudmila."  His  democratic  ideas,  which  encouched 
in  an  "Ode  to  Liberty,"  soon  made  him  an  exile 
from  home  and  from  Czar  Nicholas  I.  However, 
the  Czar  loved  the  poet  and  speedily  pardoned  him. 
He  died  quite  young,  having  written  not  only  poet 
ry  that  survives,  but  many  prose  tales.  It  is  said 
that  every  youth  in  Russia  knows  his  poetry  by 
heart. 


MY  PEDEGREE. 
IV.  66. 


With  scorning  laughter  at  a  fellow  writer, 
In  a  chorus  the  Russian  scribes 
With  name  of  aristocrat  me  chide : 
Just  look,  if  please  you.  .  .  nonsense  what! 
Court  Coachman  not  I,  nor  assessor, 
Nor   am    I    nobleman   by   cross ; 
No  academician,  nor  proffer, 
I'm  simply  of  Russiana  citizen. 


When  treason  conquered  was  and  falsehood, 

And  the  rage  of  storms  of  war, 

When  the  Romanoffs  upon  the  throne 

The  nation  called  by  its  Chart— 

We   upon   it   laid  our   hands ; 

The  martyr's  son  then  favored  us  ; 

Time  was,  our  race  was  prized, 

But  I  .  .  am  but  a  citizen  obscure. 


Well    I    know    the    times'   corruption, 
And  surely,  not  gain  say  it  shall  I : 
Our  nobility  but  recent  is : 
The   more   recent   it,   the   more   noble 
But   of   humble    races    a   chip, 
And,  God  be  thanked,  not  alone 
Of  ancient  Lords  am  scion  I ; 
Citizen  I  am,  a  citizen ! 


'tis. 


Our   stubborn   spirit   us   tricks   has  played 

Most  irrepressible  of  his  race, 

With  Peter  my  sire  could  not  get  on ; 

And  for  this  was  hung  by  him. 

Let  his  example  a  lesson  be ; 

Not  contradiction  loves  a  ruler, 

Not  all  can  be  Prince  Dolgorukys, 

Happy  only  is  the  simple  citizen. 


Not  in  cakes  my  grandsire  traded, 
Not  a  prince  was  newly-baked  he ; 
Not  at  church  sang  he  in  choir, 
Nor  polished  he  the  boots  of  Tsar ; 
Was  not  escaped  a  soldier  he 
From  the  German  powdered  ranks ; 
How  then  aristocrat  am  I  to  be? 
God  be  thanked,  I  am  but  a  citizen. 


My  grandfather,  when  the  rebels  rose 

In  the  palace  of  Peterhof, 

Like   Munich,   faithful  he   remained 

To  the  fallen   Peter  Third ; 

To  honor  came  then  the  Orloffs, 

But  my  sire  into  fortress,  prison, — 

Quiet  now  was  our  stern  race, 

And   I   was  born  merely — citizen. 


My  grandsire  Radshaa  in  warlike  service 
To  Alexander  Nefsky  was  attached, 
The  Crowned  Wrathful,  Fourth  Ivan, 
Mis  descendents  in  his  ire  had  spared. 
About  the  Tsars  the   Pushkins  moved; 
And  more  than  one  acquired  renoun, 
When  against  the  poles  battling  was 
Of  Nizhny  Novgorod  the  citizen  plain. 


Beneath  my  crested  seal 
The  roll  of  family  charts  I've  kept ; 
Not  running  after  magnates  new, 
My  pride  of  blood  I  have  subdued ; 
I'm  but  an  unknown  singer 
Simply   Pushkin,  not   Moussin, 
My  strength  is  mine,  not  from  court: 
I  am  a  writer,  a  citizen. 


11 


PAUL  LAWRENCE  DUNBAR 

AUL  LAWRENCE  DUNBAR, 
Poet,  is  well  known,  as  ought  to 
be,  to  all  Negroes.  His  songs  in 
Jialect  and  in  plain  English  are 
known  and  quoted  by  all  English 
speaking  people.  Many  of  the 
pieces  have  been  set  to  music  and  are  sung  with 
remarkable  pathos.  "Poor  Li'l  Lamb,"  and  "Seen 
Mali  Lady  Home  Las'  Night,"  to  quote  two  of  the 
well  known  songs,  are  applauded  by  all  grades  of 
audiences  throughout  the  land. 

Paul  Lawrence  Dunbar  was  born  in  Dayton,  Ohio, 
in  1872.  He  was  named  Paul  after  the  famous  apos 
tle  in  the  scripture  and  Lawrence  after  a  friend  of 
his  parents.  The  poet  is  said  to  have  written  his 
first  verse  when  he  was  seven  years  old.  Paul  was 
a  very  bashful  boy,  but  he  had  courage  enough  to 
take  his  poems  to  his  teacher,  who  encouraged  him. 
His  favorite  studies  were,  grammar,  spelling  and 
literature.  He  edited  the  High  School  Times,  a 
monthly  school  paper  in  the  Steel  High  School  of 
Dayton,  where  Dunbar  was  a  pupil  and  from  which 
he  was  graduated  with  honors  in  1891. 

Dunbar  went  out  from  school  to  earn  his  bread 


as  best  he  may.  His  father  had  died,  the  support  of 
home  therefore  fell  on  the  boy,  who  was  none  too 
sound  in  health.  He  had  aided  his  mother  with  the 
washing  and  had  done  such  odd  jobs  as  he  could 
find.  All  he  could  find  as  a  graduate  from  the  High 
School  was  the  part  as  elevator  boy  in  the  Callahan 
Building  of  Dayton.  But  he  made  the  best  of  it, 
using  every  spare  moment  to  study  or  to  write. 

He  soon  triumphed  over  his  hardships,  publishing 
his  poems  in  the  best  magazines  of  the  country,  ap 
pearing  before  the  most  select  audiences  both  in 
this  country  and  in  England  and  numbering  among 
his  friends  such  persons  as  James  Whitcomb  Riley, 
William  Dean  Howell,  John  Hay,  William  McKin- 
ley,  Theodore  Roosevelt,  R.  R.  Moton,  and  Book 
er  T.  Washington. 

The   following  are  favorite  lines : 

LITTLE  BROWN  BABY 

Little  brown  baby  wif  spa'kliif  eyes, 

Come  to  yo'  pappy  an'  set  on  his  knee 
What  you  been  doin'  suh — makin'  san.'  pies? 

Look  at  dat  bib — you's  ez  du'ty  ez  me. 
Look  at  dat  mouf — dat's  merlasses,  I  bet ; 

Come  hyeah,  Maria,  an'  wipe  off  his  han's. 
Bees  gwine  to  ketch  you  an'  eat  you  up  yit, 

Bein'  so  sticky  an'  sweet — goodness   lan's ! 

Little  brown  baby  wif  sparkin'  eyes, 

Who's  papyy's  darlin'  an'  who's  pappy's  chile? 
Who  is  it  all  de  day  nevah  once  tries 

Fu'  to  be  cross,  er  once  looses  dat  smile? 
Whah  did  you  git  dem  teef?     My  you's  a  scamp! 

Wah  did  dat  dimple  come  f 'om  in  yo'  chin  ? 
Pappy  do'n  know  yo' — I  b'lieves  you's  a  tramp ; 

Mammy,  dis  hyeah's  some  ol'  straggler  got  in ! 

Let's  th'ow  him  outen  de  do'  in  de  san', 

We  don'  want  stragglers  a-layin'  'round  hyeah ; 
Let's  gin  him  'way  to  de  big  buggah-man  ; 

I  know  he's  hidin'  erroun'  hyeah  right  neah. 
Buggah-man,  buggah-man,  come  in  de  do', 

Hyeah's  a  bad  boy  you  kin  have  fu'  to  eat. 
Mammy  an'  pappy  don'  want  him  no  mo', 

Swaller  him  down  f'om  his  haid  to  his  feet ! 

Dah,  now,  I  t'ought  dat  you'd  hug  me  up  close, 

Go  back,  buggah,  you  shan't  have  dis  boy. 
He  ain't  no  tramp  ner  no  straggler,  of  co'se ; 

He's  pappy's  pa'dner  an'  playmate  an'  joy. 
Come  to  yo'  pallet  now — go  to  yo'  res'; 

Wisht  you  could  allus  know  ease  and  cleah  skies ; 
VVisht  you  could  stay  jes'  a  chile  on  my  breas'— 

Little  brown  baby  wif  spa'klin  eyes! 

— Paul  Lawrence  Dunbar. 


12 


Sojbuner  Truth,  Emancipation  Lecturer 


HE  NEGRO  RACE  has  developed 
some  unique  characters  who  stand 
out  conspicuous  in  their  line  of 
endeavor.  Not  the  least  among1 
these  is  Sojourner  Truth  a  wo 
man  -of  considerable  native  ability 
though  an  illiterate. 

She  was  born  a  slave  in  Ulser  County,  N.  Y., 
about  the  year  1775  and  died  in  Battle  Creek,  Mich 
igan,  Nov.  26th,  1883.  She  was  held  in  slavery 
even  after  its  abolition  in  the  same  State.  In  1827 
she  escaped  from  her  owner  and  went  to  New  York 
City  and  from  thence  to  Northampton,  Mass.,  and 
then  to  Rochester,  N.  Y. 

Like  Joan  of  Arc,  she  claimed  that  she  was  call 
ed  to  her  work  through  a  vision. 

Her  mother  was  brought  from  Africa,  but  her 
father  was  a  mixture  of  Negro  and  Indian  blood. 

The  early  training  of  her  mother  influenced  her 
entire  after  life.  She  taught  her  the  value  of  hon 
esty  and  truth  and  directed  her  mind  to  contem 
plate  God  as  a  Father  and  friend  to  whom  she 
could  go  in  confidence  and  trust. 

Naturally  Isabella  (her  slave  name)  developed  a 
very  religious  trait. 

She  learned  the  true  meaning  of  prayer  and  ap 
proached  it  in  the  spirit  of  a  confident  telling  her 
troubles  to  God  and  invoking  his  aid. 

One  day  she  thought  that  she  met  God  face  to 
face  and  it  so  startled  her  that  she  exclaimed :  "O 
God,  I  did  not  know  you  as  you  was  so  big !" 

She  changed  her  name  from  Isabella,  the  one 
given  her  by  her  master,  to  Sojourner,  claiming 
that  the  Lord  had  bestowed  it  upon  her  in  a  vision 
and  added  the  appellation  "Truth"  because  that 
was  the  substance  of  the  message  she  felt  impell 
ed  to  declare  to  men. 

From  the  issue  of  her  marriage  Sojourner  be 
came  the  mother  of  five  children,  the  father  dying 
when  they  were  quite  young,  left  their  care  and 
support  to  her. 

The  following  incident  tends  to  show  that  the 
mother  instinct  was  strong  in  her. 

One  of  her  sons  was  sold  into  slavery  in  Ala 
bama  and  she  was  anxious  to  find  him  so  she 
sought  council  of  God.  Now  simple  and  child 
like  her  plea,  "Now,  God,  help  me  get  my  son.  If 
you  were  in  trouble  as  I  am,  and  I  could  help  you, 
as  you  can  help  me,  think  I  wouldn't  do  it?  Yes, 
God,  you  know  I  would  do  it.  I  will  never  give 
you  peace  'till  you  do,  God !"  and  then  taking  it 
for  granted  that  she  would  receive  the  required 
help,  she  continued,  "Lord,  what  would  them  have 
me  do?"  the  answer  coming,  "Go  out  of  the  city." 
Not  knowing  the  direction  she  should  take,  she 


made  further  inquiry  and  received  instruction  to 
"Go  East." 

Accordingly  on  the  morning  of  the  first  day  of 
June,  1845,  with  a  few  clothes  in  her  bag,  a  few 
shillings  and  a  basket  of  food,  she  left  the  city  and 
turned  her  face  towards  the  rising  sun. 

It  was  on  this  morning  that  she  gave  herself, 
feeling  divinely  directed,  her  new  name,  saying 
that  since  she  was  to  be  a  traveler,  a  sojourner,  her 
name  should  be  Sojourner.  Being  asked  her  sur 
name  she  exclaimed  that  she  had  not  thought  of 
that,  but  immediately  went  to  God  about  it  and  in 
her  characterictic  way  exclaimed,  "Oh,  God,  give 
me  a  name  with  a  handle  to  it,"  and  then  came  the 
thought  that  God's  name  was  truth  and  she  at  once 
adopted  that  as  her  sur-name,  which  so  pleased  her 
that  she  lifted  up  her  eyes  to  God  in  thanks,  saying, 
"Why,  thank  you  God,  that  is  a  very  good  name." 

Sojourner  was  a  woman  of  great  shrewdness, 
wit  and  impressive  voice  which  together  with 
force  of  character  made  her  an  effective  speaker. 

The  great  theme  of  her  lectures  and  the  object 
of  her  effort  was  the  emancipation  of  her  people, 
though  she  touched  upon  woman's  rights,  temper 
ance  and  political  reforms. 

She  traveled  widely  ijj  the  northern  part  of  the 
United  States,  but  during  the  Civil  War  she  spent 
much  of  her  time  in  Washington. 

Her  power  to  electrify  audiences  was  compared 
with  that  of  the  great  French  actress,  Rachel. 

On  one  occasion  Frederick  Douglass  was  speak 
ing  to  a  large  audience  and  was  painting  a  gloomy 
picture  of  the  conditions  of  slavery  and  was  up 
braiding  the  church  and  State.  Just  as  he  had  got 
the  audience  under  his  sway,  Sojourner  suddenly 
arose  in  the  rear  of  the  room  and  cried : 

"Frederick!  Frederick!  is  God  dead?"  It  broke 
the  spell  of  pessimism  and  for  a  time  left  the  au 
dience  and  the  speaker  dumbfounded. 

She  composed  a  battle  hymn  for  a  Negro  regi 
ment  of  Michigan  and  sang  it  herself  both  at  De 
troit  and  Washington  : 

"We  hear  the  proclamation  Massa,  hush  it  as  you 

will; 
The  birds  will  sing  it  to  us,  hopping  on  the  cotton 

hill; 

The  possum  up  the  gum  tree  couldn't  keep  it  still ; 
As  we  went  climbing  on." 

Her's  was  a  life  of  service  and  though  of  hum 
ble  origin  and  of  meager  ability  other  than  that 
conferred  upon  her  by  nature,  she  died  in  her  home 
in  Battle  Creek,  Michigan,  with  the  satisfaction 
that  she  had  contributed  her  mite  in  the  service  of 
her  people. 


13 


Benjamin  Banneker,  Mathematician-Astronomer 


HE  first  Banneker  known  of 
among  Negroes  in  American  his 
tory  was  an  African  Prince.  This 
son  of  an  African  king  was  cap 
tured,  brought  to  this  country 
and  sold  to  Molly  Welsh  of  Mary 
land.  Set  free  some  years  after  his  arrival,  Banne 
ker,  who  was  a  man  of  fine  bearing  and  contem 
plative  habits,  married  his  former  owner.  The 
African  Prince  died  early  leaving  his  wife  four 
children.  One  of  these,  a  daughter  by  the  name 
of  Mary,  married  a  native  African,  who  became 
converted,  joined  the  church  and  took  his  wife's 
sur-name  of  Banneker.  This  couple  in  turn  had 
four  children  of  whom  Benjamin  was  the  oldest  and 
only  son. 

Benjamin  Banneker  was  born  Sept.  9th,  1731. 
The  boy  had  a  brilliant  mind,  was  popular  at  school 
;jiid  a  great  favorite  with  his  grand-mother  who 
used  to  give  him  of  her  small  share  of  knowledge 
and  have  him  read  much  from  the  Bible. 

His  study  under  teachers  was  not  at  all  extensive 
but  he  gained  an  early  love  for  books  and  continued 
to  "dive  into  books",  as  was  said  of  him,  all  his 
life.  Benjamin  was  twenty  years  old  when  his 
father  died.  The  latter  had  bought  one  hundred 
acres  of  land  when  Benjamin  was  six  years  old,  for 
which  he  paid  1700  pounds  of  tobacco.  To  the 
son  and  the  widow  the  father  left  seventy-f.wo 
acres  of  land  and  the  home,  dividing  the  remaining 
twenty-eight  acres  among  his  daughters.  Though 
very  studious,  Benjamin  was  an  excellent  farmer, 
having  a  good  garden  and  a  fine  assortment  of 
fruit  trees.  He  kept  two  horses,  several  cows  and 
was  very  skillful  in  handling  bees.  Thus  situated, 
life  was  very  busy  for  him,  but  he  made  all  things 
a  school. 

When  he  was  twenty  years  o'd  haVin?  IT>  too's 
but  a  jack  knife  and  having  seen  nothing  but  a 
sundial  and  a  watch,  Benjamin  made  himself  a  time 
piece  which  struck  the  hours  and  which  kept  the 
t'me  for  more  than  twenty  years.  When  he  was 
fifty-eight  years  of  age,  Banneker,  who  all  these 
years  had  made  the  study  of  Astronomy  a  passion, 
transferred  his  land  to  Ellicott  and  Company  for  an 
annuity  of  twelve  pounds.  He  was  now  free  to  give 
his  whole  time  to  his  favorite  study.  Night  after 
night  he  lay  upon  the  ground,  wrapped  in  his  great 
coat,  watching  the  heavens.  In  the  morning  he 
retired  to  rest,  but  appeared  to  acquire  but  little 
sleep.  He  still  hoed  in  the  garden  and  trimmed 
fruit  trees  for  exercise  and  played  on  the  flute  or 
the  violin  for  diversion. 

He  ventured  from  home  but  little.  The  only  oc 
casion  on  which  he  spent  much  time  from  his  farm 
was  in  the  year  1790  and  thereabout  when  he  aided 

14 


in  laying  off  or  surveying  the  Federal  Territory  for 
the  District  of  Columbia.  He  also  aided  in  locating 
the  spot  for  the  capitol,  the  Presidents'  House, 
Treasury  and  other  public  buildings. 

On  his  return  from  Washington,  he  published  his 
first  Almanac,  1792,  a  copy  of  which  he  sent  Thom 
as  Jefferson.  The  latter  forwarded  the  manuscript 
to  Condercet,  Secretary  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences 
at  Paris.  The  publishers  advertised  it  as  "an  ex 
traordinary  effort  o-f  genius,  calculated  by  a  sable 
descendant  of  Africa."  From  this  he  became  wide 
ly  known  as  a  writer  and  thinker  and  famous  people 
frequently  sought  him  out.  He  died  October  9th. 
1806  at  the  age  of  seventy-five. 
Maryland,  Baltimore  County,  Near  Ellicott's  Lower 

Mills,  August   19,   1791. 
To  Thomas  Jefferson,  Secretary  of  State, 

Philadelphia. 
Sir: 

I  have  taken  up  my  pen  in  order  to  direct  to  you. 
as  a  present,  a  copy  of  an  Almanac  which  I  have 
calculated  for  the  ensuing  year. 

This  calculation,  Sir,  is  the  production  of  my  ar 
duous  study,  in  this  my  advanced  stage  of  life  ;  for 
having  long  had  unbounded  desires  to  become  ac 
quainted  with  the  secrets  of  nature,  I  have  had  to 
gratify  my  curiosity  herein,  thro'  my  own  assidu 
ous  application  to  astronomical  study,  in  which  I 
need  not  recount  to  you  the  many  difficulties  and 
disadvantages  I  have  had  to  encounter. 

And,  altho'  I  had  almost  declined  to  make  niv 
calculation  for  the  ensuing  year,  in  consequence  of 
the  time  which  I  had  allotted  therefor  being  taken 
up  at  the  Federal  Territory,  by  the  request  of  Mr. 
Andrew  Ellicott ;  yet  finding  myself  under  several 
engagements  to  printers  of  this  State,  to  whom 
!  had  communicated  my  design,  on  my  return  to 
my  place  of  residence,  1  industriously  applied  my 
self  thereto,  which  I  hope  I  have  accomplished  with 
correctness  and  accuracy,  a  copy  of  which  1  have 
taken  the  liberty  to  direct  to  you,  and  which  1 
humbly  request  you  will  favorably  receive  ;  and,  al 
tho'  you  may  have  the  opportunity  of  perusing  it 
,;fter  its  publication,  yet  I  chose  to  send  it  to  you  in 
manuscript  previous  thereto,  that  thereby  you 
might  not  only  have  an  earlier  inspection,  but  that 
you  might  also  view  it  in  my  own  handwriting. 

And,  now,  Sir,  I  shall  conclude,  and  subscribe 
myself  with  the  most  profound  respect. 

Your  most  obedient,  humble  ser  -ant, 

B.  BANNEKER. 

Mr.  Thomas  Jefferson,  Secretary  of  State. 
Philadelphia. 

N.  B — Any  communication  to  me  nmy  be  had 
by  a  direction  to  Mr.  Elias  Ellicott,  Baltimore 
Town. 


Phillis  Wheatley,  Poetess 


HILLIS  WHEATLEY  was  one  of 
the  .first  literary  women  of  Amer 
ica  ;  the  first  woman  poet  of  the 
United  States ;  the  first  Negro  au 
thor,  the  first,  as  far  as  has  thus 
far  been  discovered,  to  speak  of 
George  Washington  as  the  "first  in  peace." 

The  first  Negro  poet  was  a  slave  brought  over 
in  a  cargo  of  captives  in  1781.  The  ship  of  human 
cargo  landed  at  Boston.  There  among  other  slave 
buyers,  were  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Wheatley  who 
came  to  select  and  purchase  a  girl  for  their  home. 
Phillis  came  forth  a  frail  creature  of  seven  rr  eight 
years  of  age.  The  Bostonians  bought  her  and 
christened  her  Phillis  Wheatley.  Of  course  the 
slave  child  was  unable  to  read  or  write.  But  the 
VVheatleys  taught  her.  In  less  than  sixteen  months 
she  had  acquired  a  fair  knowledge  of  English  and 
was  able  to  read  the  most  difficult  parts  of  the 
"Sacred  Writings."  From  the  Bible  she  began  to 
read  Latin,  the  Latin  poets  and  mythology.  Soon 
she  began  to  write  verses,  which  to  the  people  of 
Boston  were  very  good,  indeed  excellent  for  one 
v.-hh  so  little  training. 

She  was  frail  in  health.  To  aid  her  in  gaining 
strength  her  friends  advised  taking  a  trip  to  F.n- 
gl.'ind  which  she  duly  made.  In  England  she  was 
the  guest  of  the  Countess  of  Huntingdon,  to  whom 
she.  later  dedicated  her  book  of  poems  published 


in  1773,  and  was  entertained  by  Lord  Dartmouth 
and  other  leading  men  and  women  of  the  Empire. 
She  wrote  so  well  that  people  doubted  her  author 
ship.  Such  men  as  Governor  Thomas  Hutchinson 
of  Massachusetts,  Andrew  Oliver,  and  John  Han 
cock,  the  first  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  In 
dependence,  declared  that  they  verily  believed  that 
the  poems  were  her  own  composition. 

On  her  return  to  America,  she  found  Mrs.  Wheat- 
ley  poor  in  health.  Later  the  Mistress  died,  the 
Wheatley  home  was  broken  up  and  the  poet  left 
quite  unprotected.  Shortly  after  this  she  received 
an  offer  of  marriage  from  one  Samuel  Peters  who 
was  a  Negro  grocer  and  a  writer  and  speaker  of 
high  repute.  The  marriage  turned  out  unhappily 
and  the  poet  died  deserted,  December  5th,  1794. 

Benson  J.  Lossing,  the  Historian  says  of  her, 
"Piety  was  the  ruling  sentiment  in  her  character." 

The  following  are  taken  from  Phillis  Wheatley's : 

ON  BEING  BROUGHT  FROM  AFRICA 
TO  AMERICA. 

'Twas  mercy  brought  me  from  my  Pagan  land, 
Taught  my  benighted  soul  to  understand 
That  there's  a  God,  that  there's  a  Savior,  too ; 
Once  I  redemption  neither  sought  nor  knew. 
Some  view  our  sable  race  with  scornful  eye, 
"Their  color  is  a  diabolic  die." 
Remember,  Christians,  Negroes,  black  as  Cain. 
May  be  refined,  and  join  th'  angelic  train. 


A  FAREWELL  TO  AMERICA   (1773. 
To  Mrs.  Susannah  W.  Wheatley. 


Adieu,  New  England's  smiling  meads, 
Adieu,   the   flow'ry  plain : 
I  leave  thine  op'ning  charms,  O  spring, 
And  tempt  the  roaring  main. 

In  vain  for  me  the  flow'rets  rise, 
And  boast  their  gaudy  pride, 
While  here  beneath  the  Northern  skies 
J  mourn  for  health  deny'd. 

Collestial  maid  of  rosy  hvie, 

0  let  me  feel  thy  reign ! 

1  lavigllish  till  thy  face  I  view 
Thy  van  sh'd  joys  regain. 

Susanna'"  mourns,  nor  can  I  bear. 
To  see  the  crystal  shower. 
Or   r.i;i-k    the   tender   falling   tear 
At   sad   departure's   hour , 

Not  unregarding  can  I  see 
Her  soul  with  grjef  opprest 
Hut  let  no  5igh.  nor  groans  for  m» 
Steal  from  het  pensive  breast. 

In  vain  the  feather'd  warblers  sing, 
In  va".  th    garden  blooms, 
And   on   the   bosom   of   the    spring 
Breathes  out  her  sweet  perfumes. 

While  for  Britannia's  distant  shore 
We   sweep  the   liquid  plain. 


And  with  astonish'd  eyes  explore 
The  wide-extended  main. 

Lo  !  Health  appears  !  celestial  dame  ! 
Complacent  and  serene, 
With  Hebe's  mantle  o'er  her  Frame, 
With    soul-delighted    mien. 

To  mark  the  vale  where  London  lies 
With  misty  vapors  crown'd 
Which   cloud  Aurora's   thousand   dyes, 
And  veil  her  charms  around. 

Why,  Phoebus,  moves  thy  car  so  slow  ? 
So  slow  thy  rising  ray? 
Give  us  the  famous  town  to  view, 
Thou  glorious  king  of  day! 

l*o.-   thee,   Britannia,   1   resign 
New  England's  sniiliilg  !^-'u!.-< ; 
To  view  again  her  charms  devine, 
What  joy  the  prospect  yieii 

But  thou !  Temptation  hence  away, 
With  all  thy  fatal  train 
Nor  once  seduce  my  soul  away, 
By  thine   enchanting  strain. 

Thrice  happy  they,  whose  heav'nly  shield 
Secures  their  souls  from  harms 
And  fell  Temptation  on  the  field 
Of  all  its  pow'r  disarms ! 


15 


Harriet  Tubman,   "The  Moses  of  Her  People' 


ARRIET  TUBMAN  was  called  the 
Moses  of  her  people  because  dur 
ing  the  years  of  the  Fugitive 


Law,  she  rescued  some  three  or 
four  hundred  slaves  and  led  them 
to  freedom.  She  was  born  about 
1820  in  Dorchester  County,  Maryland.  She 
worked  as  a  nurse,  as  a  trapper;  fiield  hand 
and  wood  chopper  while  she  was  a  slave.  She 
is  said  to  have  begun  her  labors  about  1845  and  to 
have  continued  until  1860.  She  made  19  trips  into 
slave  States  at  exceedingly  great  risks.  She  went 
into  her  own  native  town  more  than  once,  bringing 
away  her  brothers  and  her  old  parents  as  well  as 
many  neighbors. 

John  Brown  nick-named  her,  General  Tubman 
because  of  her  shrewd  management  and  great  en 
durance.  In  her  trips  to  and  from  the  North  she 
spent  days  and  nights  out  of  doors,  in  caves  and 
often  without  food.  She  spent  a  whole  night  out 
of  doors  at  one  time  in  the  beating  snow  with  only 
a  tree  for  protection.  She  waded  creeks  and  riv 
ers,  neck  high,  forcing  those  whom  she  was  pilot 
ing  to  follow  her.  The  babies  she  managed  by 
drugging  them  with  opium.  No  wonder  a  price  of 
$40,000  was  once  put  upon  her  head. 

She  was  an  eloquent  speaker,  though  she  could 
neither  read  nor  write.  Her  words  are  always 
forceful,  her  descriptions  vivid. 

She  was  once  sent  with  an  exposition  during  the 
Civil  War  to  bring  away  slaves.  This  is  her  de 
scription  of  the  slaves  as  they  flocked  to  the  boats : 

"I  nebber  see  such  a  sight."  "Here  you'd  see 
a  woman  wid  a  pail  on  her  head,  rice  a  smokin'  in 
it  jus'  as  she'd  taken  it  from  de  fire,  young  one 
hangin'  on  behind,  one  han  roun'  her  forehead  to 
hold  on,  'tother  han'  digging'  into  de  rice-pot,  eatin' 
wid  all  its  might ;  hold  of  her  dress  two  or  three 
more ;  down  her  back  a  bag  wid  a  pig  in  it.  One 
woman  brought  two  pigs,  a  white  one  an'  a  black 
one;  we  took  'em  all  on  board;  named  de  white  pig 
Beauregard,  and  de  black  pig  Jeff  Davis.  Some 
times  de  women  would  come  wid  twins  hanyin' 


IT   necks;   'pear-;   like    I    nebber   see   so   maiiv 
\]  • 

wins  in  my. life;  bags  cm  der  shoulders,  baskets 
on  der  heads,  and  young  ones  taggin'  behin',  all 
loaded ;  pigs  squealin',  chickens  screamin',  young 
ones  squallin'." 

Her  story  of  an  incident  of  her  childhood  days 
is  told  as  only  Harriet  Tubman  could  relate  ex 
periences. 

"I  was  only  seven  years  old  when  I  was  sent 
away  to  take  car'  of  a  baby.  I  was  so  little  dat  1 
had  to  sit  down  on  do  flo'  and  hev  de  baby  put  in 


my  lap.  An'  dat  baby  was  allus  in  my  lap  'cept 
when  it  was  asleep,  or  its  mother  was  feedin'  it. 

"One  mornin'  after  breakfast  she  had  de  baby, 
and  I  stood  by  de  table  waitin'  till  I  was  to  take  it ; 
just  by  me  was  a  bowl  of  lumps  of  white  sugar. 
My  Missus  got  into  a  great  quarrel  wid  her  hus 
band  ;  she  had  an  awful  temper,  an'  she  would  scole 
an'  storm,  an'  call  him  all  sorts  of  names.  Now, 
you  know  I  neyer  had  nothing  good ;  no  sweet,  no 
sugar,  an'  dat  sugar,  right  by  me,  did  look  so  nice, 
an'  my  Missus's  back  turned  to  me  while  she  was 
fightin'  wid  her  husband,  so  I  jes'  put  my  fingers 
in  de  sugar  bowl  to  take  one  lump,  an'  maybe  she 
heard  me,  an'  she  turned  an'  saw  me.  De  nex' 
minute  she  had  de  raw  hide  down ;  I  give  one  jump 
out  of  de  do',  an'  I  saw  dey  came  after  me,  but  I 
jes'  flew,  an'  dey  didn't  catch  me.  I  run,  an'  I  run, 
I  passed  many  a  house,  but  I  didn't  dare  to  stop, 
for  dey  all  knew  my  Missus  an'  dey  would  send  me 
back.  By  an'  by,  when  I  was  clar  tuckered  out,  I 
come  to  a  great  big  pig-pen.  Dar  was  an'  ole  sow 
dar,  an'  perhaps  eight  or  ten  pigs.  I  was  too  little 
to  climb  into  it,  but  I  tumbled  ober  de  high  board, 
an'  fell  in  on  de  ground ;  I  was  so  beat  out  I  couldn't 
stir. 

"An'  dere,  I  stays  from  Friday  till  de  next  Chues- 
day,  fightin'  wid  dose  little  pigs  for  de  potato 
peelin's  an'  oder  scraps  dat  come  down  in  de 
trough.  Do  ole  sow  would  push  me  away  when 
I  tried  to  git  her  chillen's  food,  an'  I  was  awful  a 
feard  of  her.  By  Chuesday  I  was  so  starved  I 
knowed  I'd  got  to  go  back  to  my  Missus,  I  hadn't 
got  no  whar  else  to  go,  but  I  knowed  what  was 
comin'.  So  I  went  back." 

Frederick  Douglas  wrote  her  in  1868:  "The  dif 
ference  between  us  is  very  marked.  Most  that  I 
have  done  and  suffered  in  the  service  of  our  cause 
has  been  in  public,  and  I  have  received  much  en 
couragement  at  every  step  of  the  way.  You,  on 
the  other  hand,  have  labored  in  a  private  way.  I 
have  wrought  in  the  day — you  in  the  night.  1  have 
had  the  applause  ot  the  crowd  and  the  satisfaction 
thatr<it>4i}flfl>|iW  being  approved  l>y  the  multitudes, 
whilfl  tlnpnnppt'.that  you  have  done  has  been  wit 
nessed  by  n  few  trembling,  scarred,  .and  foot-sore 
bondmen  and  women,  whom  you  have  led  out  of 
the  house  of  bondage,  and  whose  heartfelt  "God 
bless  you"  has  been  your  only  reward.  The  mid 
night  sky  and  the  silent  stars  have  been  the  wit 
nesses  of  your  devotion  to  freedom  and  of  your 
heroism." 

Harriet  Tubman  lived  to  a  ripe  old  age  and  was 
always,  even  after  freedom,  the  friend  of  the  down 
trodden.  Her  house  was  always  full  of  dependents, 
who  were  supported  solely  by  Harriet's  "Faith." 


OSCAR  WILLIAM  ADAMS 

MONG  the  enterprising  young  men 
who  threw  their  weight  into  mak 
ing  the  Negro  Birmingham  a  suc 
cess,  none  has  fought  harder  or 
more  creditably  than  Oscar  W 
Adams.  On  graduating  from 
Normal  A.  and  M.  College,  Normal,  Ala.,  Mr. 
Adams  cast  his  lot  with  "The  Birmingham  Report 
er,"  now  without  question  the  leading  Negro  News 
paper  of  Alabama.  For  a  number  of  years  he  liv 
ed  out  pretty  faithfully  the  advice  of  Horace  Gree- 
ley  to  the  young  aspirants  to  Journalism — "to  sleep 
on  paper  and  eat  ink."  But  in  time  the  paper  came 
into  Mr.  Adams'  possession,  and  the  struggle  was 
even  more  bitter,  if  possible.  Business  did  not 
hum  in  Brmingham  then  as  now  and  so  his  sub 
scribers  were  few  and  his  advertisers  small,  and 
uncertain,  and  payment  for  both  subscriptions  and 
advertisements  very  slow  in  coming  in. 

To  keep  the  paper  alive,  Mr.  Adams  gave  up  his 
lodgings  and  slept  in  the  office  on  a  lounge.  He  ate 
a  full  meal  whenever  he  could  afford  to  do  so. 

"But,  "  says  he,  "I  always  paid  my  helpers.  I 
didn't  think  it  right  to  keep  them  waiting.  It  was 
none  of  their  affair  if  the  paper  failed."  However, 
the  Reporter  is  on  its  feet  today.  It  has  passed 

17 


through  the  day  of  test  for  twelve  years,  and  .- 
Negro  paper  that  survives  the  test  that  length  of 
time  can  be  said  to  be  fully  established. 

Of  course,  Mr.  Adams  had  been  thoroughly 
schooled  for  the  struggle  with  The  Reporter,  and 
from  this  schooling  one  would  expect  nothing  but 
victory  to  the  end.  Mr.  Adams  was  born  in  Gulf 
Crest,  one  time  known  as  Beaver  Meadow,  a  com 
munity  about  25  miles  out  of  Mobile.  He  attended 
the  district  school  to  the  8th  grade  and  then  made 
his  way  to  Normal,  Alabama,  to  the  A.  and  M.  Col 
lege.  To  make  his  way  through  school,  both  in 
public  school  and  for  the  first  year  in  College,  Mr. 
Adams  worked  as  a  laborer  on  a  turpentine  farm. 
During  his  life  in  College  he  served  now  as  agent  in 
the  Commissary,  now  as  the  assistant  bookkeeper 
and  finally  as  the  Editor  of  the  Normal  Index,  the 
official  paper  of  the  Normal  College.  Going  through 
so  many  experiences  and  coming  out  of  each  suc 
cessful,  Mr.  Adams  built  the  character  which  has 
stood  him  in  such  good  stead  as  editor  of  The  Re 
porter,  as  a  business  man,  and  a  leader  in  the  fra 
ternal  orders. 

Mr.  Adams  is  most  loyal,  even  enthusiastic 
fraternity  man.  As  has  already  been  stated,  his 
paper  is  the  official  organ  of  the  Knights  of  Pyth 
ias,  Odd  Fellows,  and  Masonic  Order  of  Alabama. 
He  holds  membership  also  in  the  Masonic  Lodge, 
in  the  Elks,  in  the  K.  L.  of  H.,  and  in  the  Mosaic 
Templars.  He  is  Secretary  of  the  United  Brothers 
of  Friendship,  as  well  as  its  spokesman  in  his  jour 
nal. 

Second  only  to  his  interest  in  his  journal  is  Mr. 
Adams'  interest  in  education.  He  is  present  at  all 
educational  gatherings  he  can  reach  and  gives  free 
ly  space  in  his  paper  to  the  reports  upon  all  schools 
and  school  work,  both  in  the  city  and  in  the  state. 
He  is  very  loyal  to  Normal,  not  only  because  this 
is  his  Alma  Mater,  but  because  he  really  knows 
what  it  means  for  most  of  our  boys  and  girls 
to  secure  even  a  fair  education,  an  education  ris 
ing  but  little  above  the  three  R's. 

Oscar  W.  Adams,  though  a  young  man,  has  filled 
some  of  the  most  important  speaking  engagements 
of  any  member  of  his  race.  He  is  a  man  of  rare 
quality  in  this  special  line  of  work.  He  is  a  stu 
dent  of  history  and  his  delivery  is  easy  and  pleas 
ant.  At  present  he  is  Chairman  of  the  Four  Min 
ute  Men  Speakers  of  the  State  of  Alabama,  direct 
ed  by  the  United  States  Government,  and  is  a  mem 
ber  of  the  State  Committee  on  War  Savings  Cer 
tificates.  He  has,  no  doubt,  appeared  before  more 
audiences  in  the  past  five  years  than  any  man  in 
the  race  of  his  age. 

Mr.  Adams  was  married  to  Miss  Mamie  Tuggle 
in  1910.  The  happy  union,  happy  in  sympathy  and 
co-operation  as  well  as  in  affection,  for  both  were 
very  hard  workers,  lasted  but  five  years,  Mrs. 
Adams  dying  in  1915.  He  lives  now  for  his  paper, 
for  his  school,  for  his  lodge  and  for  Negro  enter 
prise  in  every  direction. 


BISHOP  JOHN  WESLEY  ALSTORK,  D.  D.,  LL.   D. 


ISHOP  John  Wesley  Alstork  was 
born  in  Talladega,  Alabama,  Sep 
tember  1st,  1852.  From  the  date 
of  his  birth  we  gather  that  he  was 
born  early  enough  to  see  a  little 
of  Negro  Slavery.  But  the  Bish 
op  was  fortunate  in  the  place  of  birth  and  in  his 
parentage.  Talladega  is  a  conservative  college 
town.  It  was  one  of  the  first  places  to  be  given 
colleges  for  the  higher  education  of  the  Negro 
after  the  Civil  War.  Here  in  his  own  home  town 
he  had  advantages  of  education  that  were  denied 
to  many  men  born  in  the  same  period.  The  advan 
tage  in  parentage  is  seen  from  the  fact  that  his 
father  was  a  minister  and  was  willing  and  an 
xious  to  see  his  son  have  better  educational  advan 
tages  than  he  himself  had  been  able  to  enjoy.  Bish 
op  Alstork  is  the  son  of  Rev.  and  Mrs.  Frank  Al 
stork,  who  were  greatly  loved  and  honored. 

Bishop  Alstork  did  not  confine  his  studying  to 
the  courses  laid  down  at  Talladega.  Livingston 
College,  Salisbury,  North  Carolina,  conferred  D. 
D.  upon  him  in  1892.  The  Degree  of  LL.  D.  was 
conferred  upon  him  by  the  Princeton  College  in 
Indiana  in  1908.  Though  born  a  slave,  Bishop  Al 


stork  persevered  in  acquiring  an  education  till  he 
had  thoroughly  prepared  himself  for  the  work  he 
had  to  do  in  life. 

Bishop  Alstork  was  married  to  Miss  Mamie  Law- 
son  in  1872  when  only  twenty  years  of  age.  Mrs. 
Alstork  has  been  a  true  helpmate  to  the  Bishop 
and  has  helped  in  his  development.  Ten  years  after 
his  marriage  he  was  ordained  in  the  A.  M.  E.  Zion 
ministry.  In  1884  he  was  elected  Financial  Secre 
tary  of  the  Alabama  Conference  This  position 
he  held  till  1892.  In  1892  he  was  elected  Financial 
Secretary  for  the  A.  M.  E.  Zion  Connection.  In  this 
position  he  served  till  1900.  His  excellent  manage 
ment  keeping  the  finances  of  the  church  in  good 
condition. 

Bishop  Alstork  had  the  usual  gradual  ri<e  from 
the  ministry  to  the  position  of  Tiisl  op.  He  served 
as  a  regular  pastor  from  the  time  of  his  ordina- 
tion  to  1889.  In  that  year  he  was  made  Presiding 
Elder  and  he  served  in  this  capacity  till  1900  when 
he  was  elected  Bishop.  Many  of  the  honors  within 
the  gift  of  his  church  have  come  to  Bishop  Al 
stork.  He  was  Delegate  to  the  Ecumenial  Confer 
ence,  which  met  in  London,  England,  in  1901.  He 
was  sent  as  a  delegate  to  the  Conference  in  To 
ronto,  Canada,  in  1911. 

Although  Bishop  Alstork  is  thoroughly  interest 
ed  in  the  church  and  in  all  the  work  of  the  church, 
he  has  still  had  time  to  show  a  great  deal  of  interest 
in  all  the  phases  of  education.  He  is  a  trustee  of 
the  Livingston  College,  of  the  Lomax-Hannon  In 
dustrial  College.  Indeed  Bishop  Alstork  was  the 
founder  of  the  last  named  institution  which  is  lo 
cated  at  Greenville,  Alabama.  He  is  Trustee  of 
Langridge  Academy  at  Montgomery,  Alabama  and 
a  Trustee  of  the  Hale  Infirmary  also  of  Montgom 
ery.  Bishop  Alstork  is  a  member  of  the  Federa 
tion  of  Churches,  a  member  of  the  Southern  So 
ciological  Congress,  Director  of  Loan  and  Invest 
ment  Company,  Montgomery,  Alabama,  member  of 
the  Board  of  Control  of  the  Good  Shepherd  So 
ciety,  Inspector  of  the  General  G.  G.  A.  Order  of 
Love  and  Charity,  National  Grand  Master  of  F. 
A.  A.  York  Masons  Colored  of  the  United  States, 
Lieutenant  Commander  of  the  Supreme  Council 
33rd  degree  Masonry.  In  fact  Bishop  Alstork 
lives  a  very  full  and  a  very  useful  life. 

Bishop  Alstork  has  traveled  over  the  whole 
of  this  country  and  extensively  in  foreign  lands.  He 
is  a  loyal  citizen  of  his  country.  During  this  war  he 
has  been  a  faithful  worker  in  all  the  war  activities. 
Jlis  patriotism  has  been  manifested  in  every  war 
work  campaign.  He  is  a  heavy  purchaser  of  bonds, 
and  a  large  contributor  to  Red  Cross  and  Y.  M.  C. 
A.  work.  He  owns  a  great  deal  of  real  estate  and 
lives  in  his  own  beautiful  home  at  231  Cleveland 
Avenue,  Montgomery,  Alabama. 


BENJAMIN  H.  BARNES 

|  OR  fully  a  score  of  years  Booker 
T.  Washington  thundered  from 
the  Tuskegee  Institute  platform 
the  doctrine  of  service.  "Go  back 
to  your  homes,  put  a  hinge  on  the 
gate,  a  latch  on  the  door.  Don't 
stand  around  and  whine.  Get  into  the  church,  in 
the  school,  into  the  shop  and  help.  Own  your  own 
homes  and  become  a  tax-paying,  respectable  citi 
zen." 

Benjamin  H.  Barnes  after  graduating  under  his 
father's  teaching,  sat  beneath  the  voice  of  the  Tus- 
kegean  and  caught  the  vision  that  the  great  leader 
sought  to  impart.  He  did  not  pick  out  any  one  of 
of  these  suggestions  but  seemed  to  absorb  them  all. 
While  at  Tuskegee  Mr.  Barnes  excelled  not  only  in 
his  studies  both  in  trade  and  in  books  but  also  in 
music.  He  played  the  violin,  the  piano  and  sang. 
For  part  of  three  years  he  traveled  as  a  Tuskegee 
singer.  Returning  to  Tuscaloosa  his  native  town, 
he  accepted  work  as  a  teacher  in  the  city  public 
school  and  began  to  live  to  the  full  the  life  that 
Booker  T.  Washington  had  so  ardently  preached. 
Mr.  Barnes  immediately  connected  himself  with 
the  work  of  the  town  church,  the  First  African 
Baptist  Church.  He  had  been  in  attendance  here 


but  a  short  time  when  he  was  elected  superinten 
dent  of  the  Sunday  School,  a  post  at  which  he 
served  for  twenty-five  years.  Not  long  after  this 
Mr.  Barnes  was  made  church  organist:  and  for 
twenty  years  the  Baptists  of  Tuscaloosa  have  sung 
to  his  playing  in  the  church. 

Some  years  ago  this  church  set  out  to  erect  a 
new  building.  The  cost  of  the  house  was  to  be 
$25,000.00.  Mr.  Barnes  along  with  his  church  and 
Sunday  School  work  had  demonstrated  that  he  was 
a  business  man.  The  church  members  placed  him 
at  the  head  of  the  Committee,  rallied  to  his  sup 
port  and  put  up  a  splendid  brick  structure.  Tho' 
ministers  came  and  went,  Barnes  stayed  by  his  post 
till  the  last  brick  was  laid.  He  is  now  financial  sec 
retary  of  the  church,  secretary  of  the  board  of  trus 
tees  and  one  of  the  strong  active  deacons. 

However,  his  biggest  service  as  a  Christian  work 
er  is  being  rendered  among  the  young  people  of  the 
state.  Alabama  is  peppered  with  Negro  Baptists. 
Blow  your  Baptist  trumpet  in  the  remotest  hamlet 
and  a  regiment  of  loyal  followers  will  come  for 
ward  to  bear  up  the  standard.  Among  their  organ 
ization  is  a  Baptist  Young  People's  Union.  Mr. 
Barnes  has  been  the  president  of  this  organization 
for  sixteen  years.  In  recognition  of  his  religious 
services  and  of  his  exemplary  scholarship,  Selma 
University  some  years  ago  conferred  upon  him  the 
honorary  degree  of  Master  of  Arts. 

All  through  his  life  Mr.  Barnes  has  been  a  very 
intense  student,  both  in  books  and  in  affairs.  He 
spends  many  hours  in  home  study,  in  a  very  excep 
tional  home  library.  From  time  to  time  he  has  tak 
en  home  correspondence  courses  from  the  Univer 
sity  of  Chicago.  In  addition  to  this  he  keeps  tho 
roughly  abreast  with  all  educational  movements  in 
the  state.  No  convention  or  gathering  of  educators 
in  the  state  is  likely  to  assemble  without  finding 
Benjamin  H.  Barnes  on  hand  ready  to  give  advice, 
time  or  money  to  make  things  go. 

The  home  of  Benjamin  H.  Barnes,  all  paid  for, 
is  one  of  the  most  handsome  of  the  half  dozen  ex 
cellent  Negro  homes  of  Tuscaloosa.  As  one  pur 
chase  whets  the  appetite  for  another  Mr.  Barnes 
after  paying  for  his  home,  bought  other  buildings 
and  now  owns  property  to  rent. 

This  is  not  the  full  business  story  of  Prof. 
Barnes.  The  Union  Central  Life  Relief  company 
of  Birmingham  is  one  of  the  comparatively  few 
Negro  firms  of  the  -kind  to  stem  the  tide  of  bus 
iness  adversity.  Casting  about  for  a  manager  of  a 
branch  office  in  Tuscaloosa,  the  Union  Central  Re 
lief  found  the  man  they  wanted  in  Prof.  Barnes. 
In  this  office  and  in  visiting  patrons  Mr.  Barnes 
spends  his  summer  and  spare  hours  when  not  on 
duty  in  the  school. 

One  dominant  trait  is  unmistakable  in  the  Barnes 
family,  that  of  holding  fast  to  the  duties  in  hand— 
a  father,  school  teacher  in  one  place  forty-two 
years:  a  son,  school  teacher  for  nearly  twenty 
years,  Sunday  School  superintendent  twenty-five 
years,  president  of  Young  People's  Baptist  Union 
sixteen  years. 

Mr.  Barnes  is  married;  his  wife  is  his  partner. 
She  has  rendered  valuable  service  in  all  of  his  en 
deavors.  They  have  celebrated  their  crystal  wed 
ding  with  much  pomp. 


19 


JEREMIAH  BARNES 

HEN  you  go  to  Tuscaloosa,  Ala 
bama,  on  school  matters,  the 
County  Superintendent,  the  bank 
ers  and  other  people  will  tell  you 
to  "see  Jeremiah  Barnes".  Mr. 
Barnes  is  principal  of  the  Negro 
Public  Schools  of  Tuscaloosa,  and  is  most  likely  the 
oldest  Negro  School  man  today  engaged  in  active 
service.  He  began  his  career  as  a  school  teacher 
back  in  1874,  when  a  Negro  school  master  was  in 
deed  a  rare  person.  From  that  date  scarcely  a  day 
has  passed  during  the  school  session  without  find 
ing  the  veteran  at  his  post.  Indeed,  he  goes  to 
school  whether  he  teaches  or  not ;  for  he  keeps  the 
keys  of  the  Tuscaloosa  High  School  and  almost 
daily,  even  in  summer,  you  will  find  him  about  the 
school  going  over  the  grounds,  attending  the  school 
garden,  inspecting  the  rooms  inside. 

The  veteran  school  master  of  Tuscaloosa  was 
reared  a  slave,  on  the  farm  of  Judge  Washington 
Wood,  eight  miles  west  of  Tuscaloosa.  Here  he 
learned  to  read  and  write  and  found  some  opportu 
nity  to  improve  himself  generally.  He  was  a  brick 
mason  back  in  the  60's.  Ten  years  later  he  was 
running  a  variety  store,  at  which  time  he  became 
alderman  of  Tuscaloosa,  grand  juror  of  the  county 


and  a  teacher  in  the  public  schools.  In  1874  the 
same  year  that  he  began  his  school  work,  Mr. 
Barnes  became  a  Master  Mason  and  later  was 
made  Worshipful  Grandmaster  for  three  terms. 
Since  that  time  he  has  been  made  Secretary  of  fore 
ign  correspondence  for  his  Grand  Lodge,  a  posi 
tion  which  he  held  for  fourteen  years.  He  was  one 
time  grand  patron  of  the  Alabama  Order  Eastern 
Star  and  is  a  charter  member  of  the  Oak  City 
Lodge  No.  1785,  Grand  United  Order  of  Odd  Fel 
lows.  He  twice  served  his  own  district  rgand 
lodge  as  deputy  grand  master. 

All  this  wealth  of  life  experience  along  with  con 
stant  study  of  books  Mr.  Barnes  brought  to  the 
school  room.  For  years  he  was  a  teacher,  being 
promoted  step  by  step  until  he  reached  the  highest 
post  in  the  Negro  schools  of  his  native  city.  In  his 
work  as  teacher  he  has  taken  rightful  pride  in  the 
graduates  he  has  turned  out.  Some  have  gone  to 
college,  some  to  industrial  schools,  some  settled 
to  trades,  some  to  school  teaching  after  leaving 
him.  Wherever  they  have  gone  they  have  made 
their  mark  as  very  useful  hightoned  citizens. 

In  his  school  curriculum  Prof.  Barnes  balances 
his  courses  pretty  well  between  class  room  work 
and  industrial  work.  His  courses  run  into  studies 
in  Algebra,  Geometry  and  Latin;  out  under  the 
window  you  will  see  a  flourishing  school  garden, 
and  a  place  for  cooking  in  the  basement.  He  teach 
es  the  children  by  deed  as  well  as  by  word,  that 
work  is  honorable  and  intellectual,  just  as  solving 
a  problem  in  Algebra  or  constructing  a  verb  in  En 
glish  or  Latin. 

To  this,  too,  he  adds  a  most  needed  phase  of  ed 
ucation,  that  of  beautifying  one's  surroundings. 
The  Negro  High  School  building  of  Tuscaloosa 
happens  to  be  in  a  rather  unhappy  section  of  the 
city.  A  railroad  yard  is  nearby,  so  also  is  the  city 
refuse  pile  and  the  city  stables.  Yet  by  setting  out 
trees,  constructing  fences  and  laying  out  walks,  the 
veteran  educator  has  managed  to  shut  out  pretty 
nearly  these  obnoxious  features  of  his  school  en 
vironment,  thus  showing  the  pupils  that  their  own 
lives  within  need  not  be  disturbed  by  the  lives  with 
out. 

Along  with  helping  the  students  of  his  school, 
Prof.  Barnes  has  reared  and  educated  several  child 
ren  of  his  own.  His  son,  Benjamin,  is  the  strong 
assistant  of  his  father  in  the  Tuscaloosa  school 
work,  is  the  great  Negro  Baptist  Young  People's 
Union  leader  of  Alabama,  church  organist,  and  bus 
iness  man.  The  other  son  is  the  treasurer  of  the 
Snow  Hill  Normal  and  Industrial  School  of  Snow 
Hill,  Alabama. 

How  long  Prof.  Barnes  will  remain  in  the  school 
work  none  but  a  higher  power  can  tell.  So  far  he 
shows  no  signs  of  retreat.  He  is  vigorous,  active, 
both  in  body  and  in  mind.  Best  of  all  as  a  school 
teacher  he  is  very  cheerful  and  very  optimistic  for 
himself  and  his  people. 


20 


EDWARD  AUSTIN  RROWN 


HERE  arc  about  800  Negro  law 
yers  in  the  United  States.  Some 
of  them  have  occupied  positions 
of  trust  and  prominence,  political, 
judicial  and  diplomatic.  Yet 
whenever  a  colored  man  thinks  of 
entering  the  legal  profession  he  is  instructed  to 
have  well  in  mind  Socrates'  definition  of  courage. 
Said  the  sage,  "He  who  rushes  into  battle  without 
knowing  all  the  consequences  does  not  represent 
genuine  courage  but  rashness."  Thus  it  is  with  the 
law  for  the  Negro.  Of  all  the  professions  it  is  very 
probably  the  least  hospitable  to  the  black  man.  As 
a  rule,  he  is  not  accorded  a  square  deal  in  the  courts 
of  the  South,  while  in  the  North  he  finds  himself, 
for  the  most  part,  up  against  the  most  lively  com 
petition.  He,  then,  who  enters  here  must  weigh 
between  courage  and  rashness ;  and  he  who  suc 
ceeds  in  compelling  a  fair  measure  of  success  is 
either  a  giant  in  intellect  or  a  wizard  in  tact  and 
diplomacy. 

That  Edward  A.  Brown  did  not  enter  the  law 
through  rashness,  through  not  knowing  the  at 
tendant  dangers,  can  be  fairly  inferred  from  the 
fact  that  he  was  born  in  the  South,  where  the  sit 
uation  is  quite  patent.  Mr.  Brown  was  born 


in 


Raleigh,  N.  C.,  forty  odd  years  ago.  After  com 
pleting  the  public  school  course  in  his  native  town 
he  had  private  tuition  in  order  to  prepare  himself 
for  college,  and  soon  thereafter  entered  Lincoln 
University,  in,Pennsylvania,  where  four  years  later 
he  finished  the  collegiate  course,  graduating  with 
honors.  Just  as  Mr.  Brown  was  about  to  enter  a 
New  England  Law  school  he  was  offered  an  oppor 
tunity  to  study  law  in  the  office  of  Judge  Henry 
McKinney,  who  was  at  the  time  one  of  the  ablest 
lawyers  at  the  Cleveland,  Ohio,  bar.  This  offer  was 
accepted  and  in  due  time  the  young  law  student  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  by  the  Supreme  Court  of  Ohio. 
Incidentally,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  of  the  108 
applicants  for  admission  at  the  time,  Mr.  Brown 
offered  the  best  examination. 

After  practicing  his  profession  for  a  while  in 
Cleveland  Mr.  Brown  came  to  Alabama,  where 
again  he  made  a  record  in  his  examination  for  ad 
mission,  winning  from  the  presiding  judge  the 
statement  that  this  was  the  best  examination  he 
had  ever  witnessed.  Ever  since  his  admission  to 
the  Alabama  bar  Mr.  Brown  has  pursued  the  active 
practice  of  his  profession  in  Birmingham,  where 
he  resides,  except  for  the  period  of  eight  months 
during  which  he  was  an  army  officer  at  the  time 
of  the  Spanish-American  War,  serving  under  a 
commission  of  First  Lieutenant  in  the  10th  U.  S. 
Volunteer  Infantry. 

Mr.  Brown  enjoys  a  lucrative  practice  and,  like 
thousands  of  the  best  lawyers  of  the  country,  is 
what  is  known  as  a  "civil"  lawyer,  giving  no  at 
tention  to  criminal  practice.  He  is  regarded  by  the 
judges  and  members  of  the  bar  generally  as  an  able 
lawyer  and  as  a  man  of  the  highest  personal  char 
acter.  His  clients  and  friends  believe  in  him,  in  his 
knowledge  of  the  law,  his  integrity  and  his  unfail 
ing  sane  judgment.  To  illustrate  the  unselfish 
public  spirit  of  the  man  a  single  incident  may  be 
related:  The  commissioners  of  the  city  of  Bir 
mingham,  following  the  example  of  certain  other 
municipalities,  undertook  to  enact  a  law  providing 
segregation  of  residences  based  upon  race.  Mr. 
Brown,  without  being  employed  or  even  requested, 
went  before  the  commissioners  with  a  strong  pro 
test  against  the  adoption  of  the  proposed  ordinance 
and  made  such  a  forceful  argument  against  its  con 
stitutionality  as  to  defeat  it  then  and  there.  Here 
was  an  example  of  his  unselfish  spirit,  for  although 
this  was  legal  service  of  the  highest  order  and  deal 
ing  with  a  matter  of  far-reaching  importance  to  his 
race,  not  a  dollar  was  charged  by  him  or  accepted. 

Mr.  Brown  has  succeeded  in  accumulating  a  com 
petency,  owning  a  residence  valued  at  $5,000  and 
other  real  estate ;  and  besides,  he  has  some  money. 
For  several  years  he  has  served  as  general  attorney 
for  the  Knights  of  Pythias  of  Alabama,  of  which 
fraternal  order  he  is  a  leading  and  influential  mem 
ber.  He  is  active  in  all  movements  touching  the 
welfare  of  his  people  and  is  one  of  the  really  strong 
and  substantial  men  of  his  community  and  state. 

The  Brown  family  is  small,  consisting  of  Mrs. 
Brown  and  one  son,  Edward,  Jr.  Mrs.  Brown,  who 
was  Miss  Nettie  Jones  of  Cleveland,  Ohio,  is  active 
in  club  work  and  various  charities.  Edward,  Jr., 
is  a  quiet,  studious  lad,  having  made  first  year 
high  school  at  the  age  of  thirteen. 


MISS  CORNELIA  BOWEN 


N  a  certain  day  in  May  if  you  are 
anywhere  in  Montgomery  County, 
Alabama,  you  will  see  wagons 
from  the  country,  cars  and  car 
riages  from  the  city,  crowding 
and  jamming  along  the  road,  all 
going  in  one  direction.  On  inquiry  you  will  learn 
that  they  are  making  their  way  toward  the  Mt. 
Meigs  Institute,  to  attend  the  commencement  ex 
ercises.  When  you  reach  the  school,  there  will 
break  on  you  a  sort  of  vision  of  a  new  city,  sudden 
ly  peopled.  This  is  the  work  of  Miss  Cornelia 
Bowen  of  Mt.  Meigs. 

Miss  Bowen  went  to  Mt.  Meigs  in  1888  to  plant 
a  school  in  the  wilderness,  as  it  were.  To  reach 
the  rural  man  and  woman  as  well  as  the  small  boy 
and  small  girl  was  a  demand  which  both  Miss  Bow- 
en  and  the  late  Dr.  Washington  felt  it  a  sacred  duty 
to  answer.  To  use  Miss  Bowen's  own  words  in 
"Tuskegee  and  Its  People" — "a  call  reached  Dr. 
Washington  in  1888  for  a  teacher  to  begin  work  in 
the  vicinity  of  Mt.  Meigs,  Alabama,  similar  to  the 
work  done  at  Tuskegee,  but  of  course  on  a  smaller 
scale.  Mr.  E.  N.  Pierce  of  Plainville,  Connecticutt, 
had  resolved  to  do  something  in  the  way  of  pro 
viding  better  school  facilities  for  the  colored  people 
living  on  a  large  plantation,  into  the  possession  of 

22 


which  he  had  come.  Mr.  Washington  answered  the 
call  while  in  Boston,  and  telegraphed  me  that  he 
thought  me  the  proper  person  to  take  charge  of 
and  carry  on  the  settlement  work  Mr.  Pierce  and 
his  friend  had  in  mind." 

The  place  itself  is  far  away,  out  of  contact.  The 
people  were  weighted  down  with  debt,  mild  peon 
age,  morals  were  at  a  low  ebb.  Miss  Bowen  set 
out  to  improve  the  lives  of  the  old  people  while 
building  a  school  for  the  young.  She  taught  Bible 
classes  in  the  leaky  country  church  and  held  meet 
ings  and  conferences  for  the  mothers  and  fathers. 
In  a  little  while  the  people  began  to  know  that  there 
were  ideals  of  health,  of  family,  of  property  own 
ership.  Thus  it  is  that  today  they  troop  on  horse 
back,  in  buggy,  in  wagon  to  Mt.  Meigs  Commence 
ment.  Here  along  with  the  diversion  offered  they 
come  upon  the  first  impulse  to  do  good. 

It  has  become  quite  common  nowadays  to  speak 
of  the  pioneer,  but  the  Mt.  Meigs  school  was  in  a 
very  real  sense  a  pioneer  in  its  own  kind  of  work. 
To  set  up  in  the  country  a  school  which  was  a 
community  center :  a  school  which  called  in  the 
country  women  to  teach  them  cooking,  sewing, 
and  house-keeping,  to  teach  them  how  to  rear  and 
treat  their  children ;  to  instruct  them  in  finer  man 
ners  towards  their  husbands  and  towards  their 
neighbors ;  to  persuade  them  to  eliminate  certain 
habits,  like  dipping  snuff  and  smoking  and  chew 
ing  tobacco,  as  unfeminine  and  un-womanly ;  to 
have  done  all  this  in  those  early  days  of  any  kind  of 
Negro  school  in  Alabama  was  genuinely  pioneer 
work. 

The  same  constructive  program  was  adopted 
with  the  men  and  boys.  Men  were  better  farmers, 
better  husbands,  fathers,  cleaner  in  their  habits, 
more  ambitious  in  their  ideals  because  of  Mt. 
Meigs.  They  formed  more  definite  ideals  of  home, 
of  family,  of  church,  from  this  teaching  and  from 
their  contact  in  the  school.  Where  there  was  no 
farm  ownership,  they  began  to  buy  farms.  Where 
there  were  no  flowers,  flowers  began  to  grow :  an 
air  of  refinement  and  of  taste  began  to  assert  itself. 

There  is  nothing  so  new  about  this  now,  for  we 
begin  to  see  the  very  definite  results  of  this  train 
ing.  Mt.  Meigs  opened  a  boarding  department  and 
rooms  for  the  children  and  taught  them  new  les 
sons  of  life.  It  fired  them  with  zeal  to  go  back  to 
their  village  and  teach  what  they  themselves  had 
learned.  This  situation  now  so  prevalent  was  at 
first  a  most  startling  innovation  when  Mt. 
Meigs  began.  It  was  the  first  trumpet  call  to  the 
man  in  the  fields  that  somebody  really  cared  for 
him,  for  the  life  he  lived,  whether  or  not  he  was 
really  happy. 

Wrhile  thus  laboring  among  the  elders,  Miss 
Bowen  was  founding  a  school.  She  bought  her 
land,  forty-odd  acres,  and  began  to  put  up  buildings. 
She  put  on  the  curriculum,  not  only  grammar, 
arithmetic  and  the  like,  but  the  study  of  practical 
industries,  such  trades  as  the  boys  and  girls  could 
use  immediately  in  their  homes.  Thus  she  teaches 
her  own  school  gardening,  farming,  poultry-rais 
ing,  the  care  of  live  stock  and  bee-culture. 


VIEW   MT.   MEIGS   INSTITUTE 


hi  the  meantime  she  was  not  forgetting  her  own 
education.  She  had  attended  school  at  Tuskegee 
Institute,  where  Dr.  Washington  was  examiner, 
school  teacher,  principal,  lecturer  and  a  good  many 
other  things.  Under  him  she  sat,  got  her  Tuske 
gee  diploma,  then  spent  some  time  as  principal  of 
the  "Children's  House",  of  Tuskegee  Institute.  To 
the  education  of  experience,  which  her  principal 
and  friend,  Dr.  Washington,  so  ardently  believed  in, 
Miss  Bowen  added  study  in  New  York  City  and  fur 
ther  study  in  Queen  Margaret's  College,  Glasgow, 
Scotland. 

Miss  Bowen  is  through  and  through  a  product 
of  Tuskegee  Institute.  She  was  born  on  what  is 
now  the  Institute  Campus.  The  little  cottage  in 
which  she  was  born  was  the  first  building  of  Tus 
kegee  Institute  to  be  used  for  teaching  girls'  in 
dustries.  "And  never  do  I  go  to  Tuskegee,"  says 
Miss  Bowen,  "that  I  do  not  search  it  out  among  the 
more  imposing  and  pretentious  buildings,  which 
have  come  during  the  later  years  of  the  school's 
history." 

The  cottage  in  which  she  was  born  stood  on  the 
plantation  of  Colonel  William  Bowen,  to  whom 
Miss  Bowen's  mother  was  a  slave.  Unlike  most 
slave  mothers,  Miss  Bowen's  mother  could  read, 
having  been  taught  by  a  former  mistress  in  Balti 
more.  She  was  therefore  able  to  superintend  her 
daughter's  education  to  greater  degree  than 
most  mothers  of  the  time,  hence  arises,  no  doubt, 
the  daughter's  very  strong  grasp  on  people  and  af 
fairs. 

Miss  Bowen  was  first  taught  by  a  southern  white 


woman  of  the  town  of  Tuskegee. :  She  then  at 
tended  the  public  school  of  Tuskegee  until  Booker 
T.  Washington  came  and  founded  the  Institute. 
Her  school  on  "Zion  Hill"  was  then  closed  and  the 
children  all  flocked  to  the  new  school.  Booker  T. 
Washington  was  then  an  active  teacher.  He  gave 
her  the  examination  and  placed  her  in  the  Junior 
class.  He  taught  many  of  the  subjects.  Miss 
Bowen  looks  back  with  no  end  of  pleasure  to  those 
days  when  Dr.  Washington  taught  grammar,  his 
tory  and  spelling. 

She  was  a  member  of  the  first  class  to  graduate 
from  Tuskegee  Institute.  This  was  in  1885,  before 
the  school  had  even  conceived  of  the  great  indus 
trial  idea.  Miss  Bowen  was  an  honor  student,  re 
ceiving  a  first  grade  diploma  and  winning  one  of  the 
three  Peabody  medals ;  medals  which  were  award 
ed  for  excellence  in  scholarship. 

With  this  foundation  she  went  out  to  establish 
the  Mt.  Meigs  Institute,  full  of  confidence.  Her 
work  in  the  school  has  made  a  name  for  Miss  Bow- 
en.  She  has  several  times  held  various  offices  in 
the  National  Association  of  Colored  Women's 
Clubs,  State  Teachers'  Association  of  Alabama,  and 
in  the  Colored  Women's  Federation  of  the  State, 
and  its  president  for  fourteen  years. 

While  a  very  excellent  administrator,  and  a  rare 
student  of  both  men  and  books,  Miss  Bowen  excels 
in  the  mind  of  many,  through  her  gift  of  eloquent 
speech.  Few  persons  on  the  platform  today  can 
bring  so  much  power  to  bear,  go  so  directly  to  the 
point  and  so  eloquently  as  can  Miss  Bowen. 


23 


RICHARD   ANDERSON   BLOUNT 


T  was  Robert  Browning,  who  ex 
pressing  his  fondness  for  Italy, 
said,  "If  you  open  my  heart  you 
will  find  the  word  'Italy'  written 
therein."  If  you  made  an  incison 
in  the  heart  of  Richard  Anderson 
Blount  of  Birmingham,  Alabama,  you  would  find 
"Knights  of  Pythias."  For  nearly  twenty  years 
now  Mr.  Blount  has  thought  Knights  of  Pythias, 
talked  Knights  of  Pythias,  traveled  for  Knights  of 
Pythias,  and  what  the  order  of  the  Knights  of  Py 
thias  in  Alabama  is  today,  is  traceable  very  large 
ly  to  Richard  Anderson  Blount. 

Back  in  1887  Mr.  Blount  came  into  Birmingham 
to  seek  his  fortune,  attracted  by  the  prospects  of 
the  town.  He  found  employment  with  the  Lawe- 
son  Carpet  Company  and  spent  some  time  in  their 
service.  He  worked  also  for  sixteen  years  for 
Ben  M.  Jacobs  &  Brothers.  It  was  during  his  em 
ploy  with  the  Jacobs  Brothers  that  Mr.  Blount  be 
came  engrossed  in  the  work  of  the  Knights  of  Py 
thias.  His  zeal  for  the  order  and  his  business  acu- 
nen  soon  attracted  attention,  with  the  result  that 
in  1898  he  was  elected  Grand  Keeper  of  Records 
and  Seal.  In  three  years  he  had  given  such  good 
service  and  had  established  the  records  on  such  a 


sound  business  basis  that  the  body  of  the  state 
made  him  Grand  Chancellor,  a  post  at  which  he 
has  served  now  for  fifteen  years. 

The  records  show  that  when  Mr.  Blount  assum 
ed  office  there  were  in  the  state  some  sixty-five 
lodges,  with  a  total  membership  of  16000  people. 
In  fifteen  years  through  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Blount 
the  Knights  of  Pythias  of  Alabama  have  three  hun 
dred  and  forty-five  lodges  with  a  total  membership 
of  ten  thousand.  The  order  of  Knights  of  Pythias 
is  much  better  known,  more  popular,  enjoys  a  wider 
confidence  of  the  people,  both  of  those  who  are 
members  and  those  who  are  not. 

Of  course  the  Knights  of  Pythias  of  Alabama 
must  have  a  building  of  their  own.  It  just  chances 
that  the  Alabama  Penny  Savings  Bank  is  available. 
Mr.  Blount  and  his  helpers  are  pressing  home  plans 
to  secure  this  building.  To  secure  a  splendid  four 
story  brick  structure  like  the  Alabama  Penny  Sav 
ings  Bank  Building,  which  has  an  office  rent  of 
several  hundred,  requires  money,  backing,  appreci 
ation  of  values,  and  confidence.  All  this  the  Knights 
of  Pythias  have  and  they  have  it  very  largely 
through  Richard  Anderson  Blount. 

Mr.  Blount  is  not  a  native  of  Birmingham.  He 
came  from  Montgomery  where  he  was  born  in  the 
early  seventies.  He  attended  the  Swayne  school  in 
his  native  town.  While  he  was  going  to  school,  Mr. 
Blount  had  to  work.  He  somehow  got  into  carpet 
laying;  a  trade  which  did  him  great  service  in  the 
early  years  of  his  manhood. 

His  affiliation  with  and  leadership  of  the  Knights 
of  Pythias  do  not  blind  him  to  the  merits  of  other 
fraternities  and  organizations.  He  is  an  active 
member  of  the  Sixteenth  Street  Baptist  Church,  a 
staunch  member  of  the  Masonic  Lodge  of  the 
Shriners,  of  the  Odd  Fellows  and  of  the  Elks. 

One  of  the  most  conspicuous  things  about  Rich 
ard  Anderson  Blount  is  the  beautiful  home  he  has 
erected  and  paid  for.  In  going  up  Seventh  Avenue 
the  passer-by  turns  round  to  look  again  and  again 
as  he  passes  this  residence.  This  house  is  by  no 
means  the  extent  of  Mr.  Blount's  ownership  of 
property.  He  owns  several  rent  houses  and  lots 
in  and  about  town. 

But  the  home  and  the  home  life  were  a  vision 
of  long  ago.  He  saw  big  and  handsome  homes  and 
happy  families  about.  Into  his  own  spirit  crept 
the  vision  of  such  a  home  with  a  happy  family. 
Both  he  now  has.  He  has  been  married  for  more 
than  twenty  years.  His  first  wife  who  was  Miss 
Lucy  Massey,  died  some  eight  years  ago.  The 
daughter  of  this  union  is  now  a  student  at  Spelman 
Seminary  in  Atlanta,  Ga.  He  recently  married 
Miss  Mary  Lue  Crawford.  Mr.  Blount  has  travel 
ed  much  in  the  South  and  in  the  East  and  has  to 
do  so  in  the  interest  of  and  for  the  development  of 
his  lodge. 


24 


CLINTON  J.  GALLOWAY.  A.  B. 


RAVELING  through  the  rural 
districts  of  Alabama,  especially 
through  Macon  County,  every 
where  one  sees  new  up-to-date 
school  houses.  These  schools  have 
three  and  four  rooms  or  more. 
Some  are  used  as  Model  schools  in  which  the 
teacher  lives  and  has  around  her  all  the  animals 
and  other  things  to  be  had  on  a  farm.  These  model 
schools  are  to  train  the  country  boys  and  girls  how 
to  live  happily  amid  their  native  surroundings.  In 
some  places  the  old  half-decayed  school  buildings 
are  still  standing  making  a  marked  contrast  with 
the  new  and  up-to-date  structures.  The  one  man 
who  is  more  largely  responsible  for  this  condition 
than  any  other  is  Clinton  J.  Galloway  of  Tuskegee 
Institute. 

Mr.  Calloway  was  born  April  18,  1869,  in  Cleve 
land,  Tennesee.  Here  in  his  native  town  he  at 
tended  the  public  school,  remaining  to  finish  the 
Grammar  grades.  For  his  High  School  work  he 
went  to  Chattanooga,  Tennessee.  As  a  young  man 
he  had  the  trait  of  sticking  to  a  thing  and  so  he 
remained  in  the  school  till  he  completed  the  course 
in  1889.  He  then  matriculated  at  Fisk  Uuniversity. 
All  through  his  school  career  he  was  an  earnest, 

25 


careful  student,  deserving  and  receiving  the  praise 
of  his  teachers.  In  1895  he  completed  the  classical 
course  of  Fisk  and  graduated  with  the  degree  of 
A.  B.  All  through  his  years  of  study  he  gave  close 
attention  to  practical  ideas  and  ideals. 

After  graduation  Mr.  Calloway  accepted  work  in 
the  Extension  Department  at  Tuskegee  Institute 
and  here  he  has  remained  ever  since.  During  the 
years  spent  in  the  Extension  Department  of  Tuske 
gee,  Mr.  Calloway  has  done  much  to  develop  and 
make  of  service  his  department.  In  1895  when  Mr. 
Calloway  took  charge,  the  work  was  restricted  to 
dealing  with  the  farm  and  country  folk  in  general. 
It  was  then  in  its  rudimentary  stage.  Mr.  Calloway 
saw  the  great  need  of  better  schools.  It  has  been 
largely  through  the  demonstrations  of  Mr.  Callo 
way  that  Miss  Jeannes  of  the  Jeannes  Fund  was 
convinced  of  the  value  of  outside  aid  in  rural  school 
work  among  Negroes.  To  this  end  there  are  now 
all  through  Alabama  and  other  Southern  States 
workers  among  the  rural  teachers  who  travel  back 
and  forth  supervising  the  work  of  the  country 
schools.  These  are  the  Jeannes  supervisors. 

Another  great  advance  in  the  Rural  Schools  of 
Alabama  and  now  of  other  Southern  states  is  due 
to  the  vision  and  thought  of  Mr.  Calloway.  It  was 
he  who  suggested  to  Dr.  Washington  that  Mr. 
Julius  Rosenwald  of  Chicago  would  help  in  the 
erection  of  new  and  up-to-date  schools  for  the  rural 
districts  of  Alabama.  Acting  on  this  suggestion 
Mr.  Rosenwald  has  invested  the  largest  sum  of 
money  set  aside  for  educational  purposes.  The 
schools  built  from  the  fund  are  known  as  the  Ros 
enwald  schools.  The  suggestion  came  from  Mr. 
Calloway  and  he  is  the  man  who  has  had  to  work 
out  the  detail  of  the  investment  and  he  has  also 
had  to  help  the  rural  people  raise  their  share  of 
the  money.  All  of  them  turn  to  Mr.  Calloway 
when  discouraged  and  expect  to  be  shown  the  way 
out  of  difficulties.  Never  has  he  failed  them.  Mr. 
Calloway  is  now  the  head  of  the  Extension  De 
partment  with  a  number  of  workers  under  him,  in 
stead  of  being  the  whole  of  the  Department  as  he 
was  when  he  first  took  the  work. 

Mr.  Calloway  was  married  to  Miss  Josie  Eliza 
beth  Schooler  March  12th,  1901  at  Kowaliga,  Ala 
bama.  To  Mrs.  Calloway  her  husband  gives  credit 
for  his  success  in  acquiring  property.  They  own 
their  own  beautiful  home  and  1,000  acres  of  land 
and  the  implements,  stock,  etc.,  that  are  required 
for  this  sort  of  farming.  Mr.  Calloway  is  a  Con- 
gregationalist  in  Religious  belief.  He  is  a  practical 
Christian  and  commands  the  respect  of  all  who 
know  him. 

Mr.  Calloway  is  through  and  through  a  man  of 
business.  Whatever  he  undertakes  to  do  is  seen 
through  the  amount  of  good  done  for  the  amount 
of  money  spent.  He  is  President  of  Homeseekers 
Land  Company,  Capital  Stock  $10,000.00  and  mana 
ger  of  the  Tuskegee  Farm  and  Improvement  Com 
pany  with  a  capitalization  of  $25,000.00. 

There  are  many  better  schools,  better  homes  and 
better  farms  in  Macon  County  and  in  fact  all 
through  Alabama  because  of  the  work  of  Mr.  Cal 
loway  in  the  Extension  Department  of  Tuskegee. 


T.  M.  CAMPBELL 

ATCHING  the  spirit  of  his  illust 
rious  teacher,  Booker  T.  Wash 
ington,  Mr.  Campbell,  the  pioneer 
Negro  Farm  Demonstrator  is 
bringing  to  a  realization  the 
dreams  of  the  late  Dr.  Seaman  A. 
Knapp,  the  father  of  farm  demonstration  work— I 
am  thinking,  said  Dr.  Knapp,  "of  the  people  of  rose 
covered  cottages  in  the  country,  of  the  strong  glad 
father  and  his  con-tented,  cheerful  wife,  of  the 
whistling  boy  an  dthe  dancing  girl  with  school 
books  under  her  arms  so  that  knowledge  may  soak 
into  them  as  they  go ;  I  am  thinking  of  the  or 
chards  and  the  vineyards,  of  the  flocks  and  the 
herds,  of  the  waving  woodlands,  of  the  hills  car 
peted  with  luxuriant  verdure,  and  the  valleys  in 
viting  to  the  golden  harvest."  Mr.  Campbell  and 
his  large  corps  of  workers  are  doing  all  this  for 
the  colored  people  of  Alabama  and  the  South. 

Born  February  11,  1883,  just  outside  the  corpor 
ate  limits  of  the  little  town  of  Bowman,  Elbert 
County,  Ga.,  Mr.  Campbell's  life  was  typical  of  the 
average  boy  of  that  section,  and  at  the  age  of  fif 
teen,  he  found  that  he  had  attended  school  less  than 
twelve  months.  Hearing  of  Tuskegee  from  an  old- 

26 


er  brother  who  had  gone  there,  the  lad  determined 
to  attend.  His  father  failing  to  keep  a  promise  to 
let  him  use  the  money  earned  working  on  a  neigh 
boring  plantation,  the  boy  walked  and  worked  his 
way  to  Tuskegee  from  which  he  was  graduated 
eight  years  later  in  1906.  He  speaks  as  follows  of 
his  Tuskegee  experience:  "My  training  was  such 
that  I  was  unable  to  make  the  lowest  class  when  I 
came  to  Tuskegee,  and  I  sometimes  think  that  my 
only  salvation  was  that  I  was  large  and  strong  and 
my  services  were  needed  on  the  farm.  By  constant 
study,  both  day  and  night,  I  was  able  to  make  a 
class  the  next  year  and  every  year  after  until  my 
graduation.  During  my  eight  years  stay  here  as  a 
student,  I  received  only  $2.00  cash  and  one  suit  of 
clothes  as  assistance." 

When  Dr.  Knapp  came  to  Tuskegee  in  1906  seek 
ing  his  first  Negro  demonstrator,  he  found  his  man 
in  the  field  following  a  two-horse  plow.  This  man 
was  T.  M.  Campbell,  who  had  recently  been  gradu 
ated  and  was  specializing  in  agriculture. 

"Young  man",  said  Dr.  Knapp,  "I  want  you  to 
travel  over  a  given  territory  and  show  the  Negroes 
how  to  prepare  land  just  as  you  are  doing  now." 
This  Mr.  Campbell  did,  traveling  in  the  Jesup  Ag 
ricultural  Wagon,  an  idea  of  the  far  seeing  Dr. 
Washington  who  conceived  the  idea  of  taking  ed 
ucation  to  the  farmer.  This  work  was  later  merged 
into  the  United  States  Farm  Demonstration  work 
and  has  taken  Mr.  Campbell  into  every  part  of  Ala 
bama  and  other  portions  of  the  South. 

For  the  past  twelve  years,  early  and  late,  in  sun 
shine  and  in  rain,  he  has  been  going  about  Alabama 
and  other  Southern  States  making  the  waste  places 
blossom.  Mr.  Campbell  defining  the  term  demon 
strator  says :  "A  Demonstrator  is  a  farmer  chos 
en  by  the  government  Agent  because  of  his  ability 
to  attract  the  people  of  his  community  to  himself, 
he  is  commonly  called  a  community  leader."  Mr. 
Campbell,  who  is  now  officially  known  as  District 
Agent  for  Farm  Demonstrate!)  Work  for  the  col 
ored  people  of  Alabama,  possesses  these  qualifica 
tions  in  a  high  degree.  He  has  a  very  winning  per 
sonality,  and  a  rich  musical  voice  which  wins 
friends  wherever  he  goes. 

Unlike  most  public  men  of  the  race,  Mr.  Camp 
bell  is  not  a  lodge  man,  due  perhaps  to  the  fact  that 
he  is  so  seldom  at  home;  for  his  duties  keep  him 
ever  on  the  road.  He  is  a  Methodist  and  zealous 
church  worker. 

On  June  1st,  1911,  Mr.  Campbell  was  married  to 
Miss  Annie  M.  Ayers  of  Virginia,  who  is  also  a  Tus 
kegee  graduate.  Four  children,  Thomas  Jr.,  Car 
ver,  Virginia  and  William  help  to  make  the  home  a 
happy,  cheery  place.  The  two  older  boys  are  in 
school  and  promise  to  follow  in  years  to  come  the 
lootsteps  of  their  father. 


JAMES   HENRY   EASON,   D.   D. 

R.  James  Henry  Eason,  the  pas 
tor  of  the  very  select  congrega 
tion  of  the  Jackson  Street  Baptist 
Church,  Birmingham,  Ala.,  is  an 
ideal  product  of  his  state.  He  was 
horn  October  24,  1866  to  Channie 
Bingham  Kason  and  Jesse  Bigham.  Born,  reared 
and  for  the  most  part  educated  in  Alabama,  he  has 
turned  all  his  time  and  his  talent — has  brought  his 
vision  to  pass  in  the  state  of  his  birth.  He  was  born 
in  Sumpterville,  Sumpter  County.  Gaining  all  he 
could  in  the  Sumpterville  public  school  he  entered 
Selma  University  and  after  graduation  from  Selma 
Dr.  Eason  took  his  course  in  theological  training  at 
Virginia  Union  University,  Richmond,  Va.,  receiv 
ing  the  degree  of  D.  D.  On  finishing  his  studies  he 
immediately  returned  to  Alabama  to  give  account 
of  his  education.  Although  he  earned  his  way,  he 
felt  that  he  owed  a  great  debt  to  the  people  of  his 
state.  In  1884  he  began  teaching  school  in  Gads- 
den.  He  taught  one  year  in  Garfield  Academy  at 
Auburn.  Ala.,  and  seven  years  in  Selma  University. 
In  the  meantime  he  had  been  appointed  state  Mis 
sionary  for  Alabama  by  the  Home  Missionary  So 
ciety  of  New  York.  In  this  office,  he  served  several 
years. 


The  year  1891  saw  the  formal  beginning  of  Dr. 
Eason's  career  as  a  pastor.  In  this  year  he  accepted 
thev  pastorate  of  the  Union  Baptist  Church  at  Ma 
rion,  Ala.  Here  he  became  moderator  of  the  new 
Cahaba  Association.  From  Marion  Mr.  Eason  went 
to  Anniston.  Here  he  really  began  to  assert  him 
self  as  a  minister  and  as  a  community  builder. 
When  he  accepted  the  pastorate  of  the  Eleventh 
Street  Baptist  Church  in  Anniston,  there  were 
eighty-five  members  of  the  congregation.  This 
body  was  then  known  as  the  Galilee  Church. 
Dr.  Eason  held  his  post  here  for  fifteen 
years.  In  that  time  he  increased  the  mem 
bership  from  eighty-five  to  seven  hundred 
and  put  up  a  new  building  which  cost  $25,- 
000.00.  While  building  this  church  in  Anniston, 
he  noticed  that  comparatively  few  colored  people 
owned  homes.  To  aid  the  people  in  securing 
homes,  he  organized  the  Mercantile  Investment 
Company,  whose  efforts  have  resulted  in  hundreds 
of  colored  people  owning  their  homes  in  this  city. 

His  name  now  spreads  abroad  as  a  worker  and  a 
man  of  exceptional  gifts  and  rare  industry.  He  was 
for  ten  years  Editor  of  the  Baptist  Leader ;  the 
official  organ  of  280,000  Alabama  Baptists.  He  ed 
ited  and  published  the  Union  Leader  of  Anniston 
Alabama  for  five  years ;  meanwhile  he  had  written 
and  published  a  book  entitled,  "Sanctification  ver 
sus  Fanaticism,"  which  was  the  first  book  pub 
lished  by  the  National  Baptist  Board,  and  had  writ 
ten  articles  and  historical  sketches  for  the  maga 
zines. 

Thus  asserting  himself,  he  became  a  candidate 
for  many  honors.  Guadaloupe  College,  Texas,  and 
Benedict  College,  S.  C.,  each  honored  him  with  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity.  He  was  given  the 
presidency  of  the  Colored  Baptist  State  Convention 
which  he  held  ten  years,  resigning  in  1916.  For 
seven  years  he  was  vice  president  of  the  National 
Baptist  Convention.  Selma  University  elected  him 
a  member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  and  for  one 
year  he  carried  the  presidency  of  the  Anniston  In 
dustrial  College.  June  llth,  1917,  Dr.  Eason  was 
elected  president  of  Birmingham  Baptist  Col 
lege,  Birmingham,  Alabama.  He  was  a  dele 
gate  to  the  World's  Missionary  Conference, 
which  met  a  few  years  ago  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland. 
He  preached  in  Scotland  and  traveled  extensive 
ly  in  Scotland,  in  England,  in  Belgium  and  in 
France.  For  several  years  now  Dr.  Eason  has  been 
pastor  of  the  Jackson  Street  Baptist  church  in  Bir 
mingham,  where  he  has  put  in  many  improvements. 
He  takes  great  interest  in  the  business  life  of  the 
Negro  in  Birmingham  just  as  he  did  in  Anniston. 
He  was  a  director  of  the  Alabama  Penny  Savings 
Bank  in  its  early  days  and  a  depositor  in  it  to  the 
last.  He  is  himself  a  property  owner,  owning  his 
home  and  other  real  estate  which  are  valued  at 
$5.000. 

Dr.  Eason  was  married  in  1894  to  Miss  Phoebe 
A.  Kigh  of  Selma,  Ala.  Of  three  children  born  into 
the  Eason  home,  only  one,  Miss  Gladys  is  living. 
She  is  married  to  Mr.  Edward  A.  Trammel!.  Little 
Phoebe  Mae  Trammell  is  Dr.  Eason's  only  grand 
child. 


27 


- 


SCEXE  IX  GROVE 


ALHOUN  Colored  School  is  locat 
ed  at  Calhoun,  in  the  agricultural 
County  of  Lowndes,  southern  Ala 
bama,  27  miles  south  of  Montgom 
ery,  on  the  main  line  of  the  Louis 
ville  and  Nashville  Railroad. 
Eighty—five  per  cent  of  the  peo 
ple  of  the  County  are  Colored,  95  per  cent  of  the 
precinct. 

The  School  was  founded  in  1892  by  Miss  Mabel 
W.  Dillingham  and  Miss  Charlotte  R.  Thorn, 
Northern  white  workers  at  Hampton  Institute. 
Shortly  before  nearly  forty  Negroes  of  the  vicinity 
had  lost  their  lives  in  a  race  conflict.  After  this 
catastrophe  the  people  held  religious  services  for 
two  weeks,  praying  for  a  school  from  the  North. 

Among  the  original  trustees  were  Booker  T. 
Washington,  who  continued  in  that  office  until  his 
death,  John  Bigelow,  and  Thomas  Wentworth  Hig- 
ginson,  who  was  succeeded  by  Richard  P.  Hallo- 
well.  General  Armstrong,  though  in  failing  health, 
gave  invaluable  endorsement  and  counsel. 

Lowndes  and  the  adjacent  Counties  south  and 
west  were  of  the  most  neglected  regions  of  the 
South.  There  was  almost  no  Negro  ownership  of 
land.  The  crop  lien  tenancy  conditions  were  unusu 
ally  repressive.  The  cabins  lacked  even  the  crudest 
sanitary  equipment.  The  meager  public  school 
funds  of  Lowndes  County  were  divided  between 
White  and  Colored  in  the  ratio  of  thirteen  to  one 
per  child. 

Conditions  at  once  shaped  the  work  into  the  fol 
lowing  departments:  First,  the  school  centre  for 
a  limited  number  of  boarding  pupils,  with  farm  and 
industries ;  second,  instruction  of  pupils  from  the 
cabins ;  third,  community  work ;  fourth  extension 
work  into  the  County  and  gradually  beyond. 

Miss  Dillingham  survived  only  two  years  of  Cal- 
houn's  early  toils  and  hardships.  Miss  Thorn  is  still 
principal. 

In   1896,  3,283  acres   adjoining  the   school  were 


purchased  for  resale  to  Negroes  for  $21,565.00. 
The  resale  was  virtually  at  cost  price,  with  the  legal 
rate  of  8  per  cent  interest  on  notes.  Lots  aver 
aged  40  acres.  Notwithstanding  the  purchasers' 
lack  of  capital,  tools,  and  stock,  and  against  a  series 
of  unfavorable  seasons,  all  payments  were  com 
pleted  within  seven  years. 

In  1907,  600  additional  acres  in  the  vicinity  were 
brought  under  Negro  ownership.  There  are  now 
83  proprietors  on  a  tract  of  about  4000  acres,  of 
whom  two-fifths  have  built  cottages  of  from  three 
to  seven  rooms.  Nearly  all  these  homes  are  paid 
for. 

The  result  of  this  land  movement  is  a  community 
which  is  described  by  standard  books  on  the  South 
as  exceptionally  moral,  intelligent,  and  progres 
sive,  with  far-reaching  influence,  and  intimately 
co-operative  with  all  the  work  of  the  school.  The 
enlargement  of  this  Negro  land  ownership  under 
Calhoun's  direction  is  earnestly  desired  by  the 
people  and  urged  by  educational  authorities  South 
and  North. 

Calhoun  had  in  the  year  1916-17,  35  salaried  work 
ers,  White  and  Colored,  in  nearly  equal  numbers. 
405  pupils  were  enrolled,  32  in  excess  of  any  previ 
ous  year.  There  are  92  boarding  students,  boys 
and  girls.  Over  150  additional  applications  were 
refused  for  lack  of  room.  The  graduating  class 
numbered  18 

The  endowment  May  31,  1917,  was  $107,039.25. 
The  value  of  land,  21  buildings,  and  equipment  was 
$95,307.36.  This  includes  a  water  system  with  com 
plete  fire  protection.  The  library  numbers  3,853 
volumes,  and  is  well  supplied  with  daily  papers  and 
periodicals.  The  following  buildings  have  been 
contracted  for:  new  barn,  silo,  grist  and  saw  mill 
with  tractor  engine,  and  a  three-room  school.  The 
rapid  and  permanent  increase  of  pupils  demands 
an  addition  of  three  large  buildings  for  assembly 
hall,  class  rooms,  shops,  and  dormitory  space  for 
200  boarding  pupils. 


28 


SEWING  ROOM 

The  property  is  vested  in  an  independent  board 
of  trustees:  H.  B.  Frissell,  president,  Hampton  In 
stitute  ;  Paul  Revere  Frothingham,  vice-president, 
Boston ;  Charlotte  R.  Thorn,  Treasurer,  Calhoun ; 
Pitt  Dillingham,  Secretary,  Boston;  Henry  W.  Far- 
naw,  chairman  Investment  Committee,  New  Ha 
ven  ;  N.  Penrose  Hallowell,  member  Investment 
Committee,  Boston ;  William  Jay  Schieffelin,  mem 
ber  Investment  Committee,  New  York ;  Henry 
Ware  Sprague,  Buffalo ;  Joseph  O.  Thompson,  Bir 
mingham. 

The  support  is  mainly  from  contributions.  There 
is  no  State  aid.  The  total  income  of  the  last  fiscal 
year  was  $73,236.26.  Of  this  sum  $31,803.07  was 
for  endowment,  buildings,  permanent  improvement, 
and  equipment. 

The  purpose  of  Calhoun  is  the  progress  of  the 
agricultural  region  of  southern  Alabama.  The  first 
obligation  is  to  its  own  neighborhood,  then  to  the 
County,  then  to  further  sections  as  its  work  ex 
tends  and  develops.  It  is  in  intimate  and  uncom- 
petitive  co-operation  with  the  larger  institutions 
which  serve  the  Colored  population  of  the  South 
generally,  and  with  schools  of  higher  education. 

The  academic  course,  originally  limited  to  the 
six  lowest  grades,  has  gradually  increased  to  ten 
with  the  progressive  needs  of  the  people.  Thor 
ough  drill  is  united  with  inspirational  teaching,  with 
training  is  given  as  far  as  the  limits  of  the  course 
outlooks  into  the  world's  life  and  thought.  Normal 
will  permit,  as  graduates  are  in  great  demand  for 


public  school  teaching.  Calhoun  graduates  teach 
more  than  1400  public  school  children  in  Lowndes 
County  alone.  Teachers  of  Calhoun's  higher  aca 
demic  grades  have  all  been  trained  in  Northern  col- 
Iges  and  universities.  Those  in  charge  of  the  lower 
grades  are  graduates  of  colleges  or  standard  normal 
schools.  Moral  and  religious  training  is  prominent, 
in  which  the  school's  undenominational  character 
is  an  advantage  under  the  conditions  of  the  field. 
Agricultural  training  is  of  chief  importance.  The 
school  farm  has  388  acres  under  intensive  cultiva 
tion;  300  acres  of  this  are  rented,  from  necessity. 
There  are  three  expert  farmers  and  teachers.  A 
fourth  directs  the  people's  farming  and  business. 
The  Colored  farm  demonstrator  of  the  County  is 
paid  in  part  by  the  school.  This  department  held 
last  year  a  County  Fair  and  eight  farmers'  confer 
ences.  Its  counsel  is  sought  continually  by  farm 
ers  of  the  region.  Public  conferences  and  exten 
sion  lectures  on  farming  are  increasing  through  an 
enlarging  number  of  communities.  The  response 
to  President  Wilson's  appeal  for  more  food  produc 
tion  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  world  war  was  an 
swered  by  Calhoun  with  a  doubling  of  farm  acre- 


M1LKIXG  TIME 


BLACKSMITH  SHOP 

age,  large  increase  in  buildings,  equipment,  stock 
and  summer  force  of  working  students. 

The  trades  taught  are  carpentry,  house  building, 
repairing  and  painting,  blacksmithing,  cobbling, 
with  harness  repairing,  cooking,  sewing,  laundry, 
and  domestic  crafts.  Certificates  are  given  in 
blacksmithing,  cobbling  and  domestic  arts,  also  in 
agriculture.  The  addition  of  a  year  to  the  course 
ensures  the  equivalent  of  two  years'  trade  school 
instruction  in  carpentry  and  building. 

Community  and  extension  work  is  no  less  prom 
inent  than  the  school  work  proper.  Community 
clubs  and  classes  are  held.  Medical  assistance  is 
given  by  the  school  nurses  at  a  low  cost.  Commu 
nity  sales  held  weekly  through  the  term  provide 
second-hand  clothing  from  the  North.  The  school's 
community  and  extension  workers  and  others  of 
the  force  are  continually  among  the  people,  whose 
visits  to  the  school  are  frequent  for  meetings,  en 
tertainments,  and  private  counsel.  The  life  of 
home,  farm,  church,  public  school,  and  lodge  is 
open  to  the  school's  directive  influence  through 
an  ever  widening  area,  in  a  way  to  develop  initia 
tive.  The  County  and  extension  work  is  largely 
done  through  approved  persons,  graduates  and  oth 
ers,  who  render  enthusiastic  and  unintrusive  serv 
ice. 


29 


GEORGE  W.  CHANDLER 


EORGE  W.  CHANDLER  is  a 
produce  of  Talladega  College, 
though  a  farm  lad  by  birth.  He 
is  a  member  of  the  Masonic,  Mo 
saic  Templars,  Rising  Sons  and 
Daughters  of  Protection,  and 
United  Order  of  Good  Shepherds.  To  these  con 
nections  add  that  he  is  Notary  Public  of  Mont 
gomery  County,  a  trustee  and  steward  of  the  C. 
M.  E.  Church  of  Montgomery,  Trustee  of  Miles 
Memorial  College  of  Birmingham,  and  founder 
and  trustee  of  the  Good  Shepherd's  Home  of  Dal 
las  County,  Alabama,  Editor  Good  Shepherd's 
Magazine,  and  you  have  the  list  of  services  a  man 
in  quiet  life  can  perform. 

Mr.  Chandler  was  born  on  a  farm  some  six  miles 
from  the  town  of  Talladega.  He  attended  the 
country  school  until  he  was  twelve  years  old,  after 
which  he  entered  the  preparatory  department  in 
Talladega  Coollege.  Five  years  here  fitted  him  in 
a  measure  to  begin  to  earn  a  livelihood. 

At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  left  Talladega  and 
found  employment  in  a  grocery  store.  On  spending 
three  years  at  this  he  became  inspector  for  an  in 
surance  company.  This  position  he  held  for  four 
years.  From  this  date  he  began  his  life  work, 


that  in  connection  with  the  United  Order  of 
Good  Shepherds.  He  is  now  Supreme  Pres 
ident  of  this  organization,  which  operates  pretty 
generally  in  the  South  and  which  owns  some  3100 
acres  of  land  in  Dallas  County,  Alabama,  owns  a 
Shepherd  Home  and  does  a  great  deal  of  useful 
work  among  its  members. 

His  great  achievement  is  the  establishment  of 
this  order.  Mr.  Chandler  founded  this  order  in 
the  town  of  Eufaula,  Alabama,  the  third  Wed 
nesday  in  July,  1904.  Those  who  stood  by  Mr. 
Chandler  and  were  joint  founders  with  him  were 
Clark  Richardson,  Thomas  Williams,  Mary  A.  Jack 
son,  Ellen  Turner,  J.  A.  Ward,  P.  H.  Harmon,  and 
John  L.  Thomas.  The  body  at  that  time  had  one 
little  book  of  eight  pages  and  a  financial  card.  Its 
largest  membership  was  one  hundred  and  fifty. 

Very  clearly  re-organization  was  urgent,  if  the 
order  really  hoped  to  take  its  place  among  the 
substantial  orders  of  the  race.  With  some  misgiv 
ing  but  with  ardent  persistence  Mr.  Chandler  set 
to  work.  Exactly  one  year  later  he  called  a  meet 
ing  in  Montgomery,  offered  fifty-six  resolutions, 
one  of  which  let  the  organization  be  incorporated, 
the  membership  had  increased,  confidence  had  been 
gained.  All  that  he  asked  was  done. 

Year  by  year  the  order  began  now  to  gain  more 
members  and  a  wider  usefulness.  It  established  an 
endowment  system  one  year;  another  year  it  rais 
ed  its  policy:  a  third  year  it  established  several 
additional  Fountains,  another  year  it  passed  reso 
lutions  to  buy  and  build  a  home  for  old  and  decrepit 
members,  widows  and  orphans.  With  seven  hun 
dred  dollars  in  his  pocket  Mr.  Chandler  set  forth 
to  buy  land  for  this  home.  Two  thousand  acres 
were  bargained  for  in  Dallas  County,  for  which  a 
first  payment  of  $2000  was  made.  The  order  was 
now  extending  its  arm  into  other  States.  It  had 
Fountains  in  Georgia,  in  Florida,  in  Mississippi,  in 
Oklahoma,  as  well  as  in  Alabama.  In  1910  the 
trustees  added  1060  acres  of  land  to  that  already 
purchased,  making  a  tract  of  3060  acres. 

Thus  has  the  Order  grown  and  fought  its  way  to 
its  feet.  Its  two  farms  have  cost  $36,000  with  in 
terest  at  8%.  The  home  for  the  aged  and  decrepit 
has  been  under  continual  improvement  and  care. 
During  the  last  five  years  more  than  $6.000  has 
been  raised  and  expended  on  the  Home.  All  this 
goes  to  show  that  the  trustees  and  George  W. 
Chandler  have  not  been  idle  to  the  opportunities 
of  the  man  on  the  land.  About  one  thousanrl  acres 
of  the  land  is  improved,  the  remainder  is  good  tim 
ber  land,  land  on  which  flourish  white  oak,  pine, 
poplar,  cedars,  ash  and  red  oak.  Taken  for  all  and 
all,  this  land  which  cost  the  Good  Shepherds  $34,000 
with  interest,  is  now  valued  at  $150.000. 

The  Order  has  gained  the  confidence  and  good 
wishes  of  many  of  the  leading  citizens  of  Mont- 


30 


NATIONAL  HEADQUARTERS  OF  THE   UNITED  ORDER  OF  GOOD  SHEPHERDS 


gomery,  its  headquarters,  both  white  and  black. 
Everywhere,  it  has  kept  its  obligations  and  made 
friends,  and  employed  reliable  people  as  its  rep 
resentatives.  A  letter  from  Bishop  J.  W.  Alstork 
will  illustrate  the  good  standing  the  Order  of  Good 
Shepherds  has  gained  through  the  hard  work  of 
G.  \V.  Chandler. 

Bishop  J.  W.  Alstork  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Zion  Church 
says  in  part : 

If  men  are  to  be  commended  and  rewarded  for 
what  they  have  done,  you  deserve  a  place  in  the 
first  rank  of  those  who  have  done  something  for 
the  advancement  and  general  uplift  of  the  people. 
1  regard  the  project  of  purchasing  the  Good  Shep 
herd  Home  as  one  of  the  most  advanced  steps  ever 
taken  for  the  race  in  this  Country.  When  it  comes 
to  Agriculture  and  economics  it  stands  far  above 
any  Negro  Society  for  broadness  in  scope  and 
comprehension  in  arrangements. 

Mr.  Chandler  believes  in  real  estate  as  one  of 
the  best  investments  for  anyone,  especially  for  the 
colored  people.  He  believes  that  such  investments 
tend  to  raise  a  man  in  the  esteem  of  his  fellows 


in  a  community,  and  to  make  him  feel  on  the  other 
hand  responsibility.  Through  very  close  economy 
which  he  learned  to  practice  early  in  his  career, 
Mr.  Chandler  has  been  able  to  make  many  very 
happy  investments  in  the  business  of  real  estate. 
His  investments  and  property  holdings  are  rated 
at  $20,000. 

For  both  business  and  pleasure  he  has  been  able 
to  travel  much,  having  covered  practically  all  the 
Southern  States  and  a  few  Northern  States  in  his 
journeys.  Mainly  his  trips  have  been  in  the  in 
terest  of  the  Order  of  the  Good  Shepherds  which 
owes  to  him  much  credit  for  its  success  as  an  or 
ganization. 

Mr.  Chandler's  family  is  small,  consisting  of 
three,  himself,  Mrs.  Chandler  and  daughter.  He 
was  married  in  1904.  Mrs.  Chandler  was  Miss  Liz 
zie  Redding  of  Macon,  Georgia.  The  daughter, 
Nettie  Lena  Chandler,  is  a  pupil  in  school. 

Mr.  Chandler  has  the  confidence  and  the  good 
wishes  of  the  leading  citizens  of  the  State  of 
Alabama. 


31 


S.  N.  DICKERSON 


PTIMISM  and  pessimism,  are  to 
be  found  in  all  the  walks  of  life 
and  are  not  confined  to  any  race, 
class  or  profession.  While  this  is 
true  to  find  a  business  enthusiast 
among  the  colored  race  is  a  rarity. 
Such  a  one  is  Samuel  Newton  Dickerson  of 
Talladega,  Ala.  A  business  rather  than  a  profes 
sional  life  appealed  to  him  and  he  has  put  into  his 
business  that  energy,  zeal  and  intelligence  which 
wins  success. 

Mr.  Dickerson  was  born  in  Talladega,  the  city 
where  he  began  his  business  career  and  which  has 
been  the  field  of  his  business  activities. 

He  was  born  at  the  close  of  the  civil  war  and 
received  his  education  at  the  Talladega  College. 
He  first  entered  the  public  school  where  he  was 
prepared  for  the  college  course.  Like  most  young 
colored  men  his  way  to  an  education  was  not  a 
rosy  path. 

The  educational  facilities  of  the  town  were  am 
ple  for  his  purposes  but  the  question  of  a  livelihood 
made  it  difficult  for  him  to  avail  himself  of  them. 
In  addition  to  his  own  support  he  had  the  care  of 
his  mother  and  sister  to  whose  comforts  he  devot- 


ed  his  life.  One  of  his  outstanding  traits  is  his  de 
votion  and  loyalty  to  his  family. 

Difficulties  are  not  fatal  to  a  strong  man  but  act 
as  a  tonic  to  spur  him  on  so  it  is  not  surprising 
that  Mr.  Dickerson  succeeded  in  the  face  of  diffi 
culties  in  securing  an  education. 

Mr.  Dickerson's  first  business  venture  was  that 
of  a  painter  which  he  followed  for  fifteen  years 
from  1890.  He  then  entered  the  Drug  business 
which  he  continued  for  ten  years  with  marked  suc 
cess. 

From  this  line  of  business  he  entered  the  gen 
eral  mercantile  business  which  now  occupies  his 
time  and  attention. 

While  push  is  his  watchword  in  business  con 
servatism  steadies  his  place  and  it  is  to  these  two 
characteristics  that  he  has  scored  so  great  a  suc 
cess. 

Concerning  life  as  a  poor  man  through  thrift 
and  good  management  he  has  accumulated  a  good 
property.  Besides  his  home  he  owns  a  store,  six 
rental  houses,  several  city  lots  and  one  hundred  and 
ten  suburban  lots.  He  also  owns  a  share  of  stock 
in  the  Chinabar  Cotton  Mill. 

He  is  a  great  advocate  of  the  Negro  entering  the 
marts  of  trade  and  encourages  the  establishment  of 
individual  firms  but  his  ideals  of  business  take  a 
wider  range  than  the  individual  and  reaches  out  to 
the  community  life.  He  believes  in  co-operation 
and  takes  the  position  that  the  colored  citizen  has 
a  part  to  play  in  the  development  of  the  civic  life 
of  the  community  and  should  take  part  in  all  en 
terprises  of  a  public  nature  which  has  for  its  end 
the  upbuilding  of  the  community  life. 

He  sees  in  this  way  the  best  method  to  win  re 
cognition  and  respect  for  the  worthy  colored  citi 
zens. 

Mr.  Dickerson's  talent  as  a  business  man  and 
promoter  is  recognized  by  his  friends  who  con 
stantly  come  to  him  for  advice,  and  they  always 
find  in  him  a  friendly  and  sound  adviser. 

Aside  from  his  personal  business  connections  he 
has  headed  a  number  of  business  associations. 

He  has  served  as  President  of  the  Talladega 
Business  League,  President  of  the  Farmers  Invest 
ment  and  Benevolent  Association,  President  of  the 
Negro  Merchant's  Association,  and  Vice-President 
of  the  Alabama  Negro  Business  League.  He  has 
given  murh  time  and  thought  to  these  organiza 
tions  and  they  have  profited  through  his  wise  coun 
sel. 

In  business  matters'he  is  a  leader,  but  in  the  do 
main  of  religion  he  prefers  to  follow.  He  is  a 
member  of  the  Baptist  Church  and  does  his  part  in 
keeping  up  the  church  enterprises.  He  is  also  a 
Mason  and  has  served  as  Worshipful  Master  of  the 
Mariah  division. 

Mr.  Dickerson's  home  life  is  happy  though  de 
prived  of  children.  In  1890  he  married  Miss  Alice 
Camp  of  his  home  city.  Although  they  have  no 
children  of  their  own,  childhood  makes  a  strong  ap 
peal  to  them  and  they  spend  much  time  and  money 
in  helping  the  children  of  others.  They  are  the 
children's  friends. 

He  gave  his  sister,  Mrs.  T.  B.  Barnett,  the  best 
of  educational  advantages  and  fitted  her  for  teach 
ing.  She  is  now  a  teacher  in  the  Swayne  College. 
Montgomery,  and  ranks  high  in  the  profession. 


32 


JOHN  WILLIAM  BEVERLY. 

iFORE  SLAVERY  was  abolished 
there  was  born  in  Hale  County, 
Alabama,  not  far  from  Greens 
boro,  a  baby  boy  who  was  destin 
ed  to  play  a  large  part  in  the  edu 
cational  advancement  of  the  col- 

ored  race  of  Alabama.     That  babe 

was  John  William  Beverly. 

Nature  endowed  him  with  a  bright  mind  which 
was  largely  developed  through  the  agency  of  the 
Lincoln  Normal  College,  then  located  at  Greens 
boro,  where  he  received  his  education. 

After  reaching  that  period  of  life  when  he  must 
decide  upon  a  calling  he  chose  the  profession  of 
teaching  and  his  first  work  in  the  school  room  after 
his  graduation  was  at  a  school  near  Demopolis, 
Alabama.  Here  he  served  during  the  years  1886 
and  1887. 

From  1887  to  1890  he  taught  in  the  Lincoln  Nor 
mal  College  and  from  there  he  went  to  Brown 
University,  Providence,  R.  I. 

lie  returned  to  Alabama  in  1894  and  became  the 
Assistant  Principal  of  the  State  Normal  School. 

This  school  was  established  as  Lincoln  Normal 
University  at  Marion,  Perry  County,  by  act  of  the 
Alabama  Legislature  in  1873.  it  was  moved  to 
Montgomery  in  1889  and  the  name  changed  to  its 
present  title. 

When  Professor  William  B.  Patterson,  a  white 
man,  who  for  forty  years  had  presided  over  the 
school  and  contributed  much  to  its  development, 


died  in  the  year  1915,  Prof.  Beverly  was  called  to 
take  his  place  and  since  that  time  he  has  devoted 
his  time,  energy  and  talents  to  its  welfare.  Under 
his  leadership  the  school  has  not  only  maintained 
the  high  standard  to  which  his  predecessor  had 
brought  it  but  has  advanced  beyond  it. 

Having  a  good  foundation  to  build  upon  he  has 
proved  himself  a  master  builder. 

While  his  main  thought  is  concentrated  upon  the 
school  room  his  interest  in  the  welfare  of  his  peo 
ple  does  not  end  there.  His  vision  carries  him 
beyond  the  domain  of  the  college  and  he  finds  op 
portunities  to  serve  his  people  on  the  outside 
through  the  medium  of  his  pen, 

He  possesses  exceptional  talent  as  a  writer  and 
it  has  served  him  well  in  the  preparation  of  pamph 
lets  for  distribution  among  those  who  are  denied 
educational  advantages.  In  this  way  many  who 
are  denied  privileges  are  kept  in  touch  with  the  ed 
ucational  progress  of  the  day  and  are  influenced  to 
make  sacrifice  in  the  interest  of  the  education  of 
the  children. 

He  is  the  editor  of  "Practical  Ethics  for  Children" 
and  "Guide  to  the  English  Oration." 

His  writings  have  taken  a  broad  range  but  pos 
sibly  the  work  which  has  brought  him  into  greater 
prominence  as  a  writer  is  his  History  of  Alabama. 
This  work  has  been  adopted  by  the  State  Board  as 
a  supplementary  study  of  Alabama  History,  Prof- 
fessor  Beverly  is  a  man  of  deep  thought  and  con 
siders  well  his  plans  before  executing  them. 

He  is  a  farmer  and  owns  and  cultivates  farms  in 
Elmore  and  Montgomery  Counties.  He  has  studi 
ed  closely  the  advanced  theories  of  farming  and 
has  watched  their  practical  test  and  has  adopted 
those  which  appealed  to  his  judgment.  In  this 
way  he  has  brought  his  farming  operations  to  a 
higher  standard  of  success. 

He  owns  his  home  which  is  located  at  105  Tatum 
Street,  Montgomery,  the  refined  elegance  of  which 
is  the  reflection  of  the  refined  taste  of  the  occu 
pant. 

Associated  with  Professor  Beverly  in  the  opera 
tion  of  the  State  Normal  Institute  are  a  corps  of 
teachers,  gifted  in  their  particular  branches  and 
who  render  valuable  assistance  to  the  Principle  in 
promoting  the  welfare  of  the  college. 

Through  the  splendid  system  of  operation  put 
into  effect  by  the  Principle  and  forcibly  carried  out 
by  the  faculty,  the  pupils  are  thoroughly  equipped 
to  fill  their  places  in  life  in  their  chosen  fields  of 
endeavor. 

The  faculty  of  the  State  Normal  College  is  as 
follows:  J.  W.  Beverly,  Principal;  Annie  W. 
Doak,  Secretary;  Mary  L.  Strong.  Literature; 
Rev.  E.  E.  Scott,  History;  Miss  Mary  F.  Mon 
roe.  Mathematics;  J.  L.  Kilpatrick,  Science;  Venus 
H.  Lewis,  Supervisor  Study  room  ;  Albert  H.  Bev 
erly,  English  ;  Christine  L.  Graves,  English  ;  Rosa 
L.  Shaw,  Drawing;  Gertrude  L.  Watkins,  Domestic 
Science;  Josie  Murray,  Domestic  Art;  E.  M.  Lewis, 
Carpentry ;  Annie  L.  Brown,  Music ;  Bertha  L. 
Smith,  Supervisor  of  Model  School  and  Peda 
gogics;  11.  S.  Murphy,  Agriculture;  Camille  High- 
tower,  Sewing  and  Physical  Culture;  Minnie  J. 
Lewis,  first  grade;  josie  Govan,  second  grade; 
Bertha  West,  third  grade;  Merillo  T.  Garner, 
fourth  grade;  Dora  D.  Beverly,  fifth  grade;  Bessie 
L.  Nelms,  sixth  grade ;  Mary  F.  Terrell,  seventh 
grade ;  M.  J.  Moore,  eighth  grade. 


• 


LINCOLN  LACONIA  BURWELL,  M.  D. 

INCOLN  LACONIA  BURWELL, 
of  Selma,  AlaDama,  is,  like  the 
other  professional  men  in  these 
pages,  an  answer  to  the  query : 
"We  give  money  to  educate  Ne 
groes,  but  what  becomes  of  them 
afterwards?" 

As  a  boy  in  Marengo  County,  Alabama,  where 
he  was  born,  he  was  all  but  destitute.  He  was 
given  away  to  rear  when  eight  years  old,  to  his 
brother,  Charles  A.  Burwell.  While  working  on 
the  farm  in  the  usual  way  of  a  country  boy,  he 
showed  ability  to  grasp  more  than  the  rural  school 
had  to  offer. 

Accordingly,  in  1883,  he  went  to  the  Alabama 
Baptist  Normal  and  Theological  School,  now  Sel 
ma  University.  By  1886  he  finished  the  college 
preparatory  course  as  valedictorian  of  the  class.  In 
the  same  year  he  entered  the  Leonard  Medical  Col 
lege,  Shaw  University,  Raleigh.  North  Carolina, 
completed  in  three  years  the  course  in  medicine 
which  usually  covers  four  years.  Here,  again,  he 
was  valedictorian. 

With  no  money  and  no  backing  Dr.  Burwell  re 
turned  to  Selma.  At  first  he  worked  as  a  pharma 
cist.  Having  an  opportunity  to  buy  a  business,  he 


entered  into  a  partnership  to.  ...purchase...  .a  drug 
store  equipment  and  stock.  He  borrowed  one  hun 
dred  dollars,  which  each  partner  was  to  pay  in 
cash,  from  his  brother-in-law,  and  gave  notes  for 
the  balance.  In  a  little  while,  however,  he  sold  his 
share,  and  devoted  all  his  attention  to  the  practice 
of  medicine.  Four  months  after  this  step,  the 
business  failed.  But  Dr.  Burwell  felt  that  the  col 
ored  people  ought  to  have  a  place  to  have  their 
prescriptions  filled  and  to  get  soda  water  without 
embarrassment,  and  therefore  set  up  a  business 
for  himself.  The  store  was  a  room,  twelve  feet  by 
fourteen,  which  he  built  near  his  home.  Perfume 
bottles  took  the  place  of  regular  stock  bottles,  and 
the  tinctures  were  made  in  spare  hours. 

As  the  business  grew  Dr.  Burwell  moved,  always 
getting  larger  quarters  and  nearer  the  center  of 
town.  On  April  20,  1895,  when  steady  develop 
ment  had  brought  much  increased  volume,  the  drug 
store  was  destroyed  by  fire.  In  two  months,  how 
ever,  the  store  was  open  again,  notwithstanding 
the  small  insurance.  In  1904  he  put  up  a  splendid 
brick  structure  opposite  the  City  Buildings  in  the 
business  section  of  Selma.  Here  are  all  the  attrac 
tions  and  accommodations  that  the  best  drug 
stores  anywhere  offer,  with  four  persons  regularly 
employed.  There  is  a  large  soda  fountain,  chairs 
and  tables  in  the  center  of  the  room,  telephone 
booth,  offices  for  medical  consultation  and  treat 
ment.  Everything  is  so  well  arranged  and  kept 
that  it  makes  a  Negro  a  little  proud  of  himself 
just  to  enter  here. 

Dr.  Burwell  has  constantly  kept  in  view  his  duty 
of  service  to  his  fellows.  Educated  under  Christian 
auspices,  he  felt,  indeed  he  knew,  that  accomplish 
ment,  talent,  knowledge,  and  wealth  were  but 
loans  to  be  repaid  in  helping  others.  So,  he  taught 
pharmacy  to  Drs.  G.  W.  Clark.  T.  L.  A.  Tomlinson 
and  C.  W.  Reid.  These  young  men  were  thus  able 
to  pass  the  Alabama  Pharmacy  Board  without  the 
expense  of  attending  the  schools.  Several  others, 
now  doctors,  were  able  to  shorten  their  course  in 
college  because  of  help  from  him. 

In  the  late  nineties,  yellow  fever  invaded  the 
lower  South,  and,  of  course  struck  Selma.  The  rich 
and  well-to-do  fled  northward,  leaving  their  homes 
and  property  to  the  mercy  of  those  who  remained. 
The  white  citizens  organized  a  protective  league  to 
see  that  no  vandalism  was  practised  in  the  citv. 
Dr.  Burwell  organized  a  similar  league  among  the 
colored  people,  which  detailed  seven  men  to  patrol 
the  colored  sections  and  any  other  district  assign 
ed  to  them.  No  vandalism  was  practiced,  and  both 
races  to  this  day  point  to  the  incident  with  pride. 
Another  evidence  of  the  public  spirit  of  our  sub 
ject  is  the  fact  that  he  raised  a  group  of  thirty 
three  men  who  enlisted  in  Company  C.  Third  Ala 
bama  Volunteers,  for  service  in  the  Spanish- 
American  War. 


34 


BURWELL'S   INFIRMARY 

Notwithstanding  the  heavy  burden  of  business 
activities,  Dr.  Burwell  does  not  neglect  his 
religious  duties.  He  is  a  devout  Christian  work 
er.  During  the  twenty-seven  years  of  his  life  in 
Selma  his  interest  has  constantly  followed  both 
church  and  school.  For  thirteen  years  he  was  Sec 
retary  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Selma  Uni 
versity,  of  which  he  is  still  a  member,  giving  to  his 
Alma  Mater  time  and  service  and  often  carrying 
financial  responsibilities  with  no  thought  of  re 
turn. 

The  city  of  Selma  is  one  of  the  few  in  which 
Negroes  have  an  infirmary.  The  average  colored 
patient  must  stav  at  home,  however  inconvenient  it 
may  be  for  him,  and  expose  his  family.  Dr.  Bur- 
well  it  was  who  founded  the  infirmary  in  Selma 
in  1907,  providing  competent  trained  nurses  to  give 
the  colored  people  the  same  chance  at  health  and 
recovery  that  others  may  have.  At  present,  be 
sides  the  founder,  nine  white  physicians  take  their 
colored  patients  here  for  operation  and  treatment. 
Incidentally,  this  is  no  inconsiderable  haven  for  the 
Negro  nurses. 

When  Dr.  Burwell  announced  the  opening  of 
the  Infirmary,  an  announcement  which  gave  him 
no  little  pleasure,  as  it  voiced  the  consummation 
of  a  noble  achievement,  he  took  occasion  to  speak 


of  another  of  his  enterprises  in  the  following  sig 
nificant  words : 

"With  a  big  store  erected  and  paid  for,  where  the 
Negro  can  come  and  does  come,  without  any  timi 
dity  or  fear,  with  such  business  as  gives  employ 
ment  to  four  Negroes  daily,  and  with  six  young 
men  inspired  and  prepared  to  do  life's  work  as  they 
may  choose,  the  fondest  hope  of  what  I  wanted  to 
do  for  my  race  is  realized." 

These  words  evince  a  commendable  pride  for 
achievements  in  the  interest  of  his  race. 

Dr.  Burwell  possessed  of  a  zeal  in  the  interest 
of  his  people  and  devoting  much  of  his  time  and 
talent  to  their  advancement  was  not  unmindful  of 
his  life  calling  and  the  steady  development  of  his 
practice  bears  testimony  to  his  popularity  as  a 
physician. 

With  all  these  big  things.  Dr.  Burwell  is  a  rather 
intense  family  man.  You  will  not  talk  with  him 
long  before  you  are  informed  that  to  Mrs.  Burwell, 
who  was  Miss  Lavinia  Richardson,  is  due  the  great 
est  credit  for  his  success.  His  two  daughters  were 
educated  in  Oberlin,  Ohio.  Miss  Almedia  L.  Bur- 
well  was  graduated  from  the  College,  having  taken 
also  extensive  work  in  the  Conservatory  of  Music 
of  the  same  institution.  She  is  now  "teacher  of 
music  in  the  Florida  Agricultural  and  Mechanical 
College,  Tallahassee,  Florida.  The  other  daughter, 
Miss  Elezora  L.  Burwell,  is  interested  in  business 


DR.  BURWELL'S  RESIDENCE 


DR.    BURWELL'S    LIBRARY 

She  was  graduated  from  the  Oberlin  Business  Col 
lege  in  1915,  and  is  now  Secretary  to  the  President 
df  Selma  Univeristy. 

Thus  it  appears  that  this  man,  starting  rather 
destitute  in  Marengo  County,  has  given  a  good 
account  of  his  stewardship.  Being  a  member  of 
the  Baptist  State  Convention  of  the  Order  of 
Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  trustee  of 
Selma  University,  builder  of  a  big  drug  store  busi 
ness,  helper  of  the  poor  student  and  the  poor  peo 
ple,  founder  and  promoter  of  a  Negro  infirmary,  he 
has  certainly  earned  the  title  of  big  and  public- 
spirited  citizen.  Add  to  this  the  splendid  education 
of  his  children  and  his  erection  of  one  of  the  finest 
homes  in  Selma,  and  you  will  see  why  Dr.  Burwell 
is  pointed  to  with  pride  by  members  of  the  race, 
and  you  will  also  read  the  answer  to  the  query 
with  which  we  began. 


35 


WILLIAM  HENRY  COLEMAN,  M.  D. 

R.  WILLIAM  HENRY  COLEMAN 
of  Bessemer,  Alabama,  follow 
ed  in  the  wake  of  many  of  our 
leading  men  in  getting  his  educa 
tion,  only  he  used  a  greater  varie 
ty  of  occupations  perhaps  than 

most  of    those    who    have    made 

their  way  from  the  bottom.  Born  in  Montgomery, 
Alabama,  January  9th  1877  he  attended  school  for 
a  while  in  his  native  city. 

Finishing  such  training  as  he  could  get  here  at 
that  time  he  became  a  student  in  Payne  University, 
Selma,  Alabama.  From  Payne  he  finally  made  his 
way  into  Meharry  Medical  College  at  Nashville, 
where  he  was  graduated  in  1900. 

His  ambition  to  fit  himself  for  the  medical  pro 
fession  did  not  lead  him  along  a  smooth  path  but 
he  won  the  victory  when  he  formed  the  purpose  to 
succeed  and  his  subsequent  efforts  were  more  inci 
dents  in  his  plan. 

In  order  to  complete  the  courses  both  in  college 
and  medicine  he  found  it  necessary  to  put  his  hand 
to  a  variety  of  tasks.  One  session  he  taught  school 
but  the  revenue  from  this  source  was  inadequate  to 
meet  his  expenses  so  he  gave  up  this  employment 
and  sought  another.  His  next  employment  was 
that  of  Bell  boy  in  a  hotel  and  while  not  so  digni 
fied  a  position  as  teaching  school  it  added  to  his  in 
come  and  served  his  purposes  better. 

From  Hotel  bellman  he  became  a  Pullman  porter, 


covering  in  his  journeys  the  greater  part  of  the 
United  States  and  going  into  Canada  and  into  Mex 
ico. 

From  this  latter  work  he  was  enabled  to  save 
sufficient  money  to  pursue  and  finish  his  medical 
studies,  though  he  had  to  practice  the  greatest 
economy  and  added  to  his  fund  by  working  as  jan 
itor  of  the  college  and  filling  other  posts  that  would 
yield  him  a  penny  to  carry  forward  his  education. 
Having  to  work  hard  for  an  education  lie  learned  to 
appreciate  its  value  more  and  the  very  sacrifices  he 
made  to  secure  it  added  to  its  impelling  forces 
in  his  after  life.  Graduating  from  Meharry  in  1900, 
he  first  began  practice  in  Crawfordsville.  Arkan 
sas.  While  the  life  of  a  country  physician  brought 
a  rich  reward  in  health  and  strength  he  felt 
the  call  of  a  larger  field  and  so  after  one  years  re 
sidence  in  Crawfordsville  he  removed  to  Bessemer, 
Alabama,  where  he  opened  an  office  in  1901  and 
where  he  has  continued  to  reside  until  now. 

His  practice  has  grown  wonderfully  during  his 
eighteen  years  residence  in  Bessemer  as  lias  his 
popularity  as  a  man  and  physician.  He  is  inured 
to  hard  work  and  notwithstanding  his  large  prac 
tice  he  finds  time  to  devote  to  his  social,  civic  and 
religious  duties. 

He  is  an  active  churchman  and  makes  his  per 
sonality  felt  in  the  religious  body  to  which  he  be 
longs,  Allen  Temple  A.  M.  K.  Church. 

He  is  also  actively  identified  with  a  number  of 
secret  orders,  the  Masons,  Knights  of  Pythias,  Mo 
saic  Templers  and  others. 

While  giving  close  attention  to  his  patients  and 
not  neglecting  the  manifold  duties  crowding  into 
the  life  of  busy  men  he  still  continues  his  studies 
and  often  the  product  of  his  pen  finds  its  way  to 
the  medical  journals. 

He  made  it  a  rule  to  consider  the  problems  of  life 
with  calmness  and  wisdom  and  never  to  yield  to  the 
suggestions  of  worry.  He  realized  that  all  action 
is  followed  by  equal  reaction  and  so  he  fortified 
himself  against  all  depressive  influences. 

The  reason  why  he  is  enabled  to  accomplish  so 
much  is  that  he  carefully  plans  his  work  and  works 
to  a  definite  point. 

One  of  his  theories  is,  that  the  margin  between 
success  and  failure  is  very  small  and  that  success  is 
not  so  much  due  to  great  ability  as  the  use  you 
make  of  the  ability  you  have,  whether  it  be  great 
or  small. 

He  loves  his  profession  and  has  given  to  it  the 
best  that  is  in  him. 

The  domestic  life  of  Dr.  Coleman  is  very  happy 
and  it  is  an  abiding  joy  to  care  for  his  aged  mother, 
who  makes  her  home  with  him. 

He  was  married  in  1914  to  Miss  Mattie  Kirk- 
patrick  of  Nashville,  Tennessee,  who  is  a  help  meet 
in  every  sense  of  the  word. 

They  live  in  a  modern  home  worth  about  $5000.00 
and  have  investments  in  both  residence  and  busi 
ness  property. 

The  atmosphere  of  hospitality  and  good  will  per 
vades  their  home. 


36 


ARTHUR  WILLIS  DAVIS,  B.  S.,  M.  D. 

N  the  year  1875,  in  Marion  Ala 
bama,  Dr.  Arthur  Willis  Davis 
was  born.  At  that  time  for  a 
black  man  to  aspire  to  the  study 
of  medicine  was  to  approach  a 
field  shrouded  in  awe  and  mys 
tery.  Hut  notwithstanding'  the  veil  of  mystery 
covering  the  profession,  Dr.  Davis  decided  to  enter 
its  domain. 

The  facilities  offered  to  the  colored  youth  in  this 
line  of  endeavor  in  his  section  of  the  country  was 
much  beclouded,  the  teachers  few  and  not  espe 
cially  competent,  which  made  the  road  that  young 
Davis  had  to  travel  to  reach  his  aspiration  full  of 
difficulties. 

Difficulties  discourage  the  weak  but  brace  the 
strong  so  Dr.  Davis  made  his  way  through  them 
to  a  gratifying  success. 

Marion,  the  birth  place  of  Dr.  Davis  and  where 
he  received  a  public  school  education,  was  an  edu 
cational  center,  the  very  atmosphere  of  the  place 
breathing  the  spirit  of  education,  which  no  doubt 
contributed  to  his  aspirations.  He  had  seen  many 
young  men  and  women  leave  the  educational  insti 
tutions  located  there  achieve  success  in  life  and 


naturally  he  attributed  their  success  to  the  prepa 
ration  they  had  received  in  college.  He  formed  the 
determination  to  secure  a  good  education  himself 
and  having  come  to  that  decision  he  left  home  in 
search  of  his  goal. 

He  first  attended  the  Talladega  College  at  Tal- 
ladega,  Alabama,  where  he  received  his  B.  S.  de 
gree. 

He  specialized  in  the  sciences  for  the  good  it 
would  serve  him  in  his  life  work. 

After  completing  his  course  at  Talladega  Col 
lege  he  next  entered  Meharry  Medical  College  and 
completed  his  course  of  study  there  in  1903. 

He  was  now  ready  to  hang  out  his  shingle  and  in 
casting  about  for  a  place  to  begin  his  life  work 
his  eyes  turned  towards  his  native  State,  ambi 
tious  alike  to  serve  his  own  people  as  well  as  him 
self. 

Tuscumbia  won  his  favor  and  it  was  in  this  town 
that  he  began  the  practice  of  his  profession  which 
extended  to  the  near-by  City  of  Sheffield. 

It  proved  to  be  a  wise  choice.  In  the  section  he 
had  selected  as  a  field  of  labor  the  colored  man  liv 
ed  in  great  numbers  and  stood  together  in  all 
efforts  towards  advancement.  It  is  hardly  neces 
sary  to  add  that  he  soon  had  a  number  of  patients. 

When  he  opened  his  office  in  Tuscumbia  his  sole 
wealth  was  $25.  This  nest  egg  has  multiplied 
many  times. 

After  fourteen  years  of  practice  his  list  of  assets 
show  that  he  owns  a  comfortable  home,  a  drug 
store  and  stock,  two  farms  and  a  residence  in  Shef 
field  which  he  rents.  To  have  accumulated  such  a 
property  in  so  short  a  time  shows  business  ability 
as  well  as  professional  skill.  He  had  learned  the 
art  of  saving  which  is  the  first  lesson  in  permanent 
success. 

His  term  at  the  Talladega  College  left  a  religious 
impress  upon  his  life  which  remained  with  him.  In 
his  religious  belief  he  is  a  Corigregationalist  though 
in  sympathy  with  all  religious  bodies. 

In  Fraternal  matters  Dr.  Davis  is  a  Mason  and 
a  member  of  the  Mosaic  Templars. 

He  is  the  State  medical  examiner  for  the  Mosaic 
Templars  and  is  also  the  medical  examiner  for  the 
Conservative  Life  Insurance  Company  of  West 
Virginia,  the  Standard  Life  Insurance  Company  of 
Atlanta,  Georgia,  and  for  the  Lincoln  Reserve 
Company  of  Birmingham,  Alabama. 

Dr.  Davis  was  married  December  26th,  1905,  to 
Miss  Hattie  Lee  Jackson  of  Nashville,  Tennessee, 
a  Christmas  gift,  which  has  always  appealed  to  his 
heart.  They  have  one  child,  a  daughter,  who 
makes  sunshine  in  their  home. 

Miss  Sadie  May  Davis  is  still  a  young  Miss  in 
school,  seeking  like  her  father  to  fit  herself  for  a 
life  of  service.  No  doubt  under  his  guiding  hand 
she  will  find  her  place  and  (ill  it  with  the  same 
credit  that  he  has  filled  his. 


JAMES  OLIVER  DIFFAY. 


NE  of  the  quietest,  most  courteous 
and  most  humble  men  of  Birming 
ham,  Alabama  is  J.  O.  Diffay.  Mr. 
Diffay  has  the  habit,  more  com 
mon  in  the  country  than  in  town, 

of   seeing   strangers.     In   a   quiet, 

easy  way  he  soon  manages  to  get  them  by  the  hand 
to  find  out  what  they  are  looking  for  and  to  help 
them  secure  the  object  of  their  search,  whether  this 
be  a  lodging  house,  a  good  meal,  a  business  prop 
osition  or  a  railway  station. 

Of  course  there  is  more  or  less  reason  for  this 
on  the  part  of  Mr.  Diffay.  He  is  one  of  the  oldest 
citizens  of  the  giant  Southern  city.  He  knew  Bir 
mingham  when  the  town  was  near  rural,  when 
there  were  few  if  any  street  lights,  no  cars  or  tax- 
icabs,  and  no  street  signs  to  guide  the  stranger. 

How  rural  it  was  is  brought  out  by  a  few  facts 
of  Mr.  Diffay's  early  childhood.  Mr.  Diffay  was 
born  back  in  the  early  sixties  in  what  is  now  Bir 
mingham.  He  attended  the  county  school  up  to 
the  fifth  grade,  attending  about  4  months  in  the 
year.  While  going  to  school  Mr.  Diffay  worked  on 
the  farm.  Thus  the  setting  hereabout  was  closely 
akin  to  rural  in  Mr.  Diffay's  early  days. 


At  the  age  of  twenty-four  Mr.  Diffay  entered 
the  business  of  selling  produce.  Finding  this  not 
so  much  to  his  liking  he  next  set  up  a  barber  shop 
for  colored  people  and  set  out  to  grow  with  the 
town.  Mr.  Diffay  always  felt  that  the  colored  peo 
ple  should  have  just  as  attractive  shop,  just  as  com 
petent  and  polite  service  as  any  other  people.  Thus 
as  Birmingham  grew  he  improved  his  shop.  Here 
is  a  $10,000  emporium  with  some  twelve  odd  revolv 
ing  chairs,  large  mirrors,  hot  and  cold  water, 
baths,  electric  fans,  pool  room  parlors,  social  club, 
indeed  all  that  makes  a  barber  shop  pleasant  to  look 
upon  and  a  refreshing  place  to  visit.  Twelve  bar 
bers,  neat  and  alert,  are  employed  steadily  here  to 
wait  on  the  colored  customers.  Probably  taken 
all  in  all  there  is  nowhere  a  better  shop  for  col 
ored  people  than  this  of  Mr.  Diffay's  in  Birming 
ham. 

For  years  Mr.  Diffay  labored  here,  working  be 
hind  the  chair  himself  superintending  his  helpers, 
acting  as  cashier  and  watching  for  and  putting  in 
improvements.  His  big  shop  in  recent  years  has 
become  well  known,  his  business  secure."  He  has 
therefore  for  a  good  while  been  free  to  look  about 
the  city,  to  watch  the  progress  of  the  people  and  to 
play  a  formidable  part  in  the  growth  of  Negro  bus 
iness.  Finding  himself  comparatively  free,  Mr. 
Diffay  turned  much  attention  to  real  estate,  with 
the  result  that  before  the  hard  times  came  on  his 
business  in  real  estate  almost  rivaled  that  in  the 
barber  shop. 

When  the  late  Dr.  Pettiford,  sometimes  spoken 
of  as  the  "Nestor  of  Negro  Bankers,"  started  the 
Penny  Savings  Bank,  Mr.  Diffay  was  among  the 
first  whose  good  will  and  cooperation  were  sought. 
He  seconded  Dr.  Pettiford  in  all  his  actions,  was 
for  years  the  vice-president  of  the  bank.  When  Dr. 
Pettiford  died,  Mr.  Diffay  succeeded  him,  becoming 
president  of  the  Alabama  Penny  Savings  Bank  and 
the  Prudential  Bank  which  had  combined  their  in 
terests. 

Though  his  education  was  not  far  advanced  dur 
ing  his  youth,  Mr.  Diffay,  besides  the  advantages 
of  very  good  local  contact,  has  embraced  every 
chance  of  self-improvement.  He  is  especially  zeal 
ous  of  race  education,  of  knowing  what  colored 
people  are  really  doing.  Then,  you  will  find  him  in 
a  teachers  convention,  a  farmers'  conference,  a  Y. 
M.  C.  A.  cabinet  meeting,  a  doctor's  gathering,  lis 
tening  and  quietly  questioning.  In  this  way  he 
keeps  himself  young,  well  informed  and  surrounded 
by  a  host  of  warm  friends. 

These  meetings  are  not  on  Mr.  Diffay's  required 
list.  His  Grand  Lodge  meetings,  his  church  meet 
ings  are.  Few  men  are  seen  oftener  in  their  pews 
of  the  famous  16th  Street  Baptist  Church  than  Mr. 
Diffay.  Few  are  more  liberal  towards  it  with  sup 
port,  time  and  counsel  than  he. 

Mr.  Diffay  owns  and  lives  in  a  beautiful  new 
home  near  the  rush  of  the  city,  yet  removed  from 
the  noise  of  traffic  and  cars.  Here  Mrs.  Diffay,  for 
merly  Miss  Soselle  Bradford,  makes  stranger  or 
friend  feel  perfectly  at  case.  Indeed,  the  Diffays 
have  a  cordial  way  of  turning  you  loose,  to  go  when 
you  please  and  where  you  please  and  to  come  back 
when  you  please.  Very  likely  there  is  no  colored 
man  in  Birmingham  who  has  made  as  many  friends 
for  the  city  as  has  J.  O.  Diffay. 


DARIUS    H.    HENRY,   D.   D. 

R.  Darius  H.  Henry  is  a  type  of 
that  Emersonian  American  who 
does  a  great  many  things  pretty 
well.  He  has  taught  school,  been 
a  farm  demonstrator,  an  editor 
and  a  pastor.  Of  these  he  still 
holds  one  or  two  pastorates  and  he  still  farms. 

Dr.  Henry  was  born  in  1866  in  Coy,  Alabama. 
At  a  tender  age  he  was  given  to  his  grandparents 
who  spared  no  pains  in  trying  to  train  him  up  in 
the  fear  of  God  and  educate  him  to  become  a  useful 
citizen.  To  them  he  owes  all  his  education  and  all 
the  inspiration  that  he  received  in  his  youth.  The 
lad  was  first  sent  to  the  public  school  of  Coy,  Ala 
bama  where  he  remained  till  he  needed  more  ad 
vanced  work  and  he  was  then  sent  to  the  public 
school  at  Camden,  Alabama.  From  Camden  he  en 
tered  Tuskegee  Normal  and  Industrial  Institute 
and  was  graduated  from  the  Normal  department 
in  1890. 

On  leaving  Tuskegee.  Dr.  Henry  returned  to  his 
native  town,  Coy,  and  for  two  years  taught  the 
public  school  there.  Thinking  to  enlarge  his  use 
fulness  and  better  himself  at  the  same  time,  he  left 
Coy  and  went  to  Avenger.  Texas.  Here  for  five 
years  he  taught  the  public  school  and,  with  Mr.  J. 
W.  Friday  edited  a  school  Medical  Journal.  He  was 


later  editor-in-chief  of  the  Watchman,  a  paper  pub 
lished  in  Texarkana. 

Giving  up  his  work  as  editor  and  teacher  in  Tex 
as,  Dr.  Henry  returned  to  Alabama,  to  Coy,  and 
began  to  farm.  Dr.  Henry  owns  his  own  farm  of 
1240  acres,  and  valued  at  $25.00  per  acre  and  runs  it 
himself.  His  average  cotton  yield  is  seventy-five 
bales  a  year.  He  runs  on  his  plantation  a  saw  mill, 
a  ginnery  and  a  grist  mill.  In  the  ginnery  alone  he 
does  a  great  business,  for  there  passes  through  his 
mill  from  250  to  300  bales  of  cotton  a  year.  Mr. 
Henry  has  not  neglected  to  put  around  himself  and 
family  all  the  comforts  of  country  life.  The  fam 
ily  lives  in  their  own  home  which  is  valued  at  $1800 
and  they  have  around  them  all  those  comforts  of 
fruit  trees,  vines,  garden  and  stock  that  make  life 
in  the  rural  districts  content.  Indeed  so  successful 
has  Dr.  Henry  been  as  a  farmer  that  the  late  Dr. 
Washington  once  sent  him  to  a  Governor  of  Ala 
bama  as  an  example  of  Negro  progress  in  agricul 
ture.  For  two  years  he  served  the  Government  of 
his  country  as  United  States  Demonstration  Agent 
in  Wilcox  County. 

Dr.  Henry's  work  as  pastor  is  not  eclipsed  by  his 
labors  as  a  farmer.  He  was  introduced  to  the 
Baptist  State  Convention  by  the  Rev.  L.  S.  Stein- 
bach.  And  he  has  proven  worthy  of  the  trust  put 
in  him.  He  is  a  member  of  and  pastor  of  the  Little 
Zion  Baptist  Church,  at  Coy,  Alabama,  his  native 
home.  Dr.  Henry  divides  his  time  as  pastor  with 
the  Magnolia  Baptist  Church  at  Camden,  where  as 
a  boy  he  attended  school.  Nor  is  the  labor  of  Dr. 
Henry  confined  solely  to  his  locality.  He  is  Mod 
erator  of  the  Star  Hope  Association  of  his  section 
and  he  was  for  eighteen  years  clerk  of  this  asso 
ciation.  He  has  served  on  boards  for  the  asocia- 
tion  and  for  the  convention  as  well.  Indeed  so 
freely  has  Dr.  Henry  given  himself  to  the  cause 
of  the  Baptists  of  the  state  and  so  great  has  been 
his  development  along  these  lines  that  Selma  Uni 
versity  conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Divinity  in  recognition  of  his  growth  and  of  his 
service. 

In  fraternal  membership  Dr.  Henry  belongs  to 
the  Masonic  Lodge  195  of  Coy,  Alabama,  and  to  the 
Eastern  Star  75.  He  is  Master  of  the  former  and 
Worthy  Patron  of  the  latter.  Dr.  Henry  was 
married  in  1897  to  Miss  Julia  A.  Brewer.  There 
are  no  children  in  the  Henry  family. 

When  it  was  known  that  I.  T.  Vernon  was  to  re 
sign  his  post  as  Register  of  the  United  States 
Treasury,  Dr.  Henry's  friends  highly  recommend 
ed  him  for  the  vacancy.  This  application  was  en 
dorsed  by  both  Democrats  and  Republicans  as  well 
as  the  leading  colored  men  of  Alabama.  His  cre 
dentials  arrived  too  late  but  the  effort  served  to 
show  him  the  high  esteem  in  which  he  was  held 
bv  his  fellow  citizens. 


39 


WILLIAM   J.   EDWARDS 

MONG  the  men  who  sat  under 
Booker  T.  Washington  and 
caught  his  vision  of  service  in  the 
uplift  of  the  unfortunate  in  out- 
of-the-way  places,  William  J. 
Edwards  is  a  brilliant  example. 
Born  in  Snow  Hill,  Wilcox  County,  Alabama,  in 
the  year  1870,  his  career  has  been  marked  with  pri 
vation  and  difficulties  almost  impassable.  Diffi 
culties  either  make  or  break  a  man  and  in  the  case 
of  Professor  Edwards  they  proved  his  making. 

His  mother  died  when  he  was  only  twelve  months 
old  and  his  father  left  Snow  Hill  when  he  was 
about  six  years  of  age  and  in  a  short  while  the 
message  came  that  he  too  was  dead.  Left  an  or 
phan  at  the  early  age  of  six  he  was  placed  in  the 
care  of  his  old  grand-mother  who  did  her  best  to 
meet  the  responsibility  and  provide  for  the  devel 
opment  of  his  mind  as  well  as  his  body. 

She  sent  him  to  the  neighboring  school  but  often 
with  only  bread  for  his  lunch.  The  lack  of  food, 
however,  did  not  quench  the  thirst  for  knowledge 
and  he  applied  himself  to  his  books  with  great 
energy  and  determination. 

When  he  reached  the  age  of  twelve  this  friend 
and  protector  was  also  taken  from  him  and  he  was 


left  to  shift  for  himself.  Perplexed  and  almost 
bewildered  he  consulted  a  minister  in  the  com 
munity  and  through  him  learned  of  the  Tuskegee 
Institute.  He  at  once  determined  to  attend  this 
school  and  in  order  to  provide  the  means  for  his 
tuition  he  rented  two  acres  of  land,  cultivated  it 
and  in  the  fall  when  his  crop  was  gathered  he  en 
tered  the  Institution.  He  not  only  entered  the 
school  but  finished  his  course  and  finally  stood  out 
side  of  its  walls  to  face  the  problem  which  con 
fronts  most  young  men  who  graduate  and  are 
ready  to  take  up  the  active  duties  of  life.  "What 
next?"  Law  and  the  Ministry  both  made  a  strong 
appeal  to  him  and  he  gave  them  the  closest  con 
sideration  but  the  vision  of  service  to  the  unfor 
tunate  which  Booker  T.  Washington  had  placed 
before  his  mind  had  gotten  too  strong  a  hold  upon 
him  to  be  easily  cast  off  so  it  decided  his  life  work. 
The  outcome  of  this  plan  was  the  founding  of  the 
Snow  Hill  Normal  and  Industrial  Institute. 

When  his  purpose  was  formed  his  mind  instinc 
tively  turned  towards  Snow  Hill,  the  place  of  his 
boyhood  struggles.  He  moved  cautiously,  how 
ever,  not  wishing  to  make  a  mistake  at  the  incep 
tion  of  his  plans.  He  wanted  to  be  sure  of  his 
ground.  To  this  end  he  canvassed  several  of  the 
Black  belt  centers,  noting  the  condition  of  the  peo 
ple,  the  relation  of  the  races  and  the  educational 
advantages  enjoyed  by  them. 

When  he  first  went  to  the  Tuskegee  Institute  he 
made  most  of  the  journey  on  foot  and  the  initial 
journey  through  the  counties  of  the  black  belt  in 
the  interest  of  his  proposed  enterprise  was  made  in 
a  like  manner.  It  was  best  to  travel  in  this  way 
from  two  standpoints.  It  was  cheaper,  and  money 
was  a  consideration  with  him  at  that  time,  and  by 
this  method  of  travel  it  gave  him  an  opportunity  to 
meet  more  of  the  people  among  whom  he  hoped  to 
labor. 

The  result  of  this  journey  decided  him  where  to 
locate  his  school  and  also  determined  its  character. 

He  found  that  there  was  a  colored  population  in 
the  Snow  Hill  district  of  more  than  200,000  and  a 
school  population  of  85.499.  The  people  he  found 
to  be  ignorant  and  superstitious  and  that  strictly 
speaking  there  were  no  public  schools  and  but  one 
private  one.  That  they  were  being  taught  by  min 
isters  and  teachers  not  far  above  them  in  intelli 
gence. 

Visions  are  given  us  to  inspire  to  noble  effort 
so  Professor  Edwards  immediately  set  to  work  to 
translate  his  vision  into  reality  and  the  Snow  Hill 
Normal  and  Industrial  Institute  is  the  monument 
to  his  labors.  To  this  institution  he  has  given  his 
life.  He  has  expanded  it,  developed  its  courses, 
added  many  buildings  and  best  of  all  has  realized 
his  dream  of  a  school  for  the  people. 

The  founder  of  this  school  must  have  kept  before 
his  mind  the  line  "Tall  oaks  from  little  acorns 
grow"  and  had  learned  well  the  lesson  "not  to  de 
spise  the  day  of  small  things."  When  his  school 
started  in  the  year  1894  its  housing  was  an  old  log 
cabin,  its  teaching  force  one  and  the  number  of 


40 


SNOW  HILL  NORMAL  AND  INDUSTRIAL  INSTITUTE 


pupils  three.  This  equipment  backed  by  a  capital 
of  fifty  cents  marked  its  modest  beginning. 

By  the  way  of  contrast  we  quote  from  the  Gov 
ernment  Bulletin  No.  39  issued  in  1916: 

"Total  attendance  293;  male  145  and  female  148. 
Total  teaching  forces  29;  all  colored;  male  15,  and 
female  14;  academic  14,  boys'  industries  5,  girls  in 
dustries  2,  matron  1,  executive  and  office  workers 
6,  agriculture  1. 

The  acorn  has  become  a  tree  and  proudly  stands 
as  a  monument  to  faith,  energy  and  an  abiding  pur 
pose  to  serve  the  people  among  whom  the  founder 
was  born  and  reared. 

As  stated  above  the  school  was  founded  in  the 
year  1894  and  is  the  outgrowth  of  a  vision  which 
came  to  the  principal,  Professor  William  J.  Ed 
wards,  while  a  student  at  the  Tuskegee  Institute. 
The  school  is  owned  and  controlled  by  a  board  of 
capable  Northern  and  Southern  men. 

Its  material  growth  has  been  very  rapid  and 
while  it  has  contributed  to  the  pride  of  the  insti 
tute  its  chief  glory  lies  in  the  educational  advant 
ages  it  has  given  the  community  and  the  prepara 
tion  it  has  given  its  pupils  for  their  life  work. 

It  has  given  them  especial  training  in  the  literary 
branches  but  in  addition  has  given  them  the  choice 
of  thirteen  trades. 

Being  located  near  the  center  of  a  rich  agricul 
tural  belt  it  has  laid  emphasis  upon  the  Agricul 
tural  Department. 

Farming  is  the  chief  industry  of  the  people  and 
it  was  realized  that  a  very  large  per  cent  of  the 
graduates  would  turn  to  the  soil,  so  it  was  deter 
mined  to  teach  them  the  science  of  farming  so  that 
they  would  make  better  farmers  and  win  from  the 
land  larger  and  more  diversified  crops.  It  has 
been  slow  work  to  teach  the  pupils  the  advantage 
of  scientific  farming  over  the  old  methods  but  the 


leaven  is  beginning  to  work  and  ere  long  the  whole 
community  will  see  the  advantage  of  the  Scientific 
method. 

The  school  has  a  large  acreage  of  land  (about 
2000  acres  and  considerable  industrial  equipment. 
It  hs  twenty-one  buildings  and  a  property  valua 
tion  of  about  $90,000.  Its  organization  com 
prises  Elementary,  Industrial  and  Agriculture.  The 
elementary  work  covers  eight  years,  divided  into 
primary  school  of  six  years,  and  the  preparatory 
and  junior  classes  of  one  year  each.  There  are 
four  upper  classes  which  include  some  elementary 
subjects,  called  "B  middle,"  "A  middle,"  "Senior 
preparatory"  and  "Senior." 

The  secondary  subjects  are  english,  chemistry, 
physics,  biology,  agriculture,  geometry,  algebra, 
civil  government,  moral  philosophy,  school  man 
agement  and  psychology. 

In  the  Industrial  department  is  taught  carpentry, 
blacksmithing,  printing,  leather  work,  masonry, 
tailoring  and  commercial. 

In  the  agricultural  department  the  chief  thing 
taught  is  agriculture. 

To  this  school  its  founder  and  principal  has  given 
his  entire  time,  his  best  thought  and  his  physical 
strength.  In  its  development  he  has  not  spared 
himself.  He  has  traveled  far  and  wide  in  its  inter 
est  and  has  often  been  heard  on  the  platform  in  its 
behalf.  Possessing  oratorical  powers  he  has  been 
much  in  demand  as  a  speaker  which  has  given  him 
many  opportunities  to  keep  his  school  before  the 
public.  His  theory  is  that  a  teacher  should  ever 
be  a  student  and  acting  upon  this  theory  he  at 
tends  the  summer  school  at  Chicago,  Harvard  and 
other  places. 

Snow  Hill  Institute  has  been  conducted  in  such 
a  manner  as  to  win  the  confidence  and  respect  of 
the  entire  community,  white  and  black  alike. 


41 


RICHARD   BYRON  HUDSON,  A.   B. 

OR  a  score  or  more  of  years  few 
activities  in  any  kind  of  up-lift 
work  have  existed  either  in  Ala 
bama  or  elsewhere  among  color 
ed  people  without  the  enthusiastic 
support  of  R.  B.  Hudson,  of  Sel- 
ma,  Alabama.  He  has  been  prominent  in  Sunday 
School  work,  in  Baptist  Church  work,  in  Masonic 
Lodge,  and  in  the  State  and  National  Association 
for  Colored  Teachers,  holding  at  one  time  or  an 
other  prominent  and  responsible  offices  in  all  of 
these  bodies. 

In  working  in  Alabama.  Mr.  Hudson  is  on  his  na 
tive  heath.  He  was  born  in  Uniontown,  Alabama, 
Feb.  7.  1866.  He  received  his  first  education  in 
the  Uniontown  District  Academy.  From  here  he 
entered  Selma  University,  whence  he  received  the 
Degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts.  He  has  taken  Post 
Graduate  courses  in  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts  in 
Chatauqua,  N.  Y. 

Like  most  men  of  the  earlier  days,  Mr.  Hudson 
had  to  work  his  way  through  school.  In  Selma 
University  he  paid  for  a  great  deal  of  his  education 
by  working  at  the  printer's  trade,  and  by  tutoring 
mathematics.  This  tutoring  led  him  to  choose  a 
life  career.  From  tutoring  he  went  to  teaching  in 


Selma  University,  where  he  taught  mathematics 
from  1889  to  1890. 

Of  course  Prof.  Hudson  is  best  known  in  the 
State  of  Alabama  and  in  the  educational  world 
through  the  Clark  School  of  Selma.  This  is  known 
throughout  the  State  as  one  of  the  best  kept  build 
ings  and  one  in  which  some  of  the  most  thorough 
teaching  is  done  anywhere  in  the  South.  Inspec 
tors,  State  Supervisors,  and  State  Superintendents 
all  point  to  Clark  School  as  a  model  public  school. 

As  has  been  already  stated,  Prof.  Hudson  has 
been  a  leader  in  many  Secret  Orders,  in  the  Church 
and  Sunday  School  throughout  his  career.  He  is 
a  member  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  a  Woodman, 
a  Mason,  and  an  Odd  Fellow.  He  has  been  both 
President  and  Secretary  of  the  Alabama  State 
Teachers  Association  and  County  Chairman  of  the 
Alabama  Colored  Teachers'  Association.  He  is  Sec 
retary  of  the  State  Baptist  Convention  and  of  the 
National  Baptist  Convention.  He  is  President  of 
.  the  District  Sunday  School  Convention,  and  a  mem 
ber  of  the  Executive  Board  of  the  Federal  Council 
of  Churches  of  America.  He  was  delegate  to  the 
World's  Missionary  Conference  which  met  in  Ed 
inburgh,  Scotland,  in  1910.  He  is  Endowment 
Treasurer  of  the  Endowment  Department  of  the 
Masonic  Grand  Lodge  of  Alabama. 

During  the  recent  war  troubles  Mr.  Hudson  has 
been  Chairman  of  the  Food  Conservation  Commit 
tee  of  Dallas  County,  and  Chairman  of  the  Red 
Cross  for  Colored  people  of  Dallas  County. 

For  many  years  he  was  the  close  personal  friend 
of  the  late  great  leader  of  the  race,  Dr.  Booker  T. 
Washington.  It  seemed  a  great  pleasure  to  Dr. 
Washington  for  him  to  speak  of  the  high  esteem 
in  which  he  held  Prof.  Hudson.  On  one  occasion 
Dr.  Washington  writing  the  "Colored  Alabamian," 
a  paper  then  published  at  Montgomery,  said :  "I 
want  to  thank  you  most  earnestly  and  heartily  for 
your  publishing  the  picture  and  sketch  of  the  life 
of  Prof.  R.  B.  Hudson,  of  Selma,  Ala.  I  am  afraid 
that  the  people  of  Alabama  do  not  appreciate  the 
real  worth  and  ability  of  Prof.  Hudson  in  the  way 
they  should.  He  has  shown  himself  to  be  a  leader 
of  rare  ability  and  especially  a  clear-headed  sys 
tematic  thinker  and  worker. 

The  main  purpose  of  this  letter  is  to  impress 
upon  the  people  of  our  State  the  fact  that  we  have 
a  man  in  our  midst,  a  man  of  such  rare  ability,  and 
I  repeat  that  you  are  to  be  congratulated  for  pre 
senting  him  before  the  public  through  the  medium 
of  your  paper." 

Prof.  Hudson  was  married  in  1890  to  Miss  Lula 
C.  Richardson  who  died  in  1898.  He  was  married 
in  1900  to  Miss  Irene  M.  Thompson.  Mr.  Hudson 
has  two  children.  Misses  E.  Leola  and  Bernice 
Hudson,  the  former  is  a  graduate  of  Spellman  Sem 
inary,  Atlanta,  Ga.,  and  Pratt  Institute,  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.  She  is  at  present  a  teacher  in  the  Florida 
A.  &  M.  College  at  Tallahassee,  Fla.  The  latter  is 
still  a  student. 


42 


REV.   JOHN   WASHINGTON   GOODGAME. 


N  Birmingham,  Alabama,  out  on 
Avenue  F.,  stands  a  monumental 
Baptist  Church.  The  engravings 
on  the  corner  stones  outside  re 
cord  the  names  of  laborers,  busi 
ness  and  professional  men  who 
joined  hands  to  make  this  building 
the  splendid  edifice  that  it  is.  It 
has  its  big  pipe  organ,  its  animated  well  trained 
choir,  its  pastor's  study,  its  spacious  galleries  as 
well  as  its  big  audience  room.  It  cost  $50,000  when 
it  was  built,  now  valued  at  $80,000.  Its  organization, 
its  distribution  of  workers,  is  exceptional.  It  has  of 
course  its  auxiliary  clubs  among  the  women,  its 
young  people's  societies,  its  deacons'  board  and  the 
like.  But  above  all  it  has  a  regular  man,  in  ad 
dition  to  the  pastor,  whose  business  it  is  to  visit 
the  sick  and  the  needy  and  to  collect  funds  and 
minister  to  their  relief.  The  man  behind  all  this 
work,  who  raised  the  funds,  very  largely  from 
working  people ;  who  in  person  superintended  the 
construction  of  the  building  is  Rev.  John  Washing 
ton  Goodgame. 

Rev.  Goodgame  was  born  in  the  country,  some 
years  after  the  civil  war,  and  while  performing  his 
farm  duties  he  had  time  for  calm  meditation,  lie 
was  a  poor  lad  with  no  very  inspiring  environ 
ments  ;  he  was  without  money,  and  to  boys  with 
out  grit  and  ambition,  his  situation  would  have  ap 
peared  hopeless.  Not  so  with  Rev.  Goodgame. 


He  was  ambitious  to  learn  and  he  determined  to 
secure  an  education  and  he  turned  difficulties  in  to 
propellers  to  bring  him  to  his  goal. 

God  had  raised  him  up  for  leadership  and  whom 
God  calls  to  service  He  prepares  for  the  work  to 
be  done. 

Without  money  but  with  a  consciousness  that 
he  would  succeed,  he  entered  Talladega  College  in 
1885  and  spent  his  first  year  in  college  in  the  work 
department.  He  finally  completed  his  Grammar 
and  Normal  courses  and  entered  the  Theological 
department.  While  pursuing  the  theological 
course  he  served  the  country  churches  in  and 
around  Talladega  as  pastor,  later  accepting  a  call 
to  his  home  church  in  Talladega. 

He  was  next  called  to  pastor  the  leading  Baptist 
church  of  Anniston  for  a  few  years  and  then  came 
to  Birmingham,  his  present  home. 

Members  of  the  Baptist  church  felt  that  a  school 
should  be  started  around  Birmingham.  Who  was 
there  so  fit  to  blaze  the  way  as  J.  W.  Goodgame, 
the  man  who  never  failed  in  business  as  well  as  in 
religion.  Thus  Birmingham  Baptist  College  was 
launched  with  Rev.  Goodgame  at  the  head  of  the 
board  of  trustees,  as  the  real  sponsor  for  the  insti 
tution. 

The  Alabama  Baptist  State  Convention  elected 
him  treasurer,  and  the  Mosaic  Templars  placed  up 
on  him  the  task  of  carrying  the  money  for  its  or 
ganization.  This  then  is  the  load  he  carries — the 
personal  interest  of  two  Baptist  institutions  the 
exchequer  of  the  iMosaic  Templars  and  of  the  Ala 
bama  State  Baptist  Convention  and  the  charge  of  a 
big  city  church.  To  this  have  been  added  many 
other  responsibilities.  He  was  stock  holder  and 
one  of  the  directors  of  the  Alabama  Penny  Savings 
Bank  and  one  time  secretary  of  the  Atlanta,  Bir 
mingham  Mutual  Aid  Association,  the  latter  an  in 
surance  company  which  flourished  under  his  ad 
ministration  and  which  was  recently  merged  with 
another  company. 

Unlike  many  ministers,  Rev.  Goodgame  has 
changed  pastorates  but  seldom,  preferring  to  build 
substantially  in  one  place.  Growing  as  Birming 
ham  grew  he  has  had  opportunity  to  judge  prop 
erty  and  to  invest  wisely.  He  owns,  thanks  to  his 
business  acumen,  nine  rent  houses,  and  eight  va 
cant  lots  in  this  city  of  high  priced  property. 

All  this  time  Rev.  Goodgame  has  been  rearing  and 
educating  a  large  family.  He  was  married  to  Miss 
Mollie  Bledsoe  in  1890.  Five  children,  now  all 
practically  grown  and  well  educated  form  the 
Goodgame  family.  Miss  Fannie  B.  is  a  graduate 
of  the  Talladega  Normal  course  and  of  Selma  Uni 
versity  ;  Miss  Minnie  of  the  Barber  Seminary,  An 
niston,  Alabama;  Miss  Jennie  of  Cheney  Institute, 
Penn. ;  Miss  Lucile,  a  senior,  1917.  at  Normal,  Ala 
bama  ;  Mr.  John  Washington,  Jr.,  a  student  at  the 
State  Normal  School  in  Montgomery,  Alabama. 
Miss  Fannie  B.  who  is  now  Fannie  B.  Kastland  was 
teacher  for  several  years,  having  taught  in  the 
Birmingham  C'itv  Schools  a  number  of  terms. 

To  protect  himself  and  his  family,  as  well  as  to 
further  good  causes,  Rev.  Goodgame  is  a  Mason,  a 
Knight  of  Pythias,  and  a  Mosaic  Templar.  Few 
men  are  harder  workers  and  more  optimistic  in 
both  religion  and  race  progress  than  is  Rev.  John 
W.  Goodgame  of  Birmingham,  Alabama. 


REV.  PRICE  S.  LENTON  HUTCHINS. 


HE  REV.  PRICE  S.  LENTON 
HUTCHINS,  of  Mobile,  Alabama, 
is  the  seventh  child  of  Reuben  and 
Sylvia  Hutchins.  He  was  born  in 
Cowikee,  Barbour  County,  Ala 
bama,  October  13th.  1862..  At 
_  .  .  ^  ^.  an  early  age  he  was  given  to  his 
grandparents  who  sent  him  to  school  and  did  every 
thing  to  encourage  his  intellectual  growth.  But 
his  grandparents  died  and  he  was  returned  to  his 
parents.  They  were  poor  and  unable  to  send  him 
to  school.  Accordingly  he  was  put  on  the  farm 
where  he  worked  with  his  body  but.  his  mind  was  in 
the  school  room  he  had  left.  His  thirst  for  know 
ledge  was  satisfied  to  a  small  extent  by  a  white 
playmate  and  co-laborer,  Mr.  Walter  T.  Harwell, 
but  he  soon  passed  beyond  the  information  that  his 
teacher  could  impart  and  he  was  again  facing  the 
problem  of  where  to  turn  for  an  education  .  This 
young  man's  development  was  not  one  sided  for 
along  with  the  development  of  the  mind  and  body 
he  was  not  neglectful  of  the  spirit.  At  an  early  age 
he  was  converted  and  was  baptized  into  the  fellow 
ship  of  the  Pleasant  Grove  Baptist  church,  Eu- 
faula,  Alabama,  by  the  Rev.  Jerry  Short.  Re 
ligion  became  the  dominant  factor  in  his  life  which 
finally  led  him  into  the  ministry. 

June  12th.  1882  he  was  licensed  by  his  church  to 
preach,  but  dissatisfied  with  his  preparation  for 
his  work  he  entered  the  Selma  University  Febru 


ary  3rd.  1884  where  he  finished  a  two  years  Eng 
lish  course  and  received  his  certificate  for  same 
from  Rev.  E.  M.  Brawley  D.  D.,  President. 

Four  years  later,  1890,  he  graduated  with  honors 
from  the  Collegiate  Course  under  C.  L.  Puree,  D.  D. 
having  taken  at  the  same  time  a  partial  course  in 
Theology  under  C.  S.  Dinkins,  D.  D.,  and  C'.  I..  Fish 
er,  receiving  the  equivalent  of  a  year's  Seminary 
work  in  Church  History,  Theology,  New  Testa 
ment,  Greek  and  Old  Testament  Hebrew.  He  con 
tinued  his  study  of  Hebrew  under  Rabbi  E.  M.  B. 
Brown,  Columbus,  Ga.,  who  speaks  of  his  work  in 
the  highest  terms.  Among  his  pastorates  was  the 
Bethlehem  Church,  Gallion  and  the  First  Baptist 
Church  of  Newberne,  Alabama.  He  served  both 
churches  seven  years  and  built  a  house  of  worship 
for  each  costing  more  than  $2000.00. 

The  recorded  number  of  his  baptisms  during 
these  pastorates  was  over  five  hundred.  Septem 
ber  28th,  1891,  he  baptized  into  the  fellowship  of 
the  First  Baptist  Church,  Newberne,  one  hundred 
and  twenty-eight  persons  in  one  hour  and  thirty 
minutes. 

June  3rd.  1897  he  became  Pastor  of  one  of  the 
largest  churches  in  Columbus,  Ga.,  and  during  his 
period  of  service  he  added  to  its  membership  185 
members  and  reduced  a  debt  upon  the  church  sev 
eral  thousand  dollars.  He  also  served  the  Taber 
nacle  Baptist  Church  of  Eufaula  and  the  First  Bap 
tist  Church  of  Hurtsboro,  Alabama,  as  pastor  and 
was  serving  these  churches  when  called  to  Franklin 
Street  Baptist  Church,  Mobile,  which  church  he  is 
now  serving.  His  call  to  the  Franklin  Street  Bap 
tist  Church  was  extended  August  2nd,  1917,  and 
was  unanimous.  This  church  is  one  of  the  leading 
Baptist  Churches  in  the  State  and  he  enters  upon 
his  work  under  the  most  favorable  conditions.  He 
has  already  endeared  himself  to  the  members  of 
the  church  and  is  held  in  high  esteem  by  the  entire 
community. 

It  has  been  his  good  fortune  to  retain  the  con 
fidence  and  love  of  the  people  he  served,  an  evi 
dence  of  work  well  done.  In  addition  to  his  Pas 
torates,  Rev.  Hutchins,  has  held  a  number  of  of 
ficial  positions  in  his  denomination.  He  is  a  life 
member  of  the  National  Baptist  Convention  and  a 
strong  supporter  of  all  its  interests ;  a  Trustee  of 
the  Selma  University,  Selma,  Alabama,  and  of  Cen 
tral  City  College,  Macon,  Ga. 

He  served  as  Sunday  School  State  Missionary 
under  joint  appointment  of  the  National  Baptist 
Publication  Board  and  the  State  Sunday  School 
Board,  and  as  State  Organizer  for  Georgia  under 
joint  appointment  of  National  B.  Y.  P.  U.,-  and 
State  B.  Y.  P.  U.  Boards. 

Rev.  Hutchins  is  a  man  of  family  and  is  blessed 
with  a  wife  devoted  to  his  interests  and  the  proud 
mother  of  eight  children.  These  bring  joy  and  sun 
shine  to  his  home  and  has  inspired  that  economy 
in  the  conduct  of  his  affairs  that  has  enabled  him  to 
accumulate  a  nice  property. 

His  possessions  are  scattered  from  Alabama  to 
New  York  and  consist  of  improved  and  vacant  city 
lots  and  farm  property.  Rev.  Hutchins  is  yet  com 
paratively  young.  His  zenith  may  not  be  reach 
ed  for  years ;  many  more  such  startling  strides  as 
he  has  made  in  the  past  thirteen  years,  will  lift  him 
easily  to  the  rank  of  ministerial  wonders. 


44 


JOHN  A.  KENNEY,  M.  D. 

OHN  A.  KENNEY,  M.  D.,  was 
born  June  11,  1874,  in  Albemarle 
County,  Virginia.  Here  he  lived 
on  the  farm  and  did  the  work  of 
a  farm  lad,  enjoying  at  the  same 
time  the  pleasures  that  come  to 
those  who  live  in  the  country,  till  he  was  sixteen 
years  of  age.  During  the  last  two  years  of  that 
time  he  was  practically  the  head  of  the  family,  run 
ning  the  farm  which  his  father  left  to  his  care  and 
also  the  grocery  store  which  his  father  had  kq)t 
during  his  life  time.  Although  born  on  the  farm  and 
although  he  remained  for  such  a  number  of  years 
in  the  country,  his  mother  had  other  plans  for  him. 
She  inspired  him  with  the  ambition  to  live  his  life 
away  from  the  narrowing  effect  of  the  farm  life, 
away  out  in  the  world  where  he  could  make  him 
self  felt. 

After  spending  a  great  deal  of  time  in  the  pub 
lic  schools  of  Albemarle  County  and  Charlottsville 
he  went  to  Hampton  Institute,  Virginia  and  later 
to  Shaw  University,  North  Carolina.  In  order  to 
attend  school  he  had  also  to  work.  Nothing  that 
would  turn  an  honest  penny  was  turned  down  by 
this  ambitious  young  man.  He  worked  as  a  waiter, 
he  worked  in  the  family  of  one  of  the  professors 
of  the  University  or  Virginia,  and  he  kept  grocery 


store.  After  leaving  Shaw  University  Dr.  Kenney 
went  to  Leonard  Medical  College  from  which  he 
was  graduated  with  the  degree  M.  D.  in  1901. 

This  was  the  beginning  of  Dr.  Kenney's  real 
career.  He  served  the  first  year  as  interne  at 
Freedmen's  Hospital,  Washington,  District  of  Col 
umbia  and  then  came  to  Tuskegee  Institute.  At 
Tuskegee  he  is  Medical  Director  of  the  Tuskegee 
Institute  Hospital  and  Nurse  Training  School.  For 
the  past  sixteen  years  Dr.  Kenney  has  labored  in 
this  field  and  the  work  has  grown  steadily  under 
his  management.  When  he  took  the  work  there 
was  a  frame  hospital,  not  very  well  equipped  and 
not  large  enough  to  accommodate  the  number  of 
patients  that  come  to  Tuskegee.  During  his  stay 
the  John  A.  Andrew  Memorial  Hospital  has  been 
built,  and  the  Nurse  Training  Course  strengthened. 
The  hospital  is  well  equipped  and  the  nurses  turn 
ed  out  are  efficient. 

While  developing  the  material  side  of  the  work 
at  Tuskegee,  Dr.  Kenney  has  himself  developed 
in  skill.  He  is  now  looked  upon  as  one  of  the  lead 
ing  surgeons  of  the  race  and  people  from  all  over 
the  south  come  to  Tuskegee  to  John  A.  Andrew 
Memorial  Hospital  in  order  to  have  Dr.  Kenney  op 
erate  on  them.  This  is  true  fame — that  speads  from 
one  patient  to  another  and  brings  more  work, 
which  in  turn  means  added  skill. 

The  profession  will  probably  know  Dr.  Kenney 
best  as  Secretary  of  the  National  Medical  Asso 
ciation.  In  this  position  he  served  for  eight  years 
in  succession.  He  then  gave  up  the  work  because 
he  was  over  worked.  Contrary  to  his  expreseed 
wishes  he  was  unanimously  elected  in  1912  as  pres 
ident  of -the  National  Medical  Association 
Dr.  Kenney  with  Dr.  C.  V.  Roman  of  Nashville 
Tennessee  founded  the  Journal  of  the  National 
Medical  Association.  This  is  today  one  of  the  most 
important  publications  among  the  Colored  People 
and  it  takes  high  rank  as  a  professional  journal. 
What  tliis  periodical  is  today  and  in  fact  very  large 
ly  what  the  National  Medical  Association  is  today 
is  due  to  the  energies  and  unbounded  faith  of  Dr. 
Kenney.  At  the  last  meeting  of  the  N.  M.  A.  in 
Richmond,  Va.,  1918,  Dr.  Kenney  by  action  of  the 
Executive  Board  was  made  editor-in-chief  and 
manager  of  the  Journal. 

Since  entering  the  medical  profession  he  has  done 
constructive  work. 

Dr.  Kenney  had  direct  charge  of  the  health  of  Dr. 
Booker  T.  Washington  during  all  the  years  he  was 
in  Tuskegee.  During  the  last  years  of  Dr.  Wash 
ington's  life  Dr.  Kenney  spent  a  great  deal  of  time 
with  him,  accompanying  him  on  the  various  trips 
made  over  the  South'.  It  is  a  source  of  great  pride 
to  Dr.  Kenney  that  when  Dr.  Washington,  ill  in 
the  hospital  in  New  York  was  examined  by  famous 
specialists  they  said  that  Dr.  Kenney  had  done  all 
that  any  one  could  have  done  for  the  great  educa 
tor. 

Dr.  Kenney  was  married  to  Miss  Alice  Talbot  of 
Bedford  County,  Virginia  in  Dec-  27.  1902-  Dr. 
Kenney  was  married  a  second  time  to  Miss  Frieda 
V.  Armstrong  of  Boston,  Massachusetts,  in  1913. 
There  are  three  small  sons,  John  A.  Kenney,  Jr., 
Oscar  Armstrong  Kenney  and  Howard  Washington 
Kenney. 


45 


GEORGE  W.   LEWIS,  A.   M.,   D.   D. 


E  who  is  inclined  to  grow  doubtful 
of  rare  strength,  scholarship, 
force,  personality  should  look  up 
on  a  company  of  Methodist  Minis 
ters  and  Bishops.  Gathered  in 
convention  they  make  a  grand 

substitute     for     an     assembly     of 

statesmen.  They  are  grave  and  scholarly,  stal- 
warth  of  physique,  pictures  of  health  and  prosperi 
ty.  They  are  analysts  and  orators  and  logicians 
with  splendid  touches  of  the  visionary.  Dr.  George 
W.  Lewis  A.  M.,  D.  D.  is  one  of  these  Methodist 
Episcopal  peers.  There  are  few  riper  scholars,  few 
er  better  orators  than  he. 

Dr.  Lewis  is  a  thorough  going  Georgian.  He 
was  born  in  Burke  County  shortly  after  slavery. 
He  was  born  during  the  reconstruction  period  after 
the  war  when  the  efforts  of  the  South  were  direct 
ed  mainly  in  caring  for  the  body  and  but  little  at 
tention  was  given  to  the  development  of  the  mind. 
It  was  a  day  of  poor  schools,  unprepared  teachers 
and  short  school  terms.  The  opportunities  for  the 
negroes  to  obtain  an  education  were  but  meager 
but  the  very  difficulties  in  their  way  acted  as  a  spur 
to  the  ambitious  and  developed  a  number  of  strong 
men  intellectually. 

Dr.  Lewis  was  among  this  number.  When  a 
mere  boy  Dr.  Lewis  started  life  as  a  farm  laborer 
which  he  followed  for  sixteen  years  but  during  this 
period  he  attended  school  two  or  three  months  each 
year. 


The  activity  of  the  mind  would  not  permit  him  to 
remain  on  the  farm  so  he  left  the  farm  and  attend 
ed  the  Haven  Normal  School  at  Waynesborough, 
Ga.  Here  his  real  development  began.  Here  the 
leading  of  his  mind  and  heart  decided  his  future. 
Here  he  was  converted  and  here  he  responded  to 
the  call  to  the  ministry. 

From  Haven  Norman  school  at  Waynesborough 
he  went  to  Clark  University  at  Atlanta  and  after 
finishing  his  course  of  study  there  he  turned  to  the 
study  of  theology  in  Gammon  Seminary  in  the 
same  University. 

After  completing  his  theological  course  he  took 
up  the  active  duties  of  Pastor  and  served  a  num 
ber -of  churches  in  his  active  native  State.  He  join 
ed  the  Savannah  Conference  at  Augusta,  Ga.,  and 
was  sent  to  Mt.  Vernon  church.  From  Mt.  Vernon 
he  went  to  Readsville,  from  Readsville  to  Valdosta, 
thence  to  Atlanta  and  from  Atlanta  to  Rome. 

In  1895  Dr.  Lewis  was  transferred  to  the  Ala 
bama  Conference  and  served  churches  in  Mont 
gomery,  Mobile  and  in  Pensacola.  Fla. 

It  was  during  his  residence  in  Florida  that  Dr. 
Lewis  branched  out.  in  educational  work. 

Seeing  a  grave  need  for  a  school  in  Pensacola 
he  set  his  mind  to  work  to  supply  it  and  in  1901  he 
founded  the  Pensacola  Normal,  Industrial  and  Agri 
cultural  school.  For  nine  years  he  was  the  Prin 
cipal  of  this  school,  shaping'  its  policies  and  giving 
it  the  benefit  of  his  rare  gifts  as  an  orator.  He 
possessed  in  a  remarkable  degree  the  powers  of 
oratory  which  greatly  aided  him  in  raising  monev 
for  his  enterprises,  a  work  in  which  he  succeeded 
to  a  most  satisfactory  degree. 

His  talent  as  an  orator  and  writer  brought  him 
into  great  prominence  and  his  services  were  sought 
from  all  over  the  country.  For  stirring  and  search 
ing  addresses,  such  as  are  required  on  memorial 
and  emancipation  occasions,  he  probably  has  no 
equal  on  the  platform  of  today.  He  has  delivered 
addresses  of  this  character  at  Montgomery,  at  Mo 
bile,  at  Evergreen,  at  Tampa  and  at  Pensacola, 
many  of  which  at  the  request  of  his  hearers  were 
printed  and  distributed. 

Dr.  Lewis  was  frequent!}'  elected  to  represent  the 
M.  E.  Conference  at  the  General  Conference.  He 
was  a  delegate  to  the  Omaha  General  Conference 
in  1894  and  to  the  conference  at  Saratoga  in  1916. 
For  years  he  has  been  the  Secretary  of  his  Annual 
Conference  and  chairman  of  the  Old  Ministers 
fund.  His  brethren  were  not  slow  to  recognize  in 
him  a  wise  leader  a  man  of  sound  judgment  and 
one  whose  devotion  to  religion  and  education  and 
unexcelled  oratory  gave  him  unbounded  influence 
among  them.  He  won  their  confidence  early  in  his 
ministerial  life  and  still  holds  it  in  a  most  flatter 
ing  degree. 

Dr.  Lewis  family  consists  of  a  wife  and  one  child, 
a  daughter  who  has  inherited  his  mental  vigor. 

He  married  in  1889  Miss  Lucy  Griffin,  of  Tusca- 
lonsa,  Ala.  Their  daughter,  Miss  Emma  C.  Lewis, 
received  her  B.  A.  degree  from  Clark  University, 
Atlanta,  Ga..  and  wears  it  with  as  much  ease  and 
grace  as  the  average  man.  At  present  she  is  teach 
ing  in  New  Orleans  University. 

While  the  church  is  his  chief  consideration  Dr. 
Lewis  is  also  interested  in  the  benevolent  orders  of 
his  people  and  has  membership  in  the  Masons  and 
Knights  of  Phythias. 


46 


HENRY  ALLEN  LOVELESS. 

MONG  the  foremost  colored  citi 
zens  of  Alabama  is  Henry  Allen 
Loveless  of  Montgomery  who 
has  proved  to  his  people  that  they 
can  make  a  marked  success  in 
their  business  ventures  and  still 


preserve  the  respect  and  esteem  of  the  entire  com 
munity,  both  white  and  black. 

Mr.  Loveless  was  born  in  Bullock  County,  Ala 
bama   in   the  year   1854  near    the    town   of  Union 


]  le  had  no  educational  advantages  until  he  reach 
ed  his  eighteenth  year.  Spending  the  day  in  man 
ual  labor  he  attended  a  night  school  which  gave 
him  the  foundation  upon  which  he  built  to  a  limit 
ed  extent. 

Some  years  after  his  first  marraige  he  attended 
the  Selma  University  but  for  only  two  terms.  At 
the  end  of  the  second  term  he  returned  home  to 
arrange  his  business  matters  so  that  he  could  com 
plete  his  course  but  found  that  the  requirements  of 
his  business  were  such  that  he  had  to  forego  his 
plans  for  a  finished  education. 

His  first  business  was  that  of  a  butcher  which 
he  plied  for  several  years  but  gave  up  to  enter  the 
Undertaking  business.  Here  he  had  to  meet  strong 
competition  from  a  long  established  business 


controlled  by  a  member  of  his  race  who  had  much 
influence  "with' the  colored  people. 

He  saw  the  difficulties  in  his  way  but  instead  of 
deterring  him  they  nerved  him  to  push  forward. 

Meeting  competition  upon  fair  grounds  he  forged 
to  the  front  and  not  only  built  up  the  large  busi 
ness  over  which  he  now  presides  but  finally  pur 
chased  the  business  of  his  competitor. 

He  has  been  in  this  business  for  twenty-five  years 
which  together  with  its  adjuncts  is  easily  valued 
at  $25,000.00.  In  connection  with  his  undertaking 
business  he  runs  a  transfer  and  hack  line  and  has 
among  his  patrons  a  number  of  white  citizens. 

His  business  has  brought  him  a  comfortable  liv 
ing  and  enabled  him  to  secure  a  home  worth  ten 
thousand  dollars.  In  addition  it  has  enabled  him 
to  give  employment  to  a  great  many  of  his  people. 

Mr.  Loveless  is  a  deeply  religious  man  and  takes 
an  active  part  in  his  church  life. 

He  has  been  connected  with  the  Dexter  Avenue 
Baptist  church  from  its  organization  and  is  its  lead 
ing  deacon.  He  is  also  the  Church  Treasurer  and 
a  member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees.  The  minis 
ters  who  have  served  the  church  have  always 
found  in  him  a  friend  and  helper. 

Mr.  Loveless'  activities  do  not  end  with  his 
church  and  his  business.  He  has  countless  affilia 
tions  with  various  other  bodies  and  is  interested  in 
the  educational  interests  of  his  people. 

He  is  a  King  Solomon  Mason,  Knights  of  Py 
thias,  member  of  Wm.  J.  Simmons  Lodge,  No.  34, 
the  Eastern  Star,  Knights  of  Tabor,  Eureka  Lodge 
of  the  Mosaic  Templars,  Sisters  and  Brothers  of 
Tabor,  Daughters  and  Sons  of  Zera,  and  the  United 
Order  of  Good  Shepherds.  He  has  held  office  in  a 
number  of  these  orders. 

He  is  a  member  of  the  Negro  business  men's 
league,  Treasurer  of  the  Alabama  Realty  Company 
and  a  Trustee  of  the  Swayne  school  of  Montgom 
ery. 

Mr.  Loveless  has  been  married  three  times.  He 
married  his  first  wife,  Miss  Lucy  Arrington  of 
Montgomery,  in  1885.  She  died  after  bearing  him 
five  children,  three  of  whom  are  living.  His  son 
John  H.  Loveless  and  daughters,  Miss  Mary  G. 
and  Bertha  L.  Loveless,  are  associated  with  him  in 
his  business  and  have  contributed  no  little  to  his 
success. 

In  1913  he  married  Mrs.  Emma  A.  Anderson, 
who  lived  but  a  short  while  with  him  when  death 
claimed  her. 

His  present  wife,  formerly  Mrs.  Dora  Evelyn, 
was  married  to  him  in  1916.  She  was  a  resident  of 
Eufaula,  Ala. 

Mr.  Loveless  is  a  successful  man  and  in  sum 
ming  up  his  traits  of  character  which  con 
tributed  to  his  success  we  would  mention  first  his 
quiet,  courteous  but  positive  demeanor.  He  never 
gets  unduly  excited  but  is  not  slow  to  take  in  a 
situation  and  to  face  it  with  a  calm  determination 
which  impresses  others  that  he  means  business. 
He  is  a  just  man  and  honest  which  gives  him  a 
good  standing  in  the  business  world.  Then  he  is 
sympathetic,  helpful  and  dependable  and  above  all 
is  recognized  as  an  humble  Christian. 


47 


REVEREND   WILLIAM    MADISON. 


HEN  asked  for  matter  for  a  bio 
graphical  sketch,  Rev.  Wm.  Madi 
son  sent  in  such  scant  material 
that  the  required  length  for  a 
page  was  'lot  to  be  gotten.  When 
asked  for  matter  for  his  church, 
the  matter  came  in  so  freely  that  it  had  to  be  con 
densed.  Such  is  the  modesty  of  the  man  that  he 
takes  to  himself  very  little  of  the  credit  for  the 
very  splendid  church  which  he  built  and  which 
under  his  administration  has  grown  by  leaps  and 
bounds.  But  the  church  is  a  reflection  of  his 
boundless  energy  and  great  business  ability. 

Rev.  Madison  was  born  in  Marion,  Dallas  County, 
Alabama,  in  1873.  As  a  small  boy  and  as  a  young 
man,  he  toiled  in  the  cotton  and  corn  fields  on  a 
Dallas  County  plantation.  Here  he  received  his 
early  training  in  the  public  schools.  Whatever  the 
schools  of  the  country  may  have  failed  to  give  him 
in  accurate  book  knowledge  was  more  than  made 
up  by  the  ambition  which  filled  him  because  of  this 
contact  with  books  and  thoughts.  He  felt  most 
keenly  the  preparation  that  he  needed  to  make  him 
self  happy,  and  at  the  same  time  render  those  about 
him  glad.  He  entered  Selma  University  in  1905, 


and  was  graduated  in  the  class  of  1910  at  the  head 
of  the  class  in  the  Theological  Department.  This 
gave  him  the  place  of  valedictorian.  This  and  other 
honors  bestowed  upon  him  by  his  Alma  Mater  be 
speak  his  life  and  conduct  as  a  school  boy  and  his 
efficiency  as  a  student. 

Rev.  Wm.  Madison  has  climbed  all  the  way  from 
the  bottom  to  the  top  of  his  profession.  He  is  at 
present  and  has  been  for  some  time  pastor  of  the 
Day  Street  Baptist  Church,  Montgomery,  Alabama. 
This  church  represents  the  capstone  in  his  career 
as  the  builder  of  splendid  houses  of  worship.  Be 
ginning  his  ministry  back  in  his  home  village  of 
Marion,  Alabama,  he  has  raised  and  put  into 
churches  $45,000.00.  He  has  built  churches  at  Un- 
-iontown,  Sawyerville,  Grove  Hill  and  Montgomery. 

In  the  meantime  he  has  pastored,  held  evangelis 
tic  services,  baptized  thousands,  held  conspicuous 
offices  in  his  church  and  denominational  bodies, 
been  orator  and  Commencement  speaker  at  many 
important  school  celebrations  and  gatherings  and 
traveled  extensively  over  the  country  as  preacher 
and  worker. 

Rev.  Madison  did  not  get  his  fame  as  a  speaker 
and  able  builder  without  a  struggle.  Leaving  Sel 
ma  University,  he  followed  the  profession  of  school 
teaching  in  both  Dallas  and  Hale  counties.  Later 
he  studied  bookkeeping  and  was  a  bookkeeper  for 
five  years.  In  filling  these  two  posts  he  got  for 
himself  experiences  that  were  destined  to  be  of 
untold  good  to  him  in  his  pastoral  work  later.  His 
five  years  spent  in  bookkeeping  cannot  be  underes 
timated  as  to  the  good  effect  they  have  had  on  the 
building  and  organizing  of  churches.  At  the  age  of 
twenty-two,  Rev.  Madison  was  ordained  and  he 
has  held  a  most  constructive  career  in  his  church 
ever  since.  He  has  followed  the  circuit  of  his  na 
tive  state,  having  occupied  pulpits  at  Marion,  Un- 
iontown,  Sawyerville,  Lanesville,  Newberne,  Jack 
son,  Grove  Hill,  Birmingham  and  his  present  post 
in  Montgomery. 

The  great  work  that  Rev.  Madison  is  doing  in 
Montgomery  is  recorded  elsewhere  under  the 
sketch  of  Day  Street  Baptist  Church.  He  is  well 
known  as  a  leader,  for  his  executive  skill  and  also 
for  his  ability  to  follow  details.  Rev.  Madison  has 
for  years  occupied  high  places  in  his  church  and  in 
secular  and  fraternal  bodies,  lie  is  a  member  of 
the  Allen  Temple  Lodge,  of  the  Knights  of  Py- 
thians  and  of  the  Good  Shepherds.  In  his  church, 
which  is  missionary  Baptist  he  has  served  as 
Treasurer  of  the  Publishing  Board;  chairman  of 
the  State  Mission  Board;  Treasurer  of  the  Selma 
Alumni  Association;  President  of  the  Baptist  Min 
isters  Conference  of  Montgomery  and  Member  of 
the  National  Baptist  Convention. 

Rev.  Madison  was  married  in  1899  to  Miss  Mary 
Soloman  of  Saffold.  Alabama.  There  are  six  chil 
dren  in  the  Madison  family,  all  of  whom  are  at 
tending  school. 


DAY   STKKKT   I'.AITIST   CHURCH. 


KK1XG  what  they  considered  a 
great  need  of  another  church  in 
the  City  of  Montgomery,  in  1884, 
Mr.  T.  1-1.  Garner  and  Mr.  Ed- 
ward  I'atterson  secured  the  ser 
vices  of  Rev.  J.  C.  Casby,  organiz 
ed  a  church  and  erected  a  frame  building  in  which 
to  serve  God.  Thus  we  have  Day  Street  Baptist 
Church,  one  of  the  best  managed  institutions  of 
its  kind  in  the  South.  Among  the  ministers  who 
administered  to  the  needs  of  the  people  from  the 
pulpit  of  Day  Street  Baptist  Church,  who  deserve 
special  mention  in  these  pages  is  Rev.  T.  C.  ("room. 
who  took  charge  of  the  church  in  1894  and  pastor- 
ed  it  till  his  death  in  1906.  During  his  administra 
tion  the  membership  was  greatly  increased  and  the 
church  building  remedied  and  enlarged.  Succeed 
ing  Rev.  Croom.  Rev.  T.  J.  Flood  gave  the  rest  of 
liis  life  to  the  development  of  the  Day  Street  Bap 
tist  Church.  Mis  pastorate  was  a  short  one,  last- 
ting  but  one  year  and  four  months.  During  this 
short  time  he  raised  $1200  for  the  new  church.  At 
the  death  of  Rev.  Flood,  Rev.  Win.  Madison  was 
chosen  leader  of  this  flock.. 

The  church  business  is  administered  by  the  Pas 
tor  and  Board  of  Trustees,  composed  of  T.  II.  Gar 
ner,  M.  I).  Easterly,  C.  Posey,  J.  J.  Ncal,  C.  Lewis, 
Morris  Smith,  F.  S.  Starks,  Mathew  Wallace  and 
J.  S.  Gregory. 

The  present  structure  was  completed  in  1910. 
The  Pastor  supervised  the  building  of  it  and  rais 
ed  the  money  for  its  erection.  It  cost  $36,000.  but 


with  the  lot  is  valued  at  $50.000.     The  church  also 
owns  a  parsonage  valued  at  $3,000. 

Rev.  Madison  has  changed  the  entire  system  of 
running  the  affairs  of  the  church.  This  was  done 
in  19C9.  It  has  been  put  on  a  business  basis.  He 
incorporated  the  church  holdings  on  a  capitaliza 
tion  of  $25,000. 

While  directing  the  finances  of  the  church  the 
Rev.  Madison  has  not  eebn  unmindful  of  its  activi 
ties.  He  believes  in  a  division  of  work  and  respon 
sibilities  and  has  divided  up  the  work  so  as  to  get 
the  highest  results.  The  Sunday  School  with  an 
excellent  teaching  force  is  placed  in  the  hands  of 
J.  J.  Neal,  the  superintendent.  The  Baptist  Young 
People's  Union  is  in  charge  of  Miss  Lula  Mattox, 
the  President.  The  Woman's  Missionary  Society 
is  presided  over  by  Mrs.  A.  Easterly,  while  the  Ju 
nior  Missionary  Society  is  committed  to  Miss  Al- 
metta  Goldsmith. 

In  addition  to  these  there  is  a  Dorcas  Sewing 
Circle  for  girls  from  four  to  twelve  years  of  age. 
This  circle  makes  garments  for  poor  children 
Then  there  is  a  Cadet  Department  for  boys  from 
four  to  sixteen  years  of  age. 

The  Sun  Beam  Band  is  under  the  direction  of 
Mrs.  Mary  Taylor  and  is  composed  of  children 
from  four  to  eight  years  of  age.  Fnally  there  is 
the  Cooks,  Washerwomen  and  Porters  Club,  under 
direction  of  Mrs.  Laura  Hollis.  President,  the  ob 
ject  of  which  is  to  promote  efficiency  along  these 
lines.  In  connection  therewith  an  employment  bu 
reau  is  operated  with  great  success. 


49 


Robert  Lee  Mabry 


OBERT  LEE  MABRY  was  born  in 
Tuscaloosa,  Alabama  October  1st 
1874,  and  at  an  early  age  moved 
with  his  parents  to  Birmingham, 
Alabama.  Here  in  Birmingham, 
he  received  the  foundation  for  his 
education  through  the  excellent 
school  system  of  the  city.  After  finishing  his  course 
in  the  city  public  schools  of  Birmingham  he  entered 
the  Tuskegee  Institute  for  the  final  touches.  While 
taking  the  Academic  work  he  specialized  in  the 
Tailoring  division  of  the  Institute.  Having  to  de 
pend  upon  his  own  efforts  for  paying  his  tuition 
he  learned  to  take  advantage  of  his  opportunity  and 
applied  himself  diligently  to  his  studies  and  con 
sequently  left  the  Institute  thorough1)-  equipped  for 
his  life  work. 

He  spent  his  first  year  after  graduating  at  the 
Tuskegee  Institute  in  teaching  but  his  inclination 
and  gift  did  not  lead  him  into  that  profession  so  he 
seized  upon  the  first  opening  to  enter  a  business  of 
his  liking. 

He  was  offered  a  position  with  the  People's  Tail 
oring  Company  which  he  promptly  accepted  and 
which  was  the  beginning  of  a  career  which  has 
brought  him  reputation  and  financial  success. 

While  in  College  he  took  orders  for  clothing 
from  his  fellow  students  and  in  his  new  position  the 
experience  he  thus  gained  stood  him  well  in  hand 
and  made  his  work  comparatively  easy. 

While  the  connection  with  the  People's  Tailoring 
Company  was  pleasant  he  decided  to  sever  his  con 
nection  for  purposes  of  his  own.  He  aspired  to 
head  a  business  himself  so  in  1898  he  formed  a  par 
tnership  with  four  other  salesmen  and  opened  a 
cleaning  and  pressing  shop  at  No.  103  North  19th 
Street.  This  partnership  continued  for  only  a 
short  time  when  Mr.  J.  W.  Taylor  and  Mr.  Mabry 
purchased  the  other's  interest  and  became  the  sole 
proprietors  of  the  business.  Even  this  arrange 
ment  was  unsatisfactory  to  Mr.  Mabry  who  was 
ambitious  to  have  absolute  control  of  the  business 
which  he  finally  acquired,  and  associated  with  him 
his  brother.  Since  that  time  the  business  has  been 
known  as  the  "Mabry  Brothers." 

In  the  conduct  of  his  business  Mr.  Mabry  has 
proved  a  most  excellent  executive  and  by  close  at 
tention  and  honest  service  has  built  up  a  trade 
which  enables  him  to  live  and  lay  up  in  store 
against  the  day  of  adversity. 

His  investments  are  mostly  in  real  estate  and 
real  estate  mortgages  and  here  as  in  the  conduct 
of  his  business  his  good  judgment  directed  him 
unerringly.  Mr.  Mabry  is  fortunate  in  having  a 
help  meet  who  is  in  sympathy  with  his  purposes 

50 


and  plans  and  whose  wise  economy  has  aided  in  his 
effort  to  accumulate  an  independence. 

His  wife  was  Miss  Nettie  Faith  of  Mobile  and 
they  were  married  in  Birmingham  August  23rd. 
1899. 

The  issue  of  this  marriage  is  an  only  son  who  is 
now  attending  the  Public  Schools  of  Birmingham. 
It  is  the  ambition  of  Mr.  Mabry  to  give  this  boy  a 
fine  education  and  fit  him  for  some  useful  occupa 
tion  in  life.  Like  most  men  who  have  struggled 
for  an  education  he  knows  its  value  and  has  learn 
ed  that  it  is  necessary  to  any  marked  degree  of 
success  along  any  endeavor. 

Mr.  Mabry  is  something  of  a  traveler  and  his 
travels  have  carried  him  over  a  large  portion  of  the 
United  States.  He  has  visited  practica'ly  all  of  the 
Southern  States,  the  Middle  Atlantic  States  and  in 
New  England  and  has  lived  in  Alabama,  Tennessee 
and  New  Jersey. 

Mr.  Mabry  is  a  religious  man  and  in  affiliation  a 
Baptist.  He  became  a  member  of  the  church  in 
1906  and  in  his  church  life  as  in  his  business  life  he 
was  not  content  to  be  a  passive  member. 

His  membership  is  in  the  16th  Street  Baptist 
church  where  he  is  actively  engaged  in  religious 
work. 

Mr.  Mabry  is  greatly  interested  in  the  welfare 
of  his  people  as  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  he  is 
connected  with  a  number  of  orders  which  seek 
their  uplift. 

He  is  a  member  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  An 
cient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  Knights  and 
Ladies  of  Honor  of  America,  the  Eastern  Star, 
United  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  and  of  the  I.  B.  P. 
O.  E. 

His  worth  as  an  executive  has  been  recognized 
by  these  different  orders  in  which  he  has  advanced, 
to  official  distinction  from  time  to  time. 

At  this  time  he  is  Most  Worshipful  Master  of  the 
Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  Past  Exalted  Ruler  of 
the  1.  B.  P.  O.  E.  and  Past  Grand  Director  of  the 
Knights  and  Ladies  of  Honor  of  America.  He  is 
also  the  Grand  Master  of,  the  Exchequer  of  the 
Knights  of  Pythias. 

Possibly  Mr.  Mabry's  chief  characteristic  is  his 
love  of  his  fellow  man  and  he  never  tires  in  his  en 
deavors  in  their  behalf.  He  gives  of  himself  and 
his  means  to  their  service  and  it  is  this  which  ac 
counts  for  his  great  influence  and  popularity. 

"Forget   thyself;  console  the  sadness  near  thee, 

Thine  own  shall  then  depart, 
And  songs  of  joy,  like  heavenly  birds,  shall 
cheer  thee, 

And  dwell  within  thv  heart." 


GEORGE   E.   NEWSTELL. 


HE  only  Negro  dry  goods  mer 
chant  in  Montgomery,  Ala.  wor 
thy  of  the  name  is  George  E. 
Newstell.  Mr.  Newstell  keeps  his 
store  on  Monroe  Street,  in  the 
Newstell  building,  meaning  that 
the  building  is  owned  by  the  merchant.  Here  one 
sees  clothing  for  men  and  women  as  attractively 
displayed  as  they  are  in  the  big  stores  up  town. 

Mr.  Newstell  is  out  and  out  a  product  of  the  city 
in  which  he  does  business.  He  was  born  here,  at 
tended  the  Swayne  school  here,  and  has  made  all 
his  ventures  in  business  here.  Graduating  from  the 
Swayne  school  in  1886.  Mr.  Newstell  began  his 
career  as  a  porter  in  a  store  working  for  $2.50  per 
week.  On  completing  three  years  as  a  porter  he 
was  promoted  to  manager  at  a  salary  of  $15  per 
week.  From  this  post  he  went  to  another  at  a  larg 
er  salary.  By  this  time  he  had  accumulated  money 
and  bought  property.  As  he  rose  in  the  business 
world  and  gained  insight  into  the  workings  of  bus 
iness  he  decided  to  launch  out  for  himself.  This 
he  finally  did,  buying  out  his  former  employers. 

He  continued  in  this  business  for  some  years  and 
by  giving  it  his  personal  and  close  attention  he  not 


only  added  to  his  wealth  but  gained  additional  bus 
iness  knowledge  which  enabled  him  to  score  a 
marked  success  in  his  last  and  present  business 
venture. 

Mr.  Newstell  has  very  decided  convictions  re 
garding  business  ventures.  He  holds  that  one 
should  engage  in  a  business  which  appeals  first  to 
his  inclination  and  for  which  he  has  an  aptitude, 
and  even  then  he  should  give  the  matter  close 
consideration  before  he  comes  to  a  decision. 

Following  this  rule  he  considered  various 
branches  of  trade  and  decided  in  favor  of  the  dry 
goods  business.  It  had  been  his  rule  to  study  from 
the  ground  up  every  business  into  which  he  enter 
ed  but  in  the  selection  of  the  dry  goods  business  he 
entered  a  field  entirely  new  to  him,  but  to  which 
he  brought  his  general  knowledge  of  business  and 
ripe,  experience  in  other  lines. 

The  rapid  development  of  the  Newstell  Dry 
Goods  Store  is  a  tribute  to  his  business  sagacity 
no  less  than  to  his  great  popularity. 

In  addition  to  his  dry  goods  business,  Mr.  New 
stell  carries  on  a  Real  Estate  business  under  the 
firm  name  of  Newstell  and  Beverly.  Here  again 
he  showed  his  business  sense.  Before  venturing 
this  field  of  operations  he  studied  the  business  for 
two  and  a  half  years  under  two  competent  and 
practical  teachers  and  even  then  he  moved  slowly 
until  he  had  mastered  it. 

Few  men  have  been  wiser  and  more  fortunate 
in  their  investment.  Thirty  years  in  business  have 
yielded  him,  besides  a  comfortable  living  for  him 
self  and  family,  and  besides  his  dry  goods  and  fur 
nishing  store,  ownership  of  property  valued  at  ap 
proximately  $10,000.  His  income  from  rents  is 
about  $250  per  month.  This  he  attributes  to  two 
main  sources;  first,  a  loyal  and  very  helpful  wife; 
second,  the  careful  study  of  a  business  before  mak 
ing  investments. 

Success  in  business  has  brought  to  Mr.  Newstell 
honors  in  many  other  walks  of  life.  For  fifteen 
years  he  has  been  an  Executive  officer  in  the  order 
of  the  Knights  and  Daughters  of  Tabor.  He  is  a 
Mason,  Odd  Fellow,  a  Knight  of  Pythias.  He  has 
been  a  member  of  Endowment  Board  of  the 
Knights  of  Pythias,  and  is  at  present  treasurer  of 
the  Odd  Fellows  of  Alabama.  He  is  chairman  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Mt.  Zion  A.  M.  E.  Church, 
a  trustee  of  the  Lomax-Hannon  Industrial  School 
of  Greenville,  Ala.,  a  trustee  of  the  Swayne  school 
of  Montgomery,  and  chairman  of  the  Republican 
county  Executive  committee  of  Montgomery 
County. 

Mr.  Newstell  was  married  in  1894  to  Miss  Belle 
Saunders  of  Montgomery  County.  It  is  worth  re 
peating,  as  Mr.  Newstell  never  tires  of  repeating, 
that  much  of  this  man's  success  is  due  to  her. 


51 


ALBERT  FRANKLIN  OWENS,  D.  D. 

EASURED  from  the  depths  whence 
he  came  and  the  heights  he  has  at 
tained  Dr.  A.  F.  Owens  is  one  of 
the  most  remarkable  men  of  the 
race-  Born  a  slave  fifty-six  years 
ago  in  Wilcox  county,  Alabama, 
and  left  an  orphan  at  six  years  of 
age,  he  has  steadily  climbed  from 
the  position  of  a  boy  porter  in  a  book  store  in  New 
Orleans,  Louisiana,  to  the  post  of  Dean  of  the  Theo 
logical  Department  of  Selma  University,  Selma 
Alabama. 

Dr.  Owens  early  education  was  picked  up  in  night 
schools  while  he  worked  for  a  living  during  the 
day.  Soon  he  began  to  teach  and  preach  in  St. 
Landry  Parish,  Lousiana.  Realizing  the  need  of 
better  preparation  for  the  work  of  the  ministry, 
he  entered  Leland  University,  New  Orleans,  in 
1873.  and  finished  in  1877. 

From  the  first  of  his  career  Dr.  Owens  has  been 
interested  in  newspaper  work.  While  attending 
the  University,  he  edited  the  "Baptist  Messenger," 
the  organ  of  the  State  Convention  in  Missionary 
work  in  Louisiana.  In  1885  he  was  editor  of  the 
"Baptist  Pioneer,"  the  official  organ  of  the  Alabama 
Baptist  State  Convention.  Because  of  his  exper 
ience  as  a  journalist  he  is  now  a  special  corres 
pondent  for  the  great  white  dailies  published  in 
Mobile,  Montgomery,  and  Birmingham. 

Dr.  Owens  has  pastored  in  such  cities  as  Mobile, 
and  Montgomery.  He  is  no  less  an  educator,  hav 


ing  served  as  a  Trustee  and  teacher  of  Selma  Uni 
versity.  After  resigning  his  pastorate  in  Mobile 
in  1906,  he  accepted  the  position  of  Dean  of  the 
Theological  Department  of  Selma  University 
where  he  remained  until  1908,  when  he  accepted  a 
similar  post  in  the  Phelps  Hall  Bible  Training 
School,  of  Tuskegee  Institute.  In  1913  Dr.  Owens 
returned  to  his  former  work  at  Selma  University 
where  he  is  now  located. 

During  the  year  1911,  Dr.  Owens  representing 
the  State  Federation  of  Colored  Women's  clubs, 
went  before  the  Alabama  Legislature  and  secured 
an  appropriation  of  $8,000  for  the  Mt.  Meigs  Re 
formatory  for  colored  boys  and  induced  the  legisla 
ture  to  incorporate  that  reform  school  as  a  state  in 
stitution.  Up  to  this  time  it  had  been  supported 
wholly  by  the  colored  women  of  the  state  by  whom 
it  was  organized.  The  following  letter  will  show 
something  of  the  labors  and  the  esteem  in  which 
Dr.  Owens  is  held  by  the  white  people  of  Mobile, — 
The  Mobile  Register. 

GOVERNOR   O'NEAL'S   TRIBUTE   TO   DR. 
A.  F.  OWENS. 
Birmingham,   Ala.,    June,    1918. 

During  my  administration  as  Governor  I  be 
came  acquainted  with  Dr.  A.  F.  Owens,  lie  ren 
dered  me  very  active  and  efficient  service  in  se 
curing  the  passage  of  the  bill  establishing  the 
Mount  Meigs  School  for  the  Reformatory  of  Ju 
venile  Negro  Delinquents.  After  the  establishment 
of  this  institution,  I  appointed  Dr.  Owens  as  one 
of  the  trustees,  and  came  in  contact  with  him  very 
frequently  in  many  matters  affecting  the  interest 
of  both  races.  1  was  deeply  impressed  with  his 
broad  and  liberal  culture,  his  high  ideals  and  his 
sincere  devotion  to  the  cause  of  education  and  the 
betterment  of  both  races. 

I  soon  learned  to  rank  him  with  the  lamented 
Booker  T.  Washington  and  W.  H.  Council,  as  a 
man  who  had  a  clear  and  comprehensive  concep 
tion  of  those  measures  which  would  best  promote 
the  most  amicable  and  friendly  relation  between 
the  races.  I  early  learned  to  recognize  him  as  a 
man  whose  councils  and  teachings  if  followed, 
would  create  the  very  cordial  and  friendly  relation 
between  the  races  so  essential  to  the  interest  of 
both. 

As  a  public  speaker.  Dr.  Owens  has  rare  gifts 
of  oratory,  is  polished  and  forceful  and  by  his 
clear  and  intelligent  conception  of  public  questions 
never  fails  to  make  an  impress  upon  his  auditors. 
He  is  unquestionably  a  worthy  successor  of 
Washington  and  Council,  and  I  earnestly  believe 
his  influence  will  only  redound  to  the  benefit  of  his 
own  race  and  to  the  creation  of  that  cordial  rela 
tion  and  the  removal  of  that  friction  between  the 
races  which  is  too  often  the  result  of  ignorance 
and  prejudice; 

Verv  respectfully, 

EMMET  O'NEAL. 

When  the  Spanish-American  War  broke  out. 
Dr.  Owen  rendered  valuable  service  in  organizing 
the  Third  Alabama  Colored  Regiment  in  Mobile. 

Dr.  Owens  has  been  twice  married.  His  first 
wife,  Mrs.  Mary  Minis  Taylor  of  Mobile,  Alabama, 
died  in  1900.  His  present  wife  is  Miss  Sallie  Mae 
Pruitt  of  Leighton,  Alabama. 


52 


1 


LAWRENCE  L.   POWELL 


L.  POWELL,  State  Grand  Mas 
ter  Mosaic  Templars  of  America, 
was  born  near  Conycrs,  Ga.,  Oct. 
1876  and  educated  in  the  city  of 
Atlanta.  After  spending-  his  boy 
hood  days  in  Atlanta,  he  decided 
to  travel.  His  first  stop  was  in  the  State  of  Ala 
bama.  After  some  interesting  investigation  of 
many  places  as  to  their  future  worth,  Mr.  Powell 
decided  to  locate  in  the  Northern  part  of  the  state 
in  the  little  city  of  Sheffield,  which  at  this  time 
seemed  the  most  prominent  industrial  city.  There 
he  entered  the  mercantile  business  and  was  a  suc 
cess  from  the  start.  He  was  successful  in  making 
a  number  of  friends  not  only  in  Sheffield  but  in  all 
the  adjacent  towns,  many  of  whom  he  remembers 
with  gratitude,  and  many  of  whom  tc>  this  dav  are 
his  strongest  indorsers  and  supporters  in  his  work 
as  Grand  Master. 

He  owns  some  very  valuable  property  in  Mont 
gomery  and  Birmingham  and  is  regarded  as  one 
among  the  Negores  who  have  made  good  in  Ala 
bama  in  the  face  of  many  disappointments  and 
difficulties. 


Mr.  Powell  is  identified  with  many  leading 
Lodges,  the  one  in  which  he  is  most  promi 
nent  being  the  National  Order  of  the  Mosaic  Temp 
lars.  He  has  been  identified  with  it  now  for 
twenty  years  and  has  filled  many  places  of  honor 
and  trust.  Slowly  he  has  climbed  to  the  top  of  this 
organization  in  his  state,  and  today  is  State  Grand 
Master  of  the  Alabama  Jurisdiction,  master  over 
600  Lodges  with  a  membership  of  quite  15000. 

As  to  honorary  positions  few  men  of  his  race 
have  received  so  many  pleasant  returns.  For  eight 
years  he  has  represented  his  state  as  a  delegate  at 
large  in  the  National  Assembly  of  his  order,  and 
for  eight  years  has  been  a  fraternal  delegate  to 
visit  all  the  Grand  Lodges  in  the  National  Juris 
diction. 

In  the  fall  of  1911  he  was  married  to  Mrs.  Willie 
R.  Lee,  a  widow  of  many  splendid  qualities,  and  a 
mother  of  two  children,  a  boy  and  a  girl,  both  of 
whom  are  making  a  place  for  themselves.  The 
young  man  Clarence  W.  Lee  has  reached  his  ma 
jority  and  is  filling  a  very  important  position  in  the 
Mosaic  Templars  of  Alabama.  The  young  woman, 
Miss  Annie  Helen  Lee  is  a  student  at  the  State 
Normal. 

L.  L.  Powell,  State  Grand  Master  of  the  Na 
tional  Order  of  Mosaic  Templare  of  Alabama  has 
in  eight  years  built  from  45  lodges  and  900  mem 
bers,  quite  600  Lodges  and  1500  members.  This 
organization  has  added  many  features  for  the  bet 
terment  of  the  members :  Namely  the  burial  de 
partment.  When  Powell  was  made  State  Grand 
Master  Wm.  Alexander  (deceased)  was  the  Na 
tional  Grand  Master.  Having  Wm.  Alexander's 
friendship  and  confidence  he  was  able  to  get  Alex 
ander's  co-operation  in  many  ways.  It  was  pre 
dicted  by  no  few  that  this  department  would  never 
be  able  to  sustain  itself,  but  its  success  the  past 
several  years  has  proven  by  careful  management  a 
"Great  Boon"  to  unfortunate  members,  and  today 
this  department  alone  receives  between  nine  and 
ten  thousand  dollars  annually  and  is  self-sustaining. 
This  burial  department  is  exclusive  of  endowment. 
It  is  said  that  the  Mosaics  is  the  only  lodge  of  its 
kind  that  makes  the  last  resting  place  of  its  dead. 

The  Mosaic  Lodge  was  organized  in  Little  Rock 
in  1882  by  the  Hon.  J.  E.  Bush  and  Hon.  C.  W. 
Keatts.  Since  date  of  organization  it  has  entered 
thirty-one  states  and  has  grand  Lodge  in  South 
Africa,  Central  America  and  Panama  Zone.  It  has 
a  total  membership  of  between  80,000  and  100,000. 
It  has  stood  every  crisis  and  is  said  to  have  more 
cash  money  in  hand  than  any  colored  organization 
of  its  kind  in  the  world,  with  no  outstanding  in 
debtedness,  having  to  its  credit  over  a  quarter  of 
a  million  dollars. 


I.  T.   SIMPSON,  B.  D.,  D.  D. 

R.  I.  T.  SIMPSON  is  present  pas 
tor  of  the  African  Baptist  Church 
at  Tuscaloosa.  Alabama.  Dr 
Simpson  was  born  in  troublous 
times,  troublous  historically  and 
troublous  for  Dr.  Simpson  per 
sonally.  He  was  born  in  the  late  50's  in  Conecuh 
County,  Alabama. 

Even  in  this  enlightened  day  Conecuh  County  is 
not  wholly  peppered  with  school  houses.  In  the 
50's,  60's  and  70's  chances  for  a  black  boy  to  learn 
the  mere  rudiments  were  exceedingly  rare.  They 
were  worse  for  the  Tuscaloosa  pastor.  Dr.  Simp 
son  was  an  orphan.  Very  early  in  his  childhood  he 
was  "bound  out",  as  the  phrase  used  to  run.  He 
was  given  a  sort  of  stint;  namely  he  had  to  milk 
twelves  cows  a  day  and  chop  an  acre  of  cotton. 
When  this  was  done  he  could  go  to  school  as  the 
case  might  be.  When  going  to  school  was  not  pos 
sible  he  prevailed  upon  the  sons  of  the  man  he 
was  "bound  to"  to  teach  him. 

Arriving  at  young  manhood,  Dr.  Simpson  set 
out  for  himself.  His  first  real  training  was  received 
at  the  State  Normal  School  in  Montgomery,  Ala 
bama.  From  Montgomery  he  entered  Selma  Uni- 

54 


versity,  finishing  from  each  department  in  the 
school,  the  last  being  the  Department  of  Theology 
and  was  later  made  a  trustee  of  Selma  University. 
Equipped  now  for  life  work,  he  set  out  to  find 
a  field.  His  first  charge,  as  the  clergymen  speak  of 
it,  was  found  at  Evergreen,  the  First  Baptist 
Church  near  the  town.  This,  while  it  was  the  be 
ginning  of  his  life  work  as  pastor  marked  also  the 
beginning  of  a  round  of  charges,  some  very  long, 
some  of  comparative  short  duration.  From  Ever 
green  he  went  to  Mt.  Arrirat,  thence  to  Selma, 
thence  to  Friendship  at  Marion.  Leaving  that  sec 
tion  of  the  country,  he  next  accepted  the  pastorate 
of  the  First  Baptist  Church  of  Opelika  and  of  the 
Rbenezer  Baptist  Church,  of  Auburn,  Alabama. 
Over  both  of  these  churches  he  presided  at  the 
same  time,  holding  Opelika  fourteen  years  and  Au 
burn  ten  years. 

During  the  four  years  of  his  pastorate  at  Tus 
caloosa,  Alabama,  where  he  now  presides,  Dr. 
Simpson  has  been  engaged  mainly  in  raising  funds 
to  complete  a  handsome  brick  church.  He  has  been 
able  to  assemble  the  aid  of  the  white  people  and 
colored  people  to  the  extent  of  raising  $17,000  in 
four  years. 

During  his  pastorate  and  career,  Dr.  Simpson 
has  held  many  important  offices  in  his  denomina 
tion  in  the  state.  As  has  been  stated  he  is  a  trus 
tee  of  Selma  University,  a  place  he  has  held  for 
twenty  years.  He  was  at  one  time  a  state  mission 
ary,  and  was  the  state  treasurer  of  the  Missionary 
Baptist  Convention  for  twelve  years.  He  lifted -a 
debt  of  $2,800  from  the  Chattanooga  Baptist  church 
in  a  short  pastorate  of  fifteen  months.  At  present 
he  is  treasurer  of  the  N.  \V.  Baptist  state  conven 
tion.  In  his  life  as  a  preacher  he  has  baptized 
6000  souls. 

The  Tuscaloosa  pastor  has  tried  to  make  himself 
secure  for  the  day  when  he  will  no  longer  be  vigor 
ous  and  full  of  health.  He  owns  a  lot  in  Birming 
ham,  three  lots  in  Tuscaloosa,  where  he  is  now  pas- 
toring  and  one  lot  in  Steel  City,  St.  Clair  County. 

Dr.  Simpson  has  been  married  more  than  a  quar 
ter  of  a  century.  His  wife  was  Miss  Julia  A.  Cun 
ningham  of  Bellville,  Conecuh  County.  The  fam 
ily  group  is  happiest  when  Dr.  F.  R.  Simpson  of 
Ensley,  the  son,  runs  down  to  Tuscaloosa  for  a 
short  stay  with  his  parents. 

To  quote  Dr.  C.  O.  Boothe  in  his  Alabama  Bap 
tists,  "He  (Dr.  Simpson)  is  peculiarly  himself  and 
not  another — clear  headed,  comprehensive,  reason 
able,  self-reliant,  genial  in  his  home  as  well  as  in 
the  public  harness." 


ELIJAH  STRONG  SMITH. 

EGRO  insurance  is  still  in  its  in 
fancy.  Though  the  first  company 
is  said  to  have  been  established 
in  1810,  the  genuine  Negro  insur 
ance  business  could  not  have  tak- 

: 

then,  there  were  vascilations,  timidity,  mistrust. 
The  Negro  had  to  be  converted  to  his  own.  More 
over,  he  had  to  be  educated  to  the  point  to  be  in 
sured  and  he  had  to  develop  earning  power  to  pay 
the  premium.  Finally,  the  aspirant  to  insurance 
business  had  to  be  educated  to  conduct  and  man 
age  such  an  undertaking — an  education  which  one 
is  inclined  to  admit  the  black  man  came,  by  clan 
destinely,  peeping  out  of  the  corner  of  one  eye 
while  dusting  the  counters  or  adjusting  the  ele 
vator.  , 

Elijah  Strong  Smith  of  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama, 
seems,  however,  to  have  been  to  the  manor  born,  in 
insurance  as  well  as  in  other  forms  of  business. 
While  yet  a  boy  in  his  home  town,  1  lenderson,  Ken 
tucky,  Mr.  Smith  was  paying  his  expenses  in  school 
by  selling  books,  and  he  who  can  sell  books  has 
already  made  his  business  career  secure.  Finishing 
the  public  school  in  Henderson,  he  entered  the 
State  University  in  Louisville.  Again  the  selling 


of  books  and  merchandise  furnished  the  money  to 
defray  the  expenses  of  his  education. 

Finishing  College,  Mr.  Smith  went  to  Alabama 
and  joined  the  Mutual  Aid  Association  of  Mobile, 
the  company  over  which  C.  F.  Johnson  presides. 
Finding  Mr.  Smith  already  seasoned  in  business, 
much  unlike  the  average  school  graduate  who  had 
entered  the  service  of  the  company,  Mr.  Johnson 
sent  Mr.  Smith  to  Pratt  City  to  be  district  agent. 
In  one  year's  time  the  young  man  had  risen  from 
district  agent  to  district  manager.  Seven  years 
later  he  was  made  district  auditor.  In  1911,  the 
company  having  developed  a  large  business  in  Tus 
caloosa,  appointed  Mr.  Smith  manager  of  the  dis 
trict. 

Though  a  stranger  in     Tuscaloosa,     a     town     in 
which  Negroes  are  keenly  alert  in    business,    Mr. 
Smith  took  immediately  a  leading  place  among  the 
business   men.     He   had  been   in   the   city  but   one 
year  when  he  was  chosen  President  of  the  Negro 
Business  Men's  League  of  the  city-    From  this  time 
on  he  has  represented  Tuscaloosa  in  all  the  Negro 
business  gatherings  of  Alabama.     He  was  delegate 
to  the  National  Negro  Business  League  in  1912  and 
was  chosen  Secretary  of  his  State  League  in  1916. 
Useful  in   business   circles,   Mr.   Smith   is   also  a 
vital  force  in  the  church  and  in  the  big  organiza 
tions   of  Alabama.     He   is   an   active   member   and 
worker     of  the     First   Baptist   Church.     For   four 
years  he  has  been  President  of  the  Tuscaloosa  Bap 
tist  Young  People's  Union,  and  for  two  years  As 
sistant   Superintendent  of  the.  Sunday   School.     In 
1914  and  1915  he  was  President  of  the  District  Bap 
tist  Young  People's  Union.    He  is  a  member  of  the 
Advisory  Board  of  the  Federation  of  Colored  Wo 
men  of  Alabama. 

To  be  sure  Mr.  Smith  came  to  business  and  to  ev 
ery  day  life  well  equipped.  He  had  enjoyed  ex 
ceptional  advantages  of  travel  and  contact,  having 
traveled  all  over  the  United  States  as  an  advance 
representative  for  the  Eckstein  Norton  University 
of  Cane  Springs,  Kentucky.  The  officials  of  the 
government  striving  to  select  leading  men  in  differ 
ent  localities  to  lead  in  war  activities,  eagerly 
sought  for  and  selected  Mr.  Smith  to  assume  the 
office  of  Chairman  of  the  Food  Conservation  cam 
paign  in  Tuscaloosa  County,  Alabama. 

The  whole  county  of  Tuscaloosa  fell  in  behind  his 
leadership  and  the  result  was  that  the  war  depart 
ment  realized  that  it  had  made  no  mistake  in  se 
lecting  him  and  the  result  of  his  activities  along 
this  line  will  always  be  a  bright  spot  in  his  work 
for  his  country. 

He  was  also  selected  as  one  of  the  four  minute 
speakers  for  his  county  and  he  was  everywhere  in 
the  city  of  Tuscaloosa  and  Tuscaloosa  County 
where  any  gathering  was  being  held  to  impress 
•i^on  the  people  their  full  duty  in  whatever  mo 
mentous  work  was  being  pushed  by  the  govern 
ment  at  that  time.  In  fact  he  was  always  a  lead 
ing  factor  in  all  war  work  activities. 

In  all  his  endeavors,  Mr.  Smith  relies  much  on 
Mrs.  Smith,  his  wife,  to  whom  he  was  married  in 
1896,  before  taking  residence  in  Alabama.  Mrs. 
Smith  was  Miss  Nellie  Montgomery,  of  Starksville, 
Mississippi. 


Soloman  Sharp  Sykes 


F  course  I  don't  look  at  the  books 
every  day,  but  I  keep  pretty  good 
track  of  things  both  outside  and 
in  the  court  house  here.  As  far 
as  I  know,  Sykes  owns  all  this 
property  without  one  cent  of 
mortgage." 

These  were  the  words  of  an  officer  of  the  court 
of  Decatur,  Alabama,  in  speaking  of  Soloman 
Sharp  Sykes,  self-made,  self-educated. 

Even  these  details  are  not  germain.  The  essen 
tial  question  is  what  this  exslave,  almost  illiterate 
man,  accomplished  during  these  50  years  of  his 
freedom.  Of  course  Mr.  Sykes  is  the  most  modest 
of  men.  You  have  to  wrest  facts  from  him  about 
himself.  Even  then  he  gives  only  fragments.  To 
know  about  him  you  have  to  go  to  his  neighbors. 
These  neighbors  tell  you  that  Sharp  Sykes  is  al 
ways  doing  something  for  his  people,  helping  some 
body  through  school  Contributing  to  buy  a  church, 
to  help  a  school,  to  give  somebody  a  start.  They 
tell  you  further,  white  or  black,  that  Mr.  Sykes 
carries  a  thousand  or  two  of  dollars  in  each  of 
the  several  banks  of  the  town.  Then  you  go  to  the 
records  and  along  the  streets  and  find  his  proper 
ty  holdings  about  as  follows :  His  neighbors  and 
the  books  all  confirm  this.  He  owns  his  home,  a 
real  residence.  He  owns  his  undertaking  estab 
lishment.  He  owns  his  seven  stores,  eighteen  rent 
houses,  one  farm  and  a  seven  acre  cemetery.  This 
is  the  property  of  which  the  officer  of  the  court 
said,  "As  far  as  I  know  there  is  not  one  cent  of 
mortgage  on  it." 

He  gives  without  ceasing.  Moreover,  he  has 
reared  and  has  educated  an  unusually  large  family. 
And  Mr.  Sykes  lives  for,  and  in  a  sense,  in,  these 
children.  The  man  does  not  grow  old.  He  has  been 
able  to  grow  with  his  children,  to  get  much  of  their 
education,  to  absorb  from  contact  with  them  an 
abundance  of  the  culture  which  he  in  his  youth 
and  later  struggle  had  to  miss. 

Mrs.  Sykes  has  had  more  education  to  start  with, 
having  had  a  pretty  good  common  school  educa 
tion.  They  are  both  religious  people,  being 
members  of  the  First  Baptist  Church,  where  Mr. 
Sykes  is  a  deacon.  Mr.  Sykes  is  a  lodge  member, 
holding  membership  in  the  Masonic  Lodge  and  in 
the  Eastern  Star.  His  real  life  interest,  however,  is 
centered  in  the  church,  in  his  family  and  in  mak 
ing  people  about  him  happy  and  content. 

Mr.  Sykes  was  born  in  Lawrence  County,  Ala 
bama,  about  ten  years  before  emancipation  and 
lived  at  a  time  when  it  was  hard  to  get  an  educa 
tion.  He  made  the  best  of  his  opportunities,  how 


ever,  and  managed  to  secure  one  or  two  months  of 
schooling  each  year.  The  balance  of  his  time  was 
devoted  to  manual  labor. 

Tn  1878,  while  still  a  young  man  in  his  early 
twenties,  he  saw  an  opportunity  to  enter  business, 
which  he  was  quick  to  seize,  and  started  upon  his 
business  career  with  only  a  strong  body,  a  quick 
mind  and  a  large  endowment  of  common  sense. 
This  trio  of  gifts  was  sure  to  win  success  and  the 
sequence  of  his  life  shows  that  in  his  case  they  did 
make  a  successful  score.  It  is  unnecessary  to  fol 
low  his  rise  step  by  step.  Sufficient  to  say  that 
he  won  out  and  that  today,  after  twenty  years  of 
business  life,  he  is  the  proprietor  of  a  number  of 
business  enterprises.  Among  his  business  ventures 
is  that  of  Undertaker  and  Embalmer,  a  large  busi 
ness  in  which  his  son  is  associated. 

Mr.  Sykes  is  not  only  a  money  getter,  but  a  lib 
eral  spender.  He  does  not  spend  his  money  fool 
ishly,  but  in  a  way  to  help  others.  He  has  learn 
ed  the  joy  of  service  and  to  him  money  has  open 
ed  up  a  wider  avenue  to  this  blessed  state.  Money 
is  a  good  servant  but  a  hard  master  and  Mr.  Sykes 
has  relegated  money  to  its  proper  place  of  ser 
vant.  Mr.  Sykes  also  appreciates  the  uncertainty 
of  riches  and  instead  of  hoarding  them  to  leave  to 
his  children  when  he  is  gone  he  employs  his  money 
in  giving  his  children  the  best  advantages  of  edu 
cation  and  to  fit  them  for  useful  lives,  knowing 
that  what  he  gives  them  in  this  respect  cannot  be 
taken  from  them. 

Mr.  Sykes  was  married  to  Miss  Ada  Garth  of 
Morgan  Coounty,  Alabama,  in  1880.  and  for  forty 
years  they  have  labored  side  by  side  for  the  good 
of  their  community  and  the  welfare  of  their  chil 
dren.  God  has  blessed  them  with  a  large  family 
of  children,  eight  in  number,  who  constitute  their 
pride  of  life  and  in  whose  interest  their  lives  are 
devoted.  They  have  grown  with  their  children  and 
the  reflex  influence  of  the  educational  advantages 
they  have  given  their  children  are  seen  in  their 
own  mental  advancement. 

Several  of  his  children  have  entered  the  profes 
sions  and  the  others  are  being  fitted  to  fill  well 
any  position  in  life  that  they  may  elect. 

Miss  Rebecca  is  a  graduate  of  Fisk  University; 
Miss  Mamie  Estelle  is  a  graduate  of  Spellman 
Seminar}',  Atlanta,  Georgia ;  his  son,  Newman  M., 
is  a  graduate  of  Fisk  University  and  is  now  pursu 
ing  graduate  studies  for  a  medical  degree  in  the 
University  of  Illinois.  Another  son,  Leo  M.  Sykes, 
is  now  a  student  at  Howard  University  and  is  tak 
ing  a  course  in  Dentistry.  Carl  M.  is  a  student  at 
Moorehouse  College,  Atlanta,  Georgia,  while  Mel- 
vin  and  Eunice  are  pursuing  their  studies  in  the 
public  schools  of  their  home  city.  When  their 
foundation  is  laid  they  will  no  doubt  receive  a  col 
lege  training  also.  Children  with  such  advantages 
and  springing  from  such  a  sire  ar,  sure  to  make 
their  impress  upon  the  world,  and  will  be  pointed 
to  as  a  monument  to  the  wisdom  of  the  parents 
who  trained  them  for  service. 


56 


JOHN  LEVY  THOMAS. 


N  Union  Springs,  Alabama,  the 
county  seat  of  Bullock  County, 
lives  a  colored  man  who  for  a 
quarter  of  a  century  has  been 
judge,  jury  and  court  regarding 
all  matters  pertaining  to  the  pub 
lic  good  of  the  Negro.  Step  by  step  from  a  poor 
and  unlettered  farmer,  he  has  made  his  way  to  the 
post.  At  every  stage  he  has  had  to  stop  and  de 
monstrate.  It  was  doubted  in  that  section  if  a 
colored  man  could  own  and  operate  a  farm  suc 
cessfully.  J.  L.  Thomas  bought  a  farm  and  de 
monstrated.  It  was  thought  that  a  Negro  could 
not  ovv'ii  and  operate  a  city  business  successfully, 
the  prophecy  being  that  business  equipment,  Ne 
gro  and  all  would  in  a  short  time  be  back  in  the 
hands  of  the  white  people.  Thomas  bought  a  block 
and  set  up  a  grocery  and  provision  store  and  prov 
ed  the  fallacy  of  this  notion. 

Some  years  ago  advanced  thought  and  democ 
racy  poked  their  heads  far  enough  in  some  sec 
tions  of  the  South  to  declare  that  a  Negro  County 
]*air  would  be  a  very  helpful,  indeed  an  inspiring 
thing.  In  and  around  the  home  of  Mr.  Thomas 
timidity  and  inexperience  asserted  that  such  a  no 
tion  was  little  short  of  preposterous.  Taking  his 


own  hard  earned  money  from  the  bank,  Mr. 
Thomas  financed  the  Negro  Fair,  showing  that  the 
thing  could  be  done.  Last  year  the  white  citi 
zens  of  Union  Springs  gave  one  hundred  dollars 
for  prizes  for  fairs  between  two  small  Negro  com 
munities.  Today  Mr.  Thomas  is  preaching  veg 
etable,  poultry  and  stock  raising.  Once  more  he 
demonstrates  with  his  own  products,  and  once 
more  his  doctrine  is  being  heeded  by  the  masses 
around  him. 

Mr.  Thomas  was  born  in  Pike  County,  Alabama, 
March  5th,  1863.  A  farm  lad,  he  had  but  a  slight 
chance  to  gain  even  the  rudiments  of  education. 
What  education  he  got  was  gained  by  night  study 
after  plowing  all  day.  The  following  is  told  by  Dr. 
Washington  regarding  Mr.  Thomas'  getting  a  foot 
hold: 

"Thompson  contracted  to  pay  Thomas  five  dol 
lars  per  month,  with  the  privilege  of  coming  to 
town  very  other  Saturday  afternoon  to  see  his 
mother.  He  was  allowed  to  stay  over  Sunday,  but 
was  obliged  to  be  on  hand  at  sunrise  Monday 
morning  to  catch  his  mules  and  go  to  plowing.  He 
was  always  on  time  early  Monday  morning. 

"The  colored  farmer  took  such  a  liking  to  the 
boy  that  the  gave  him  a  little  patch  of  land  to  cul 
tivate  himself.  This  land  was  planted  in  peanuts, 
and  yielded  between  ten  and  fifteen  bushels,  which 
were  carefully  dried  and  housed. 

"At  that  time  it  was  the  custom  among  the  col 
ored  people  to  give  corn  shuckings  and  suppers 
were  attended  by  people  from  ten  miles  around. 
Whenever  Mr.  Thomas  heard  of  one  of  these 
events  he  would  parch  about  one-half  bushel  of  his 
peanuts  and  carry  them  to  the  gathering  to  sell. 
By  offering  them  at  five  cents  a  pint  he  was  able 
to  make  as  much  as  three  dollars  per  bushel.  He 
often  walked  as  far  as  eight  miles  with  his  peanuts 
to  a  big  supper  or  dance,  after  plowing  hard  all  day, 
and  with  another  hard  day  before  him.  He  parch 
ed  them  during  dinner  hour,  when  other  hands 
were  resting,  and  was  often  up  as  late  as  three 
o'clock  in  the  morning  to  sell  them,  although  he 
had  to  go  to  work  at  daybreak." 

Although  his  education  was  small  in  book  learn 
ing  he  had  a  fund  of  practical  knowledge  which 
backed  by  a  wealth  of  common  sense  has  enabled 
him  to  do  things  of  great  worth  and  to  be  a  help 
and  blessing  to  his  race.  After  all  this  is  the  se 
cret  of  a  successful  life  and  measured  by  this 
standard  he  has  not  lived  in  vain. 

Mr.  Thomas  is  a  large  real  estate  owner;  his 
possessions  comprise  about  two  hundred  city  lots 
and  several  farms.  While  interested  in  the  city  the 
farm  is  his  first  love.  He  lives  on  his  farm  and 
takes  great  delight  in  his  cattle,  poultry  and  gar 
den  and  from  the  waving  corn  and  snowy  cotton 
field  he  finds  his  chief  joy. 

Mi.  Ihomas  is  ambitious  to  see  his  people  ad 
vance  i  long  all  right  lines  and  he  never  tires  in 
giving  them  the  word  of  encouragement  and  in  ex 
tending  the  helping  hand. 

"A  friend  in  need  is  a  friend  indeed,"  and  Mr. 
Thomas  tries  to  be  that  friend  and  has  learned  as 
so  many  have  that  a  life  of  service  is  the  only  life 
worth  living. 


57 


MISS  GEORGIA  WASHINGTON. 

ISS  Georgia  Washington,  the 
founder  and  Principal  of  the 
Peoples'  Village  School,  Mt. 
Meigs,  Alabama,  was  born  a  Vir 
ginia  slave,  and  with  her  mother 
and  brother,  was  sold  away  from 
her  father  when  she  was  a  mere  child. 

After  their  emancipation  the  problem  of  a  live 
lihood  confronted  her  mother,  for  the  new  condi 
tions  imposed  new  and  untried  responsibilities. 
Following  the  course  pursued  by  man}-  ex-slaves, 
the  mother  worked  out  with  her  old  master  and 
left  her  daughter  to  care  for  the  other  children  in 
the  family  and  look  after  the  household  duties. 
This  was  a  grave  responsibility  to  place  upon 
young  shoulders  but  the  struggle  for  existence  left 
no  other  alternative.  Who  can  say  that  the  hand 
of  Providence  was  not  in  this  early  direction  of 
her  life.  The  discipline  she  received  through  du 
ties  thus  early  placed  upon  her  no  doubt  played  an 
important  part  in  her  selection  of  a  life  work. 
Home  cares  stood  as  a  barrier  to  school  privileges 
and  often  she  stood  at  the  window  of  her  home  and 
watched  the  children  pass  too  and  fro  from  school 
and  longed  to  i  e  vith  them.  The  thirst  for  knowl 
edge  was  born  in  her  and  would  not  be  quenched 
because  of  difficulties.  She  felt  that  the  time 
would  come  when  she,  too,  could  attend  school  and 


she  made  the  most  of  the  little  instruction  that 
her  mother  gave  her. 

Her  mother  had  somewhere  learned  the  alpha 
bet  and  some  few  words,  mostly  from  the  Bible, 
and  these  she  taught  her  daughter. 

It  was  a  proud  day  for  Miss  Georgia  when  she 
could  read  the  Bible  and  this  daily  companion  not 
only  served  to  in  part  satisfy  the  cravings  of  an 
active  mind  but  its  principles  became  so  instilled 
into  her  being  that  her  after  life  was  moulded  by 
them. 

Miss  Georgia's  ambition  to  learn  could  not  be 
satisfied  with  what  she  had  attained.  The  knowl 
edge  she  possessed  gave  her  a  keen  appetite  for 
more.  She  applied  to  a  white  lady  to  further  her 
instructions  who  gladly  complied  with  her  request 
and  who  took  pride  in  her  eager  and  successful 
pupil. 

Ihe  expense  of  city  life  became  too  great  for 
the  meager  income  of  the  family  and  it  was  neces 
sary  to  make  a  change  in  order  to  reduce  the  ex 
pense  of  living.  With  this  end  in  view  her  mother 
moved  to  the  country. 

This  move  brightened  the  hope  of  Miss  Georgia 
for  an  education,  for  there  was  a  good  school  in 
the  vicinity  of  their  new  home. 

However,  disappointment  again  met  her.  Grim 
necessity  of  earning  bread  thrust  her  back  to  all 
of  those  myriad  duties  attendant  upon  keeping 
house. 

Her  mother  noting  her  daughter's  disappoint 
ment  and  recognizing  the  activity  of  her  mind,  was 
as  eager  as  she  for  her  to  have  a  chance  for  its  de 
velopment,  and  determined  at  the  first  opportunity 
to  give  her  this  chance.  The  opportunity  came  be 
fore  her  mother  felt  herself  in  a  position  to  act. 

It  chanced  that  the  school  teacher  here  was  a 
Hampton  graduate.  By  hard  persuasion  the  moth 
er  was  prevailed  upon  to  let  the  daughter  go  to 
school  for  a  few  months.  Thus  in  October,  1876. 
she  entered  the  country  school.  By  Christmas 
time,  necessity  in  the  home  caused  the  mother  to 
declare  against  further  attendance.  Again  the 
mother  was  prevailed  upon  and  allowed  the 
daughter  to  go  on  until  Spring.  However,  Miss 
Washington  had  scored  another  triumph  in  her 
career.  She  had  learned  to  write  with  pen  and 
ink,  a  feat  of  magic  to  her,  one  which  she  had  de 
spaired  of  accomplishing. 

Then  came  other  scenes  of  persuasion  and  of 
triumph  in  the  Washington  cabin.  The  teacher 
wished  Miss  Washington  to  go  to  Hampton.  Once 
more  necessity  stood  in  the  way.  She  went,  not 
withstanding,  but  it  was  agreed  that  she  would 
have  to  return  in  a  little  while,  as  funds  would  soon 
run  out.  But  she  did  no  such  thing.  She  entered  in 
1877;  saw  the  Indians  come  to  the  school  in  1878; 
saw  new  buildings  go  up  and  old  ones  torn  down ; 
was  graduated  in  1882;  joined  the  teachers'  staff 
and  taught  and  helped  the  Indian  girls  in  what  is 
known  as  "Winona  Lodge"  for  ten  years  after 
graduation. 

Proud  as  Miss  Washington  was  of  her  detention 
at  Hampton,  yet  such  an  engagement  did  not 
square  with  her  ideals.  She  had  dreamed  of  form 
ing  a  school  in  some  out-of-the-way  place.  This 
she  found  finally  in  Alabama.  At  the  end  of  her 
ten  years  service  at  Hampton,  she  was  asked  to  go 
to  Calhoun,  Alabama,  to  aid  Miss  Mabel  Dilling- 


'/=• 
•*?&*&»  if 

'*^9* 


CAMPUS    SCENE    PEOPLE'S    VILLAGE    SCHOOL 


ham  and  Miss  Charlotte  Thorn,  two  Hampton 
teachers,  to  found  a  school.  Remaining  here  a  year 
Miss  Washington  set  out  to  realize  her  own  vis 
ion,  to  establish  a  school. 

Dr.  Washington  knowing  her  desire  chose  her 
a  spot  near  the  village  of  Mt.  Meigs,  Alabama  a 
spot  forty  miles  from  the  Calhoun  Institute,  and 
twenty-five  miles  from  Tuskegee  Institute.  Hith 
er  in  1893  Miss  Washington  went.  Miss  Washing 
ton  came  to  the  village  in  cotton  picking  time, 
thus  she  found  that  no  place  had  been  provided  for 
either  herself  or  the  school  and  that  very  few  peo 
ple  were  interested  in  either  her  or  the  school.  The 
pastor  of  the  colored  church  gave  her  lodging  for 
the  first  month.  By  October,  1893,  she  had  been 
able  to  rent  a  cabin,  12  by  13,  and  to  open  the  pub- 
Vic  village  school  at  Mt.  Meigs.  Four  small  boys 
completed  the  enrollment  for  the  first  month. 
Shortly  after  this  they  were  crowded  out  of  the 
cabin  and  went  into  the  Negro  church. 

A  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  school  cabin,  she 
rented  another  cabin  for  herself.  Here  during  the 
first  vear  she  lived  alone,  cooking  and  keeping 
house  for  herself  and  paying  four  dollars  a  month 
for  rent  and  laundry.  On  Saturdays,  her  holidays, 
she  taught  sewing  classes  and  wrote  to  the  North 
seeking  to  interest  friends  in  the  school.  She  had 
mothers'  meetings  Sunday  afternoons. 

By  February  the  people  had  bought  and  partly 
paid  for  two  acres  of  land  and  built  a  small  school 
house,  18  by  36.  The  enrollment  the  first  year  was 
one  hundred,  representing  thirty-five  families.  As 
the  children  had  to  pay  50c  or  75c  according  to  age. 
a  great  many  failed  to  enroll.  Indeed,  the  one 
hundred  represented  scarcely  a  third.  After  the 
first  year,  however,  the  school  grew  rapidly.  Out 


side  aid  came,  new  buildings  were  added.  Two 
Hampton  teachers  joined  Miss  Washington,  who 
was  now  able  to  distribute  the  work  and  to  teach 
more  industries.  A  Board  of  trustees  was  incor 
porated,  two  white  men  of  the  community  being  on 
the  board. 

Miss  Washington  has  fully  realized  the  vision 
of  her  school  days  at  Hampton.  She  has  planted  a 
school  in  the  wilderness.  From  an  enrollment  of  4 
small  boys  and  one  teacher  in  1893,  the  school  en 
rolled  in  1916,  225  students  and  had  five  teachers. 
From  no  place  at  all  in  which  to  assemble  the  pu 
pils.  Miss  Washington  has  put  up  a  two-story 
school  house  with  three  recitation  rooms,  an  as 
sembly  hall,  and  rooms  for  teaching  industries  to 
both  boys  and  girls.  Twenty-seven  acres  of  land 
are  now  owned  and  cultivated  by  the  school,  fur 
nishing  a  means  of  teaching  the  boys  and  girls  how 
to  farm  and  live  a  farm  life  and  at  the  same  time 
supply  food  for  students  and  teachers.  All  and  all 
the  school  has  a  property  valuation  of  $9,000.00.  It 
has  touched  and  lifted  old  and  young  in  many  ways 
during  these  twenty-four  years  of  its  existence. 
It  has  taught  mothers  better  house  keeping  and 
fathers  to  buy  land  and  to  put  their  farms  on  a  bus 
iness  basis.  Among  the  young  people,  it  has  turned 
out  85  graduates,  many  of  whom  have  gone  to 
Hampton,  Tuskegee,  Normal,  Meharry  Medical 
College,  Talladega  College,  Spelman  Seminary, 
Howard  University  and  many  other  schools.  These 
are  now  filling  places  of  leadership  where  they  are 
living.  Those  who  did  not  elect  to  study  further 
have  gone  back  home  and  are  applying  their 
knowledge  gained  at  the  Village  School  in  living 
clean,  useful  lives. 


59 


VICTOR  HUGO  TULANE. 


RAVELLING  around  on  the  south 
side  of  Montgomery,  Ala.,  you 
come  all  at  once  upon  a  two-story 
brick  building'  which  you  feel 
ought  to  be  down  town.  It  is 
clean,  wholesome,  spacious,  up-to- 

date  in  all  appointments.     This  is 

the  Tulane  Grocery  on  the  corner  of  South  Ripley 
and  High  Sts.  The  building  and  business  alike  are 
owned  by  Victor  H.  Tulane,  who  in  many  ways  is 
the  foremost  colored  citizen  of  Montgomery. 

Mr.  Tulane  is  a  farm  lad  by  birth,  coming  from 
Wetumpka,  Ala.  When  a  lad  of  fifteen  having 
amassed  the  sum  of  $13.60  from  picking  cotton,  he 
left  his  native  heath  and  walked  into  Montgom 
ery  in  his  bare  feet.  It  took  but  a  little  while  to 
find  employment.  In  a  year's  time  he  with  the  as 
sistance  of  a  hard  working  mother,  had  saved 
$100.00.  With  this  sum  he  resolved  to  enter  busi 
ness  for  himself. 

Now  this  was  back  in  the  late  eighties — 1888,  to 
be  explicit,  when  a  Negro  grocer,  indeed  a  Negro 
anything  worth  while  in  business  was  a  very  rare 
creature.  However,  investing  his  savings  in  a  rust- 
eaten  set  of  scales,  a  broken  meat  knife,  a  lam]),  a 
peck  measure,  and  a  few  grocery  remnants,  lie  set 
forth  on  his  business  career. 

Being  a  pioneer  he  proceeded  upon  anything  but 
a  pretentious  basis.  His  first  purchase  of  new 
stock  consisted  of  one  five  pound  bucket  of  lard 
and  ten  cents  worth  of  salt.  As  can  be  readily 
.^een  his  fifteen  feet  by  twenty  feet  store  was  far 


too  large  for  his  merchandise.  To  meet  a  local  de 
mand  he  turned  one  side  of  the  store  into  a  char 
coal  bin  and  sold  charcoal  along  with,  or  perhaps 
in  excess  of  his  groceries. 

There  were  other  embarrassments  for  the  pion 
eer.  Mr.  Tulane  had  not  been  in  business  long  be 
fore  he  decided  that  plowing  and  picking  cotton 
taught  one  very  little  about  dealing  in  weights 
and  measures.  Nor  were  there  skilled  Negroes  in 
business  as  there  are  now  who  could  give  instruc 
tions.  Mr.  Tulane  found  out,  however,  a  lad  who 
had  worked  around  a  grocery  store.  This  boy 
taught  his  employer  the  use  of  scales  and  man}' 
•other  points  about  the  grocery  business.  It  was  in 
this  early  business  that  he  went  from  house  to 
house  to  solicit  trade  that  crediting  people  well 
nigh  closed  out  his  then  petty  business,  that  he 
closed  his  store  to  deliver  orders,  carrying  on  his 
back  bags  of  meal,  half  barrels  of  flour,  and  the 
like. 

In  four  years  the  light  began  to  break.  He  had 
gotten  some  education  in  grocery  keeping;  his 
business  had  grown.  A  Texas  pony  hauled  around 
the  goods.  A  fifteen  by  twenty  feet  building  was 
growing  too  small,  but  the  store  now  leaked  pain 
fully.  The  young  grocer  had  by  this  time  saved 
three  hundred  dollars.  He  resolved  since  the 
landlord  would  not  repair  to  buy  a  place  of  his 
own.  Thus  began  the  spacious  business  quarters 
on  the  coroner  of  South  Ripley  and  High  Sts.  Here, 
after  twenty  odd  years  he  keeps  stock  worth  sev 
eral  thousand  dollars,  employs  regularly  seven  as 
sistants,  not  counting  himself  and  wife,  both  of 
whom  give  their  time  to  the  store,  runs  several 
grocery  wagons — in  a  word,  does  from  twenty- 
five  thousand  to  forty  thousand  dollars  worth  of 
business  a  year.  Besides  this,  Mr.  Tulane  has 
branched  out  into  other  businesses  and  in  public 
service  work.  He  is  the  owner  of  many  pieces  of 
real  estate  in  Montgomery.  For  some  years  he 
was  the  Cashier  of  the  Montgomery  Penny  Sav 
ings  Bank,  which  of  course  had  to  close  when  the 
parent  bank  failed  in  Birmingham.  That  Mr.  Tu- 
lane's  books  were  above  question  is  shown  by  the 
fact  that  both  the  leading  white  banks  and  the  big 
stores  of  Montgomery  came  forward  immediately 
to  proffer  their  assistance.  Throughout  his  ca 
reer  he  has  been  interested  in  uplift  work  of  his 
community.  He  is  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Trus 
tees  of  Old  Ship  A.  M.  E.  Church,  the  oldest  col 
ored  church  in  Montgomery.  For  years  he  has 
been  a  member  of  the  Swaync  School  Board  and 
is  one  of  the  chief  promoters  of  a  new  building 
and  better  surroundings  for  this  school.  He  is  an 
honorary  member  of  the  Montgomery  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  the  only  NegTO  enjoying  such  an  honor, 
a  member  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Na 
tional  Negro  Business  League,  and  a  member  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Tuskegee  Institute,  as 
well  as  of  other  smaller  schools. 

Mr.  Tulane  bases  his  business  success  around 
which  all  other  distinctions  hover  upon  straightfor 
ward  dealings,  giving  full  measure  for  value  re 
ceived,  meeting  all  obligations  promptly,  avoiding 
cheap  goods,  studying  needs  of  customers,  keeping 
his  surroundings  clean,  in  letting  his  business  ad 
vertise  itself.  Far  above  all  this  are,  two,  Mrs.  Tu- 
lanes  to  whom  this  business  man  expresses  lasting 
gratitude  for  all  that  he  has  achieved,  his  own 
mother  and  also  his  wife.  Mrs.  V.  II.  Tulane. 


60 


CHARLES  WINTER  WOOD,  A.   13.,  B.  D.,   M.  A. 


E  is  a  reader,  an  orator,  an  educa 
tor  and  a  Gentleman."  It  is  with 
these  words  that  the  Chicago  De- 
'l  ^yy  4j  k)  fender  characterizes  Charles  Win- 
J  ^\  ^^  J>  1^r  Wood.  So  far  as  they_  go  they 
J  P*y&i!M  t*  do  well  enough.  But  the  man 
whom  all  call  "Charlie,"  who  is  known  for  his 
generosity  to  friend  and  foe,  whose  unselfishness 
runs  to  the  point  of  abnegation,  who  works  with 
out  regard  to  hours  and  with  indifference  to  remun 
eration,  who  speaks  no  ill  and  thinks  no  ill.  who 
never  abuses  even  those  who  abuse  him,  can  stand 
a  good  deal  heavier  coat  of  felicitation  than  is  laid 
on  him  in  these  few  words  from  his  good  friend 
the  Defender. 

Professionally  Mr-  Wood  could  till  several  posts 
with  distinction.  So  long  as  all  these  posts  run  to 
one  tenor;  namely  the  tenor  of  oratory.  Charles 
Winter  Wood  could  come  away  with  great  eclat, 
lie  commenced  his  course  as  an  actor;  but  a  Ne 
gro  actor  of  the  days  when  Mr.  Wood  made  his 
debut,  was  as  positive  of  starvation  as  was  the  early 
founder  of  a  new  religion.  Stranded  on  the  road 
and  smitten  with  hunger  the  young  Shakespearean. 
and  Shakespearean  he  was  and  is,  shook  the  sack 
and  bieskin  and  besought  the  muses  for  some  hum 


bler  calling  where  applause  was  perhaps  not  so  vo 
ciferous  but,  bread  and  broth  much  more  regular. 
Wood's  greatest  Dramatic  achievement  was  Al- 
clepus  Rex  of  Sophacles  which  was  produced  by 
Beloit  College  at  Auditorium  of  Chicago.  This  was 
in  Greek. 

Then,  too,  even  if  the  stage  had  been  more  lur 
ing,  Mr.  Wood  had  in  him  a  virile  streak  of  the 
missionary.  Somebody  had  put  him  on  his  feet, 
had  shown  him  the  way,  Charlie  Wood  burned  with 
the  desire  to  do  some  sort  of  thing  for  another. 
Booker  Washington  was  looking  for  a  man  with 
just  Mr.  Wood's  zeal  and  ability.  Thither  to  Tus- 
kegee,  in  those  early  days  when  men  got  water  by 
allowance  and  had  to  get  credit  for  a  postage  stamp 
Mr.  Wood  went  and  began  to  teach  English  and 
Public  Speaking.  Much  of  the  dramatic  industrial 
work,  which  later  made  Tuskegee  Institute  famous 
was  begun  and  developed  under  Mr.  Wood- 
But  Mr.  Washington  was  too  shrewd  an  observ 
er  and  interpreter  of  men  to  keep  Mr.  Wood  chain 
ed  very  long  to  the  class  room.  His  talent  as  an 
orator  and  as  an  entertainer  was  far  too  marked 
to  allow  his  remaining  in  the  school  room.  And 
so  Mr.  Wood  went  on  the  road.  -He  trained  stu 
dents  to  speak,  he  drilled  quartets  ;  he  took  the  in 
terests  of  Tuskegee  Institute  to  bankers  and  mil 
lionaires,  making  friends  for  the  institution  and  for 
Dr.  Washington  everywhere. 

This  man  who  has  done  so  much  to  help  make 
•Tuskegee  Institute  of  today  possible  was  born  in 
Tennessee  December  17.  1870.  He  got  what  he 
could  from  the  public  schools  of  his  native  town, 
went  to  Chicago  a  poor  boy  and  blacked  boots  to 
buy  his  bread  and  learned  and  recited  Shakespeare 
for  extras.  One  day  Gaumsarlens,  a  preacher 
of  great  renown,  was  having  his  boots  blacked. 
Shakespeare  was  as  usual  thrown  in.  The  great 
divine  saw  the  worth  of  the  boy  at  once.  Charles 
Winter  Wood  was  soon  in  school.  He  was  graduat 
ed  from  the  Grammar  Schools  of  Chicago,  matricu 
lated  in  Beloit  and  came  forth  a  Bachelor  of  Arts- 
He  was  also  graduated  from  the  Saper  School  of 
Oratory,  was  graduated  from  Chicago  University 
Divinity  School  as  B.  D.,  as  Master  of  Arts  from 
Columbia  University  in  New  York.  All  these  de 
grees  he  earned  by  hard  work  of  body  and  brain 
for  he  had  to  pay  his  own  way. 

Today  he  is  a  preacher  who  could  fill  any  pulpit 
with  much  credit  to  himself  and  great  delight  to 
the  congregation.  He  is  one  of  the  best  enter 
tainers  on  the  road.  He  is  an  orator  of  great  talent. 
Secretary  of  War  Baker  and  his  assistant  Emmett 
Jay  Scott  saw  in  Wood  a  power  as  a  special  war 
speaker  and  Wood  was  called  on  to  do  his  bit  dur 
ing  the  great  war. 

All  these  he  has  subordinated  to  serving  Tuskegee 
Institute.  All  these  he  uses  to  be  sure,  but  he  uses 
them  to  win  friends  and  money  for  the  school  Book 
er  T.  Washington  gave  his  life  to  build.  On  the 
faculty  list  he  is  manager  of  the  Publicity  Cam 
paign,' and  Field  Work,  but  at  the  school  and  else 
where  in  the  country  he  is  one  of  the  big  men  whom 
Tuskegee  has  made  and  who  has  made  Tuskegee. 


61 


MRS.    MARGARET    WASHINGTON. 


Mrs.  Margaret  Washington 


O  have  been  the  wife  of  Booker 
T.  Washington,  to  have  stood  by 
him  in  those  trying  years  of  star 
vation  at  Tuskegee,  to  have  been 
of  tremendous  aid  in  making  Tus 
kegee  Institute  and  making  in  a 
very  literal  way  its  founder  would,  it  appears,  be 
distinction — enough  for  any  lady  of  the  land.  Yet 
apart  from  anything  that  Tuskegee  Institute  could 
have  meant  to  her  save  a  place  giving  opportunity 
to  expand,  Mrs.  Washington  will  go  down  in  Negro 
history  as  one  of  the  greatest  women  of  her  cen 
tury. 

Further,  her  distinction,  though  marked,  will  not 
be  a  distinction  of  press  clippings  and  applause. 
Hers  will  be  a  personal  one.  handed  on  from  neigh 
bor  to  neighbor,  from  father  and  mother  to  child. 
Her  real  service  in  the  world  will  be  estimated,  not 
upon  the  fact  that  she  was  once  President  of  the 
Alabama  State  Federation  of  Colored  Women's 
Clubs  or  of  the  National  Federation  of  Colored 
Women's  Clubs,  not  that  she  spoke  to  crowded  au 
diences  or  dined  with  distinguished  men  and  wo 
men-  Rather  it  will  be  reckoned  upon  the  lost  and 
half-wayward  girls  whom  she  shielded,  encouraged 
and  brought  to  paths  of  rectitude,  upon  the  kind, 
sympathetic  training  she  gave  to  young  girls  who 
knew  no  wrong  and  who  because  of  her  teaching 
remained  always  the  pure,  clean  minded  persons 
they  were  in  childhood,  upon  the  comfort  and  sus 
tenance  she  has  taken  into  the  destitute  country 
homes  around  Tuskegee ;  upon  the  country  schools 
she  has  founded ;  upon  the  rest  room  which  she 
founded  and  keeps  open  for  the  Negro  country  wo 
men  in  the  town  of  Tuskegee ;  upon  the  actual 
teaching  she  has  given  these  women  on  how  to  live 
and  attend  to  their  homes ;  upon  the  disease  eaten 
men  and  women  whom  she  has  had  clothed,  housed, 
fed  and  doctored;  upon  the  out-cast  children  she 
has  reared  and  educated  and  placed  in  good  posi 
tions.  These  are  the  people  who  will  forever  place 
her  name  along  side  of  her  lamented  husband,  not 
because  she  was  partner  in  all  his  struggles,  but  be 
cause  she  was  also  a  servant  to  the  poor  and  the 
neglected. 

Mrs.  Washington  is.  like  Dr.  Washington,  bone 
and  fibre  a  Southerner.  She  loves  the  South,  knows 
Southern  people,  white  and  black  and  prefers  to 
live  and  work  in  the  South.  She  was  born  in  Macon 
Mississippi,  March  9,  1865.  She  was  one  of  a  large 
family,  there  being  in  the  Murray  home  ten  child 
ren.  A  frail  girl  from  her  youth,  she  set  out  early 
to  master  her  physical  weakness  and  secure  a  thor 
ough  education.  On  completing  such  courses  as 
she  could  get  in  the  town  in  which  she  was  living 


she  matriculated  at  Fisk  University.  Entering  here 
in  1889  she  spent  nine  years  preparing  for  and  com 
pleting  her  college  course.  Though  poor  in  health 
during  her  school  career,  she  nevertheless  made  an 
enviable  record  as  a  student,  took  leading  parts  in 
debates  and  in  all  forms  of  school  activities  .and  was 
the  student  most  relied  upon  to  see  that  good  order 
and  good  behavior  prevailed  everywhere.  On  fin 
ishing  her  work  at  Fisk  she  became  teacher  of  En 
glish  at  Tuskegee  Institute.  She  had  not  been  at 
Tuskegee  long  before  she  became  lady  principal 
It  was  in  this  position  even  in  carlv  days  at  Tus 
kegee  that  Mrs.  Washington  began  to  show  her 
real  worth  as  a  leader  .and  helper.  She  soon  tonk 
over  all  the  problems  of  the  girls  and  women,  not 
only  in  the  school  but  in  a  radius  of  at  least  five 
miles  around  the  school.  When  therefore  she  be 
came  Mrs.  Booker  T.  Washington,  which  was  in 
1892.  she  had  grasped  the  who'e  range  of  problems 
which  would  confront  the  wife  of  the  principal  of 
Tuskegee  Institute.  From  that  day  she  has  been 
one  of  the  greatest  forces  at  Tuskegee  Institute, 
and  among  the  Negro  leaders  and  thinkers  of  the 
country.  Practically  nothing  pertaining  to  Negro 
home  life,  is  undertaken  without  a  conference  with 
Mrs.  Washington. 

Mrs.  Washington  is  a  prodigious  worker.  She 
reads  much,  both  popular  matter  and  classic  litera 
ture.  She  sees  people  by  hundreds.  From  the  time 
she  goes  to  her  office  in  Dorothy  Hall  in  the  morn 
ing  until  she  literally  makes  herself  leave,  she  is 
seeing  peop'e  and  helping  solve  their  problems. 
Here  is  a  score  of  student  girls,  a  dozen  country 
women,  a  half  dozen  teachers,  all  in  line  to  confer 
with  her  about  some  matter  vital  to  themselves. 

For  all  this  she  finds  time  for  the  cu'.tivat'on  of 
all  those  delicate  family  and  friendly  relations,  per 
sonal  touches,  a  thing  which  has  endeared  the 
Washingtons  to  thousands  of  people.  Dr.  Wash 
ington's  two  sons,  Booker  Jr.  and  E.  Davidson  and 
his  daughter  Portia,  she  has  always  cared  for  as 
if  they  were  her  own.  Though  they  are  now  all 
married  and  have  families  of  their  own  she  still 
cares  for  them  with  that  deftness  of  family  touch 
peculiar  to  a  few  master  mothers.  Day  after  day 
you  will  see  her  leave  her  office  and  go  after  Book 
er  T.  Ill,  who  is  the  image  of  his  grandfather,  and 
take  him  walking  or  driving.  She  is  as  interested 
in  health  and  manners  and  education  of  child  and 
grandchild  as  if  they  were  all  but  one  young"  fam 
ily  just  starting  in  life.  Tuskegee  owes  her  more 
than  it  can  ever  pay,  more  perhaps  than  it  will  ever 
even  know ;  for  she  has  wrought  directly  much  that 
will  never  die ;  and  indirectly  she  performed  won 
ders  by  the  side  of  him  who  blazed  legions  of  new 
tracks  in  education,  in  labor,  in  economics  and  in 
society  for  the  American  Negro. 


63 


JOHN   WESLEY   WILLIAMS. 

OHN  Wesley  Williams  was  born 
July  10,  1881,  in  Quitman,  Ga.  He 
received  his  early  education  in  the 
public  schools  of  Quitman  and 
other  points  in  the  state  of  Geor 
gia.  His  father  being  a  Methodist 
Minister  he  changed  his  home  frequently  and  of 
course  changed  schools  at  the  same  time.  He  went 
to  Dorchester  Academy,  Mclntosh,  Georgia,  after 
getting  what  he  could  from  the  public  schools  and 
later  did  some  work  in  Oberlin  College,  Oberlin, 
Ohio. 

When  Mr.  Williams  went  to  Dorchester  Academy 
he  had  twelve  dollars  in  his  pocket  and  two  suits 
of  clothes.  He  remained  seven  years  at  this  insti 
tution  of  learning  and  during  that  time  did  not  re 
ceive  one  cent  in  help.  He  worked  his  way  with 
an  idea  of  making  the  most  of  his  time  and  of  him 
self.  After  the  first  year  he  was  put  in  charge  of 
the  buildings  and  grounds.  In  this  way  he  earned 
his  way  through  the  institution.  Although  a  great 
portion  of  his  time  was  taken  up  with  his  work 
he  never  neglected  his  lessons.  He  is  in  fact  a 
proof  of  the  old  saying  that  "Those  who  labor 
hardest,  appreciate  most  what  th.ey  get."  He  ap 
preciated  every  opportunity  that  came  his  way  that 


was  for  his  betterment.  He  came  out  of  that  in 
stitution  at  the  head  of  the  class,  graduating  with 
highest  honors. 

From  the  age  of  twelve  Mr.  Williams  had  looked 
out  for  himself.  In  this  early  start  he  learned  the 
value  of  the  dollar,  and  once  he  had  the  money,  he 
knew  how  to  take  care  of  it.  His  first  business  ven 
ture  was  in  Oberlin,  Ohio.  Here  he  opened  his  es 
tablishment  with  forty  dollars  as  capital.  He  built 
up  a  business  worth  $20,000.00  in  five  years.  lie 
did  this  through  attending  strictly  to  the  matter 
in  hand  and  letting  no  opportunity  pass  him  bv. 

In  1912  he  left  Oberlin  and  went  to  Birmingham. 
Here  he  opened  a  Cleaning  and  Dyeing  Business 
with  a  capital  of  $500.00.  His  business  here  is 
now  worth  $15,000.00.  Besides  what  he  lias  put 
back  into  his  business  he  has  invested  in  real  es 
tate  and  personal  property.  In  all  his  property 
holdings  are  valued  at  $35,000.00.  The  business  of 
Mr.  Williams  is  reputed  to  be  the  largest  cleaning 
and  dyeing  plant  of  any  colored  man  in  the  world. 
This  is  very  gratifying  to  him  when  he  remembers 
that  he  has  done  it  all  unaided,  that  even  in  his 
childhood  he  had  to  be  self  supporting. 

Mr.  Williams  is  an  active  member  of  the  A.  M. 
K.  Church.  Here  he  gives  his  money  freely  to  the 
support  of  the  gospel  and  lends  his  aid  in  every 
way  possible  for  the  advancement  of  the  cause.  In 
fraternal  matters  he  is  a  member  of  the  Knights 
of  Pythias. 

Mr.  Williams  is  President  and  Treasurer  of  the 
O.  K.  French  Dye  and  Cleaning  Company,  incorpor 
ated,  Chairman  of  the  Industrial  Committee  of  the 
United  States  Four  Minute  men  of  Birmingham. 
Alabama,  Manager  of  a  Land  Improvement  Com 
pany,  in  Cleveland,  Ohio.  In  fact  most  of  the  time 
and  energy  of  Mr.  John  Wesley  Williams  is  spent 
in  business.  And  in  this  field  he  is  a  success. 

On  business  and  for  pleasure  Mr.  Williams  has 
traveled  through  most  of  the  middle  western  States 
and  through  all  of  the  Southern.  He  has  also  spent 
some  time  in  various  cities  of  Canada.  In  his  trav 
els  from  one  place  to  another,  and  from  one  sec 
tion  of  the  country  to  another  section,  he  has  been 
able  to  compare  his  business  with  that  of  others 
following  his  line.  In  every  instance  he  has  found 
that  he  was  doing  the  greater  amount  of  work  and 
running  the  larger  establishment.  There  is  nothing 
of  the  braggart  in  this  estimation  he  has  made  of 
his  work.  Merely  a  stating  of  facts.  Indeed,  wher 
ever  Mr.  Williams  has  found  a  new  suggestion  he 
has  accepted  it  gladly,  eagerly.  This  is  in  fact  one 
of  the  reasons  for  his  success. 

Mr.  Williams  was  married  to  Miss  Alice  L.  Neely 
of  Bolivar,  Tennessee,  October  19,  1915.  Two  beau 
tiful  babies  have  come  to  share  the  home  of  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Williams.  Frances  is  two  years  of  age 
and  Baby  Alice  only  six  months  old. 


64 


ARTHUR  McKIMMON  BROWN,  A.  B.,  M.  D. 

RTHUR    McKimmon  Brown,  phy 
sician,  surgeon,  was  born  in    Ra 
leigh,     North     Carolina,     Novem 
ber   9,    1867.      He    came    from    an 
educated  family.     He  was  the  son 
of   Winfiekl    Scott,    and    Jane    M. 
Brown.  His  grandmother  was  one  of  the  first  pub 
lic    school    teachers    in    Raleigh,    North    Carolina. 
Both  of  his  parents  being  educated  and  moderately 
prosperous    they   saw   that   their   son   got  the  best 
preparation  that  the  schools  of  his  day  could  offer. 
His   first   school   days   were   spent   in     the     public- 
schools,   at   Raleigh.     From   the   public   schools   he 
entered  Shaw  University,  taking  preparatory  work. 
He  was  but  twelve  years  of  age,  when  he  first  reg 
istered   at   Shaw.     After   spending   two   years     he 
returned  to  the  city  and  pursued  advanced  study 
in   the   public   schools.     It   was   during  the   second 
course  in  the  public  schools  that  be  began  to  show 
himself  as  a  brilliant  and  promising  student.     By 
competition  he  won  the  four  years  scholarship  at 
Lincoln    University      in      Pennsylvania.     Entering 
Lincoln   University   in    1884  he   soon   became   con- 
spicious  as  a  student  and  talented  singer.     His  ex 
ceptional  ability  as  a  musician  gained  for  him  mem 
bership  in  the  Silver  Leaf  Glee  Club. 

In  1888  he  was  graduated  from  the  Lincoln  Uni- 

65 


versity  with  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts.  In 
ihe  same  year  he  matriculated  in  the  University 
of  Michigan  for  the  study  of  medicine.  At  Mich 
igan  University  he  applied  himself  even  harder  than 
he  had  done  at  Lincoln,  and  became  before  the  close 
of  his  career  there  assistant  in  the  office  of  one 
of  the  professors.  Dr.  Brown  was  graduated  as 
doctor  of  medicine  from  Michigan  University,  in 
1I-N1.  Of  all  the  men  who  came  out  that  year  he 
\  ?s  the  only  one  who  dared  face  the  rigid  exami 
nation  of  the  medical  board  of  Alabama.  As  is 
well  known  among  the  physicians  that  the  exami 
nations  of  this  board  are  exceedingly  rigid,  Dr. 
Brown,  however,  took  the  examination  and  passed. 
For  two  years  he  practiced  in  the  mining  town  of 
Bessemer.  Subsequently  he  practiced  in  Chicago, 
and  in  Cleveland  but  returned  to  Birmingham  in 
1894.  Here  he  remained  until  the  beginning  of  the 
Spanish-American  War.  Wishing  to  serve  his 
country  and  his  people  he  enlisted  in  the  United 
States  Army,  as  a  surgeon.  He  was  the  first  Ne 
gro  surgeon  to  secure  a  commission  in  the  regular 
army  of  the  United  States.  In  1899  he  received 
an  honorable  dismissal  and  returned  to  Birming 
ham.  Here  he  has  since  pursued  a  successful 
practice  and  has  become  one  of  the  leading  citi 
zens  in  many  activities. 

While  serving  iti  the  army  he  accumulated 
enough  material  to  join  in  writing  a  very  fascinat 
ing  and  informing  book,  entitled  "Under  Fire  with 
the  Tenth  United  States  Cavalry."  This  is  one 
of  the  most  authentic  documents,  as  well  as  faci- 
nating  reading  on  the  service  of  the  famous  Tenth. 
Dr.  Brown  enjoys  an  enviable  reputation  as 
a  Surgeon  and  stands  high  among  the  Negro  phy 
sicians. 

Throughout  his  career,  Dr.  Brown  has  taken  in 
tensive  interest  in  his  profession  and  in  many  en 
terprises,  both  social  and  business,  about  the  city 
of  Birmingham.  He  was  interested  in  the  Peo 
ples'  Drug  Store,  of  Birmingham,  in  1895.  He 
was  at  one  time  also  chairman  of  the  Prison  Im 
provement  Board ;  director  of  the  Alabama  Penny 
Saving  Bank ;  at  another  time  he  served  as  surgeon 
in  the  Provident  and  John  C.  Hall  hospitals,  in 
Birmingham.  He  is  at  present  surgeon  to  the 
Home  Hospital,  Birmingham,  and  is  a  member  of 
the  Surgical  Staff  of  M.  O.  A.,  Andrew  Memorial 
Hospital,  Tuskegee,  Alabama.  He  is  one  of  the 
leading  Baptists  of  the  city.  He  is  a  member  of 
the  Masonic  Lodge,  Odd  Fellows,  Elks,  and  Knights 
of  Honor.  In  his  profession,  he  has  been  presi 
dent  of  the  National  Medical  Association ;  presi 
dent  Tri-state  Medical,  Dental  and  Pharmaceuti 
cal  Association ;  the  Tri-States  being  Alabama, 
Georgia,  and  Florida.  Socially  he  holds  active 
membership  in  the  Owl,  Whist  and  Advance  clubs. 
He  is  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  National  Med 
ical  Journal. 

Dr.  Brown  has  been  married  t\,ice.  His  first 
wife  was  Miss  Mamie  Lou  Coleman,  of  Atlanta, 
Georgia.  They  were  married  June  5,  1895.  The 
present  Mrs.  Brown  was  Miss  Mamie  Nellie  Ad 
ams,  of  Birmingham.  He  married  her  September 
27th,  1905.  They  have  four  children,  Arthur,  Her 
ald,  Walter  and  Majorie.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Brown  live 
in  their  beautiful  home  on  Fifth  Avenue,  where 
their  generous  hospitality  is  dispensed  to  friends. 


NATHANIEL  JOSEPH    BROUGHTON,   M.   D. 

F  all  the  sections  in  Alabama  to 
produce  Negro  leaders  and  men 
and  women  who  have  given  am 
ple  account  of  their  stewardship, 
the  locality  in  and  around  Marion 
and  Selma  would  no  doubt  carry 
the  palm.  These  sections  are  probably  just  fer 
tile  enough  to  produce  men  physically  strong 
and  fit  for  life's  wagers  and  yet  barren  enough  to 
make  them  rise  and  go  forth.  Dr.  Nathaniel  Jo 
seph  Broughton  was  born  in  Selma.  He  came 
along  in  a  better  day  than  most  men  who  have 
made  their  mark.  He  was  born  in  the  latter  sev 
enties,  when  Selma  University,  Payne  University 
as  well  as  a  great  many  Negro  institutions  both 
in  and  out  of  the  State  were  no  longer  a  ques 
tion,  but  schools  fairly  well  established  with  cours 
es  and  policies  rather  definitely  shaped. 

Dr.  Broughton  was  first  a  student  at  Payne  In 
stitute  when  his  educational  foundation  was  laid. 
From  this  institute  he  entered  the  Selma  Univer 
sity,  a  few  blocks  away.  Here  he  received  addi 
tional  training  which  prepared  him  for  his  next 
move.  He  next  enrolled  in  Walden  University, 
Nashville,  Tennessee. 

Up  to  this  time  Dr.   Broughton     had     but     one 


though — to  secure  a  good  education  and  to  this 
end  he  bent  all  of  his  energies  and  applied  him 
self  with  untiring  effort. 

As  he  approached  the  goal  of  his  ambition  the 
question  of  a  career  forced  itself  upon  his  mind. 
After  considering  the  various  vocations  he  finally 
chose  that  of  medicine,  seeing  in  this  profession 
not  only  honorable  calling,  but  a  field  of  great  use 
fulness. 

This  decision  was  no  doubt  influenced  by  his 
work  in  and  around  a  drug  store  and  where  he 
had  an  opportunity  to  study  pharmacy.  He  labor 
ed  in  this  store  as  a  means  to  help  pay  his  way 
through  college.  Thus  it  often  happens  that  Prov 
idence  interposes  to  lead  us  to  our  life  work. 

However,  there  is  much  distinction  between  de 
cision  and  action.  It  is  much  easier  to  plan  than 
to  execute.  To  determine  upon  a  course  is  the 
first  and  important  step  and  then  follows  the 
hours,  days  and  often  months  of  patient  toil  and 
effort  to  carry  out  your  plans.  This  was  the  case 
with  Dr.  Broughton.  He  had  for  years  driven 
himself,  as  he  thought,  to  his  limit  in  securing  his 
college  training. 

In  the  summer  he  was  working  hard  in  Pullman 
service  and  during  the  school  year  was  putting  in 
spare  hours  in  the  drug  store  or  anywhere  else  he 
could  find  employment.  He  had  elected  to  be  a 
physician  and  in  order  to  fit  himself  for  his  profes 
sion  he  must  assume  additional  burden  and  he 
went  to  his  task  with  a  zeal  and  determination 
which  won  him  the  fight. 

In  Meharry  Medical  College,  not  far  from  Wald 
en,  indeed  the  two  schools  are  run  under  the  same 
auspices,  though  with  different  executives  and 
teachers,  Mr.  Daniel  Williams,  the  celebrated  Ne 
gro  Surgeon  of  Chicago,  was  delivering  lectures. 
Dr.  Williams  often  wished  to  show  how  plaster  of 
Paris  was  put  on  and  how  plaster  of  Paris  and  the 
patient  behaved.  Thus  they  needed  what  the  artist 
might  call  a  model,  somebody  who  would  allow 
himself  in  part  or  in  toto  to  be  shut  up  in  Plaster 
of  Paris.  Dr.  Broughton  secured  this  rather  unde 
sirable  post,  undesirable  for  some  but  most  desir 
able  for  him.  The  job  served  him  most  lucratively 
in  two  ways.  It  increased  his  fund  considerably 
to  pay  his  college  bills.  Far  more  valuable  still 
it  gave  the  doctor  his  first  real  lasting  incentive 
for  medicine.  He  learned  to  love  the  profession  ; 
he  saw  its  opportunities ;  he  got  very  helpful  in 
struction  both  from  the  experience  and  from  the 
lectures.  He  is  one  of  the  comparatively  few  doc 
tors  in  the  profession  who  "know  how  it  feels"  to 
be  cased  up  in  plaster  of  Paris,  a  sympathy  well 
worth  while  and  one  which  brings  more  business 
than  can  be  readily  appreciated. 

Though  Dr.  Broughton  is  still  young,  and  young 
er  yet  in  his  profession,  he  is  well  established  in  all 
that  the  world  terms  properous.  He  began  practice 
in  Woodlawn.  Alabama,  one  of  the  suburbs  of  Bir 
mingham,  in  1906.  In  ten  years  he  has  thoroughly 
equipped  himself  and  his  office  to  render  the  best 
of  service  in  the  professon.  He  owns  his  home  and 
three  vacant  lots  in  this  town  of  his  adoption. 

A  happy  head,  the  family  surrounds  him.  He  was 
married  in  1906  to  Miss  Beatrice  L.  Statton  of 
Chattanooga,  Tenn.  They  have  two  daughters, 
Misses  Genevieve  and  Mary  George,  both  of  whom 
are  students  in  Normal  School. 


66 


ORION  LAWRENCE  CAMPBELL. 

R.  Orion  Lawrence  Campbell  was 
born  in  Montgomery  County, 
Alabama,  December  13th,  1875. 
When  quite  a  small  boy  it  was 
his  delight  to  visit  a  barber  shop 
and  watch  the  barbers  at  their 
work.  Then  and  there  he  formed  the  ambi 
tion  to  be  a  barber,  but  he  reached  the  goal  of  his 
ambition  in  later  life,  and  after  he  had  given  sev 
eral  other  lines  of  business  his  attention. 

He  received  his  preparatory  education  at  the 
County  School,  but  finished  at  Tuskegee  Institute. 
An  incident  at  the  Tuskegee  Institute  revived  his 
ambition  to  be  a  barber  and  no  doubt  contributed 
largely  in  the  final  determination  to  follow  this  line 
of  work.  He  had  a  difficulty  with  another  student 
in  which  he  proved  an  expert  in  the  use  of  a  razor. 
His  room  mate  joked  him  about  his  ability  to  use 
a  razor  and  suggested  that  he  open  a  tonsorial  shop. 
Acting  upon  the  suggestion  of  the  joker  he  began 
business  and  while  at  the  Institute  he  not  only  shav 
ed  the  students  but  numbered  among  his  custo 
mers,  many  of  the  Professors  and  as  he  expressed 
it,  felt  himself  a  full  fledged  barber,  when  Dr. 
Booker  T.  Washington  sat  in  the  chair. 


After  leaving  the  Tuskegee  Institute  he  engag 
ed  in  the  Upholstering  business,  but  soon  gave  that 
up  for  the  Printer's  trade.  Like  a  great  number 
of  young  men,  he  was  posessed  with  the  false  no 
tion  that  one  business  was  more  honorable  that  an 
other,  and  lost  sight  of  the  fact  that  all  legitimate 
businesses  are  honorable,  and  that  the  honor  lies 
in  doing  well  what  you  undertake.  Under  the  spell 
of  this  idea  he  took  advantage  of  an  opening  to  take 
charge  of  the  type  stand,  and  press  at  the  State 
Normal  School,  Montgomery,  at  a  salary  of  $12.00 
per  week.  He  essayed  to  be  a  printer  but  the  call 
of  the  barber  shop  had  become  too  strongly  in 
trenched  in  his  mind  to  be  effaced,  and  so  his  good 
common  sense  came  to  his  rescue,  and  he  gave  up 
the  press  and  type  for  the  barber's  tools.  He  en 
tered  a  barber  shop  on  the  per  centage  basis,  and 
his  earnings  the  first  week  only  amounted  to  $1.55, 
but  he  was  not  to  be  discouraged.  Other  barbers 
were  earning  from  $15.  to  $20.  per  week,  and  of 
they  could  earn  it  he  could.  He  more  than  doub 
led  his  earnings  the  second  week  and  at  the  end  of 
six  weeks  he  was  earning  as  much  as  any  barber 
in  the  shop.  By  his  courteous  manner  and  fidelity 
to  his  business  he  soon  won  the  confidence  of  the 
Proprietor  of  the  shop,  who  left  him  in  charge  when 
absent.  After  twelve  years  service  in  this  shop  he 
acquired  a  half  interest  in  the  business,  but  only 
continued  partnership  one  year.  After  disposing  of 
his  interest  he  opened  up  a  shop  of  his  own.  He 
opened  his  shop  in  1908,  and  still  operates  it.  It 
is  well  equipped  with  all  the  modern  conveniences 
and  is  well  patronized.  His  motto  is,  "Courteous 
and  Efficient  Service,"  and  living  up  to  his  motto 
has  secured  for  him  the  best  of  trade. 

His  gross  receipts  for  the  year  1918,  amounted  to 
$14,000.00  Mr.  Campbell  has  made  a  success  of 
his  business  by  following  the  bent  of  his  inclina 
tion  and  giving  his  talent  fullplay,  and  by  strict 
and  honest  attention  to  his  affairs. 

It  is  a  matter  of  honest  pride  with  him  that  his 
barber  shop  ranks  with  the  first  class  colored  shops 
throughout  the  country,  both  in  management  and 
equipment. 

He  has  accumulated  quite  a  nice  property.  He 
owns  a  home  of  about  $4000  value  and  six  addi 
tional  houses  worth  about  $800  each,  which  brings 
him  in  a  good  income. 

While  giving  close  attention  to  his  business,  Mr. 
Campbell  finds  time  to  interest  himself  in  all  enter 
prises  which  have  for  their  object  the  betterment 
of  his  race.  He  belongs  to  the  A.  M.  E.  Church, 
and  is  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees;  he  is  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Swayne  Col 
lege  ;  He  is  a  member  of  the  K.  of  P.  Lodge  and 
was  a  member  of  the  Masons  and  Odd  Fellows.  As 
a  Pythian  he  ranks  as  Past  Chancellor. 

Mr.  Campbell  has  been  quite  a  traveler  and  has 
visited  the  leadng  cities  of  America. 

January  4th,  1911  he  was  married  to  Beatrice 
Gorham,  of  Montgomery,  who  is  still  his  beloved 
companion.  They  have  no  children.  He  occupies 
a  high  position  of  respect  both  among  the  white 
and  colored  citizens. 


67 


ROBERT  RUSSA  MOTON. 


Robert  Russa  Moton  LL.  D. 


R.  Robert  Russa  Moton,  who  is 
now  the  distinguished  Principal 
of  the  Tuskegee  Institute  in  Ala 
bama,  takes  pride  in  tracing  his 
ancestry  to  pure  African  lineage. 
He  is  a  direct  descendant  of  a 
young  African  Prince,  who  was 
brought  over  to  this  country  and 
was  purchased  by  a  Virginia  planter. 

Born  on  August  26,  on  a  Virginia  plantation  ,and 
inheriting  some  of  the  taste  for  knowledge  from  his 
mother,  who  had  under  difficulty  learned  to  read 
and  write,  Robert  Moton  early  developed  a  desire 
to  broaden  and  obtain  more  of  the  world's  know 
ledge.  Accordingly,  he  set  out  for  Hampton  Insti 
tute  with  a  definite  goal  in  view  and  reached  the 
Institute  a  few  years  after  Booker  T.  Washington 
had  graduated. 

Dr.  Moton  was  early  endowed  with  a  generous 
supply  of  common  sense  and  wise  judgment.  His 
fellow  comrades  often  sought  his  advice  and  were 
wisely  and  sanely  directed.  He  graduated  from 
Hampton  Institute  in  1890  and  soon  after  was  em 
ployed  by  his  Alma  Mater  as  Commandant  of  Ca 
dets,  which  position  he  filled  creditably  for  over 
twenty  years. 

In  1905  he  was  married  to  Elizabeth  Hunt  Har 
ris,  of  Williamsburg,  Virginia,  who  died  the  follow 
ing  year,  1906.  In  1908,  he  married  Jennie  Dee 
Booth,  of  Glocester  County,  Virginia.  As  a  result 
of  this  marriage,  four  children  are  living ;  Cather 
ine,  Charlotte,  Robert  and  Allen. 

During  his  term  of  service  at  Hampton  Institute 
he  became  closely  allied  with  Dr.  Booker  T.  Wash 
ington,  in  their  dual  efforts  to  secure  funds  for  the 
maintenance  of  the  Institutions  which  each  re 
presented.  In  one  of  his  books,  Dr.  Washington 
said  of  him,  "Major  Moton  knows  by  intuition 
Northern  white  people  and  Southern  white  people. 
I  have  often  heard  the  remark  made  that  the 
Southern  white  man  knows  more  about  the  Negro 
in  the  South  than  anybody  else.  I  will  not  stop 
here  to  debate  that  question,  but  I  will  add  that 
colored  men  like  Major  Moton,  know  more  about 
the  Southern  White  man  than  anybody  else  on 
earth. 

"At  the  Hampton  Institute,  for  example,  they 
have  white  teachers  and  colored  teachers ;  they 
have  Southern  white  people  and  Northern  white 
people ;  besides,  they  have  colored  students  and 
Indian  students.  Major  Moton  knows  how  to 
keep  his  hands  on  all  of  these  different  elements, 
to  see  to  it  that  friction  is  kept  down  and  that 
each  works  in  harmony  with  the  other.  It  is  a 
difficult  job,  but  Major  Moton  knows  how  to  nego 
tiate  it." 

"This  thorough  understanding  of  both  races 
which  Major  Moton  possesses  has  enabled  him  to 
give  his  students  just  the  sort  of  practical  and 
helpful  advice  and  counsel  that  no  White  man  who 
has  not  himself  faced  perculiar  conditions  of  the 
Negro  could  be  able  to  give." 

Because  of  their  intimate  relationship  and  the 
mutual  ideas  of  education  and  human  develop 
ment  which  they  entertained,  when  Dr.  Washing 
ton  passed  away,  the  name  of  this  friend  of  his, 


about  whom  he  had  expressed  himself  so  beauti 
fully,  came  into  the  minds  of  hundreds  of  people, 
and  almost  unanimously,  he  was  chosen  to  be  the 
successor  of  this  illustrious  Colored  American. 
The  following  extract  taken  from  Major  Moton's 
inaugural  address  at  Tuskegee,  shows  in  what  spir 
it  he  assumed  the  "mantle"  of  his  illustrious  pre 
decessor. 

"No  greater  or  more  serious  responsibility  was 
ever  placed  upon  the  Negro  than  is  left  us  here  at 
Tuskegee.  The  importance  of  the  work  and  the 
gravity  of  the  duties  that  have  been  assigned  the 
principal,  the  officers  and  the  teachers  in  the  for 
warding  of  this  work  cannot  be  over-estimated. 
But  along  with  the  responsibility  and  difficulties  we 
have  a  rare  opportunity ;  one  almost  to  be  envied, 
— an  opportunity  to  help  in  the  solution  of  a  great 
problem — The  Human  Race  problem,  not  merely 
changing  the  modes  of  life  and  the  ideals  of  a  race, 
but  of  almost  equal  importance,  the  changing  of 
ideas  of  other  races  regarding  that  race." 

Going  beyond  his  regular  duties,  at  Hampton, 
Dr.  Moon  formed  what  is  known  as  the  Negro  Or 
ganization  Society,  in  Virginia.  Through  its  in 
fluence,  350,000  Negroes  are  being  helped  in  the 
fundamentals  of  life,  health,  education,  agriculture, 
home  making.  Dr.  Moton  is  the  founder  and  pres 
ent  honorary  president.  He  is  also  the  chairman 
of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  National  Ne 
gro  Business  League  and  the  Chairman  of  the  Ex 
ecutive  Committee  of  the  Anna  T.  Jeanes  Foun 
dation. 

During  the  period  of  the  war,  Dr.  Moton  was 
instrumental  in  negotiating  a  loan  of  five  million 
dollars  from  the  United  States  government  for  use 
in  Liberia.  He  also  was  very  active  in  speaking 
to  the  people  on  many  tours  in  the  interest  of  War 
Savings  Stamps,  Liberty  Loan  Drives  and  the  con 
servation  of  food.  He  has  recently  been  appoint 
ed  the  Negro  representatives  on  the  Permanent 
Roosevelt  Memorial  National  Committee. 

Early  in  December,  1918,  at  the  sacrifice  of  a 
great  many  matters  of  his  own  which  needed  im 
mediate  attention,  Dr.  Moton  left  his  own  import 
ant  work  to  go  to  France  at  the  special  request  of 
President  Wilson  and  Secretary  Baker,  to  do  spe 
cial  morale  work  among  the  colored  soldiers,  who 
had  made  such  a  fine  record  for  valor  and  courage. 
He  spoke  to  thousands  of  these  soldiers,  black  and 
white,  urging  them  to  return  to  their  homes  in  a 
spirit  of  service  and  firm  in  their  efforts  to  help 
uplift  humanity  and  establish  a  real  democracy  in 
America. 

The  degree  of  L.  L.  D.  has  been  conferred  upon 
him  by  Oberlin  College  and  Virginia  Union  Univer 
sity  in  Richmond,  Virginia. 

To  show  in  what  degree  Dr.  Moton  is  keeping 
alive  the  spirit  of  Tuskegee  Institute,  and  of  Dr. 
Washington,  the  following  quotation  is  taken  from 
one  of  the  leading  Southern  White  papers,  in  Char 
lotte,  North  Carolina : 

"So  long  as  the  Booker  T.  Washington  ideals  pre 
vail  at  Tuskegee,  that  institution  will  continue  to 
perform  a  valuable  service  to  the  Negroes  of  the 
South,  and  under  the  management  of  Dr.  Moton, 
these  ideals  have  been  lived  up  to  in  an  admirable 
manner.' 


69 


CADETS  ON  PARADE  AT  TUSKEGEE  INSTITUTE. 


HE  school  was  established  by  an 
an  act  of  Alabama  Legislature — 
session  of  1880,  as  the  Tuskegee 
State  Normal  School.  Two  thou 
sand  dolars  was  appropriated  to 
pay  salaries.  The  first  session, 

July  4,  1881,  opened  in    a    rented 

shanty  church,  with  30  pupils, 
and  one  teacher.  The  first  prncipal  of  the  institu 
tion,  Booker  T.  Washington,  brought  to  the  work 
his  own  creative  ability  and  the  educational  ideals 
of  his  friend  and  teacher,  Samuel  Chapman  Arm- 
Strong,  the  founder  of  Hamptdn  Institute.  He 
continued  as  principal  until  his  death,  in  November, 
1915.  Through  his  tact  and  energy  the  plant  and 
.endowment  have  been  increased  to  an  aggregate 
value  of  almost  4,000,000.  In  1893  the  institution 
was  incorporated  under  its  present  name.  In  1899 
the  United  States  Congress  gave  the  school  25,000 
acres  of  mineral  land.  Of  this,  5,100  acres  have 
been  sold  and  the  proceeds  applied  to  the  endow 
ment  fund.  The  remaining  19,900  acres  are  valued 
at  $250,000.  The  ownership  and  control  of  the  in 
stitution  are  vested  in  a  board  of  trustees  compos 
ed  of  influential  white  and  colored  men  from  the 
North  and  from  the  South. 

Since  the  foundation  of  the  school  over  ten 
thousand  men  and  women  have  finished  a  full  or 
partial  course.  They  have  gone  out  and  are  do 
ing  good  work,  mainly  as  industrial  workers. 

The  total  enrollment  in  the  normal  and  industrial 
departments  in  1918-1919  was  1,620.  This  included 
representatives  from  thirty-five  states  and  eighteen 
foreign  countries.  This  did  not,  however,  include 
242  pupils  in  the  training  school  or  Children's 
House ;  and  572  in  the  Summer  School.  The  total 
number  of  those  who  had  the  benefit  of  the  schools 
training  was  2,432. 

There  are  forty  trades  or  professions  taught.  The 
industries  are  grouped  under  three  departments : 


The  school  of  agriculture,  the  department  of  me 
chanical  industries  and  the  industries  for  girls. 
There  is  also  a  hospital  and  nurse  training  school. 
Each  of  these  departments  has  a  separate  building 
or  group  of  buildings  in  which  its  work  is  carried 
on.  The  agricultural  school,  in  addition  to  its  la 
boratories,  has  the  farm  and  experiment  station 
where  practical  and  experimental  work  is  done. 
The  farm  includes  over  2,000  acres.  The  work  of 
the  farm  is  carried  on  by  200  students  and  14  in 
structors. 

The  mechanical  industries  include  auto-mechan 
ics,  carpentry,  brickmasonry,  wood  working,  print 
ing,  tailoring,  blacksmithing,  shoemaking,  found 
ing,  wheelwrighting,  harness  making,  carriage 
trimming,  plumbing,  steam  fitting,  electrical  en 
gineering,  architectual  and  mechanical  drawing, 
tin-smithing,  painting  and  brick  making. 

The  girls'  industries  include  laundering,  domestic 
science,  plain  sewing,  dressmaking,  millinery,  and 
home  crafts,  under  which  are  included  bead  work, 
broom  making,  rug  making,  chair  seating  and  home 
decorations  basketry. 

There  is  a  systematic  effort  to  correlate  the  aca 
demic  studies  with  the  industrial  training  and  prac 
tical  interests  of  the  pupils.  By  this  means,  the  in 
dustrial  work  of  the  students  is  lifted  above  the  le 
vel  of  mere  drudgery  and  becomes  a  demonstra 
tion.  On  the  other  hand,  the  principals  acquired 
in  the  academic  studies  gain  in  definiteness,  preci 
sion  and  interest  by  application  to  actual  situa 
tions  and  real  objects.  The  academic  department 
is  divided  into  a  night  and  a  day  school.  The  night 
school  is  designed  for  those  who  are  too  poor  to 
pay  the  small  charges  made  to  the  day  school.  The 
night  school  pupils  spend  five  evenings  each  week 
in  academic  work;  the  day  school  pupils,  three 
days  each  week.  Teaching  in  the  academic  depart 
ment  is  carried  on  by  a  faculty  of  forty-four 
teachers.  They  are  expected  to  visit  every  week 


WHITE  HALL,  ONE  OF  THE  DORMITORIES  FOR  YOUNG   WOMEN   AT   TUSKEGEE    INSTITUTE. 


some  one  division  of  the  shops  or  farm  and  report 
upon  it  in  order  to  find  the  illustrative  material  for 
their  class  room  work.  Pupils  in  their  rhetoricals, 
read  papers  on  and  give  demonstrations  of  the 
work  they  have  done  in  the  shops. 

The  Phelps  Hall  Bible  Training  School  was  es 
tablished  in  1892  to  assist  in  improving  the  Negro 
ministry.  It  aims  to  give  its  students  a  compre 
hensive  knowledge  of  the  English  Bible  and  such 
training  as  will  fit  them  to  work  as  preachers  and 
missionaries  under  the  conditions  existing  among 
their  people. 

The  hospital  and  nurse  training  school  was  start 
ed  in  1892.  Over  one  hundred  nurses  have  graduat 
ed  and  are  doing  good  work  in  different  parts  of 
the  country. 

EXTENSION:  The  extension  department  pro 
vides  a  large  number  of  activities  for  the  improve 
ment  of  educational,  agricultural,  business,  home 
health  and  religious  life  of  the  colored  people  of  the 
United  States.  These  activities  vary  from  those 
limited  to  the  needs  of  the  institute  community  to 
those  of  national  significance.  The  local  organi 
zations  include  the  building  and  loan  associations, 
home  building  society,  women's  clubs,  health  and 
religious  organizations.  Country-wide  movements 
include  the  supervision  and  building  of  rural 
schools,  farm  demonstration  work,  and  health 
campaigns.  The  State-wide  and  national  activities 
are  largely  the  result  of  Dr.  Washington's  influ 
ence  over  the  colored  people  and  the  esteem  with 
which  he  was  regarded  by  white  people,  North  and 
South.  The  most  important  of  these  are  the  Na 
tional  Business  League,  with  its  State  and  local 
organizations,  and  the  State  educational  tours 
which  Dr.  Washington  conducted  in  almost  every 
Southern  State. 

Probably  the  most  influential  of  the  extension  ef 
forts  is  the  Negro  Farmers'  Conference,  held  an 
nually  at  the  institute.  The  conference  brings  to 
gether  thousands  of  colored  farmers  from  neigh 
boring  counties  and  hundreds  from  other  parts  of 
the  State  and  neighboring  States.  In  'addition, 


many  influential  white  and  colored  people  from 
every  part  of  the  country  have  gone  to  Tuskegee 
to  see  the  assembly  guided  by  Dr.  Washington. 
On  the  day  following  the  large  meeting  a  "Work 
ers'  conference"  is  held.  This  is  composed  of  per 
sons  who  are  directing  all  forms  of  endeavor  for 
the  improvement  of  the  Negro  race.  Closely  con 
nected  with  the  farmers'  conference  is  the  short 
course  in  agriculture  consisting  of  two  weeks  of 
study  and  observation  at  the  institute.  It  is  wide 
ly  attended  by  farmers  of  surrounding  countries. 

The  experiment  farm  established  at  Tuskegee 
in  1896  by  the  State  legislature  is  conducting  ex 
periments  in  soil  cultivation  for  the  benefit  of  the 
colored  farmers  of  the  State. 

The  school  publications  include  two  regular  pa 
pers  and  many  valuable  pamphlets.  The  Tuskegee 
Student  is  a  bimonthly  devoted  to  the  interests  of 
the  pupils,  teachers  and  graduates.  The  Southern 
Letter,  a  record  of  the  graduates  and  former  stu 
dents  is  issued  monthly  and  sent  to  persons  inter 
ested  in  Tuskegee.  The  Negro  Year  Book  is  a 
compendium  of  valuable  facts  concerning  the  Ne 
gro  in  the  United  States. 

TEACHER  TRAINING:  The  teacher  -  training 
course  includes  psychology,  history  of  education, 
methods,  management,  school  administration,  re 
views,  and  methods  in  elementary  subjects,  draw 
ing,  physical  training,  nature  study,  and  10  weeks 
of  practice  teaching  at  the  Children's  House.  The 
Children's  House  is  a  large  seven-grade  school 
maintained  co-operatively  by  Tuskegee  and  the 
country.  It  has  facilities  for  manual  work,  house 
hold  arts,  and  school  garden.  It  is  an  excellent  labo 
ratory  for  observation  and  practice  teaching.  Ar 
rangements  have  also  been  made  with  the  county 
superintendents  whereby  a  limited  number  of  sen 
iors  in  the  course  teach  six  weeks  in  the  country 
schools.  Some  pay  is  received  for  this  teaching.  The 
work  outlined  covers  two  years  for  graduate  stu 
dents.  If,  however,  the  teacher-training  hamama 
last  two  undergraduate  years  are  elected  the  course 
may  be  completed  in  one  year  of  graduate  work. 


71 


GIRLS  OF  THE  SENIOR  CLASS  AT  TUSKEGEE  INSTITUTE   LEARNING    MANUAL   TRAINING. 


MUSIC:  All  pupils  receive  some  training  in  vocal 
music.  Special  attention  is  given  to  the  plantation 
melodies,  which  are  taught  not  only  for  their  mus 
ical  value,  but  as  an  expression  of  the  spiritual  life 
and  moral  .struggles  of  the  Negroes  in  America. 
Instruction  on  the  piano  is  provided  for  those  who 
are  able  to  pay  the  special  fee. 

DISCIPLINE  AND  PHYSICAL  TRAINING :  The  mil 
itary  system  is  maintained  among  the  young  men 
to  cultivate  habits  or  order,  neatness  and  obedience. 
The  rooms  are  inspected  and  the  grounds  are  poli 
ced  through  the  military  system.  Physical  train 
ing  is  provided  for  the  young  women  under  the  di 
rection  of  a  woman  trained  in  gymnastics.  The 


young  women's  rooms  are  inspected  by  the  ma 
trons  in  charge  of  the  dormitories. 

Religious  training:  Considerable  provision  is 
made  for  religious  services.  The  activities  include 
Sunday  school  classes  and  daily  chapel  services, 
which  are  attended  by  all  pupils.  The  voluntary 
religious  organizations  are  the  Young  Men's  Chris 
tian  Association,  the  Young  Women's  Christian 
Association,  Christian  Endeavor  Society,  Tempe 
rance  Union,  and  Missionary  Society. 

LIBRARY:  The  Carnegie  Library  contains  a 
stock  room,  reading  room,  librarian's  office,  and 
two  rooms  for  magazines  and  newspapers.  Three 
workers  have  charge  of  the  library  department. 


THE  SUMMER  SCHOOL  AT    TUSKEGEE  INSTITUTE. 

72 


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Photo  by  Q.   V.    Buck. 


HON  EMMETT  JAY  SCOTT 


Emmett  Jay  Scott 


ROM  "Who's  Who  in  America," 
we  learn  that  Mr.  Scott  was  born 
February  13th,  1873,  at  Houston, 
Texas,  the  son  of  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Horace  L.  Scott.  At  an  early  age, 
after  he  completed  the  course  of 
instruction  in  the  Colored  High 
School. 

He  was  influenced  by  Bishop  J.  B.  Scott  and  Rev. 
W.  H.  Logan,  D.  D.,  to  enter  Wiley  University.  In 
order  to  help  provide  funds  for  his  education  young 
"Emmett"  carried  the  mail  from  the  post-office  at 
Marshall,  to  the  school,  a  distance  of  a  mile  and  a 
half. 

For  his  services  he  received  Five  Dollars  per 
month.  This  was  during  the  years  of  1887-1888. 

Having  to  divide  his  summer  earnings  with  the 
younger  children  of  the  family,  he  did  not  return 
to  Wiley,  during  the  1889  term  until  late,  for  the 
lack  of  funds,  and  in  consequence  lost  his  position 
of  mail  carrier.  Nothing  daunted,  he  chopped  wood 
and  fed  the  school's  hogs ;  later  on,  however  during 
the  same  year,  he  became  bookkeeper  in  the  Pres 
ident's  office,  which  "job"  he  held  until  the  end  of 
the  school  year.  The  following  summer  young 
Scott  was  employed  as  janitor  in  the  Pillot  Build 
ing,  and  it  was  here  that  he  first  had  a  real  oppor 
tunity  to  demonstrate  his  natural  aptitude  for  of 
fice  work.  He  attracted  the  attention  of  a  good- 
hearted  Yankee,  who  was  President  of  the  War 
ren  Lumber  Company  and  publisher  of  the  "Tex 
as  Trade  Journal."  During  odd  hours  of  the 
day  when  he  was  around  in  the  building  he 
was  give"n  an  opportunity  to  make  a  little  ex 
tra  money  addressing  wrappers  and  envelopes 
for  this  company  and  a  little  later  on,  through  the 
kindness  of  a  Southern  White  man,  he  was  per 
mitted  to  do  similar  work  for  the  Houston  Com 
mercial  Club,  and  finally  became  one  of  their  reg 
ular  workers  until  the  club  was  disbanded.  For 
several  months  after  this  he  was  unable  to  find 
any  work  to  do  until  a  colored  man,  Mr.  Gibbs 
McDonald,  who  was  generally  known  in  Houston 
as  "Old  Man  Gibbs,"  secured  for  him  a  position  as 
assistant  janitor  and  messenger  in  the  office  of  the 
"Houston  Daily  Post." 

Mr.  J.  L.  Watson,  Secretary  and  Treasurer 
of  the  Post  Publishing  Company,  very  soon 
noticed  his  good  penmanship,  and  on  one  oc 
casion,  on  a  very  busy  day,  put  him  to  addressing 
envelopes.  Later,  as  they  found  his  willing  and 
ambitious,  other  responsibilities  were  given  him, 
to  all  of  which  he  measured  up  with  surprising  sat 
isfaction. 

Even  at  that  time  the  "Houston  Post"  was  the 
leading  paper  of  the  Southwest  and  under  Mr. 
Watson's  management  became  a  strong  and  pow 
erful  influence  in  the  political  and  business  devel 
opment  of  the  South,  a  place  which  it  still  holds. 

Mr.  Scott  himself  did  not  know  how  well-devel 
oped  were  his  powers  of  observation  and  expres 
sion  until  on  one  occasion,  when  the  commence 
ment  exercises-  at  Prairie  View  Normal  School 
were  being  held  and  "The  Post"  could  not  spare  a 
reporter  to  go  to  attend,  Mr.  Johnson  suggest- 

75 


ed  that  he  go  to  Prairie  View  and  secure  the  story 
for  "The  Post."  The  story  which  he  brought  back 
from  Prairieview,  and  which  was  published  in 
"The  Post"  was  prepared  with  all  the  detail  and 
finesse  of  a  veteran  reporter.  When  he  left 
the  employ  of  the  "Houston  Post"  he  had 
reached  that  stage  of  his  growth  where  he  needed 
a  further  outlet  for  his  natural  talents.  About 
that  time  the  "Texas  Freeman"  was  launched  at 
Houston  with  J.  S.  Tibbitt  as  Editor;  Emmett  J. 
Scott,  Associate  Editor,  and  Charles  N.  Love  as 
Business  Manager.  Later  Mr.  Scott  and  Mr.  Love 
acquired  Mr.  Tibbitt's  interest  and  for  three  years 
"The  Freeman,"  under  their  management,  was  the 
most  powerful  and  influential  organ  of  the  colored 
people  of  Texas.  Mr.  Love  continues  the  publi 
cation. 

It  was  one  of  the  most  significant  occurances  in 
Mr.  Scott's  career  as  Editor  of  "The  Freeman" 
that  he  was  one  of  the  first  colored  men  with  suf 
ficient  vision  and  interpretation  of  the  signs  of 
tinies  to  see  that  Booker  T.  Washington  was  des 
tined  to  be  the  leader  of  thought  among  his  race. 
This  is  best  told  in  the  recent  book,  entitled  "Book 
er  T.  Washington — Builder  of  a  Civilization,"  of 
which  Mr.  Scott  and  Mr.  Lyman  Beecher  Stowe, 
grandson  of  the  late  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe,  are 
co-authors.  Concerning  Dr.  Washington's  famous 
Atlanta  address  in  1895  the  book  says : 

"One  of  the  first  colored  men  so  to  acclaim  him 
was  Emmett  J.  Scott,  who  was  then  editing  a  Ne 
gro  newspaper  in  Houston,  Texas,  and  little  realiz 
ed  that  he  was  to  become  the  most  intimate  asso 
ciate  of  the  new  leader.  In  an  editorial  Mr.  Scott 
said  of  this,  the  famous  Atlanta  address:  'Without 
resort  to  exaggeration,  it  is  but  simple  justice  to 
call  the  address  great.  Great  in  the  absolute  mod 
esty,  self-respect  and  dignity  with  which  the 
speaker  presented  a  platform  upon  which,  as  Clark 
Howell,  of  the  "Atlanta  Constitution"  says,  "both 
races,  blacks  and  whites,  can  stand  with  full  jus 
tice  to  each." 

Since  he  went  to  Tuskegee  in  1897  as  Mr.  Wash 
ington's  secretary,  the  part  which  he  has  played  in 
the,  development  of  .Tuskegee  Institute  and  its 
varied  activities  is  well  known  to  those  of  our 
race  who  are  conversant  with  current  activities. 
In  1901,  he  was  elected  Secretary  of  the  National 
Negro  Business  League,  which  position  he  has  held 
regularly  ever  since,  and  no  one  in  touch  with  the 
work  of  the  Business  League  can  think  of  this 
splendid  organization  without  associating  with  it 
the  name  of  Emmett  J.  Scott.  In  1909,  Mr. 
Scott  was  a  member  of  the  American  Commis 
sion  to  Liberia,  appointed  by  President  William 
H.  Taft.  His  study  of  Liberian  conditions  has 
been  put  in  pamphlet  form,  under  the  title  "Is 
Liberia  Worth  Saving?"  and  is  recognized  as  an 
authoritative  treatise  on  Liberia  and  its  possibil 
ities.  In  1912  he  was  Secretary  of  the  Internation 
al  Conference  on  the  Negro,  which  met  at  Tuske 
gee  Institute. 

Mr.  Scott's  larger  activities,  other  than  these 
here  outlined,  have  been  his  co-authorship  with  Dr. 
Washington  in  writing  the  book  "Tuskegee  and  Its 


People,"  published  in  1910,  and  with  Lyman  Beech- 
er  Stowe  in  writing  the  book  "Booker  T.  Washing 
ton,"  published  in  1916. 

When  America  entered  the  war  in  1917,  there 
was  considerable  uneasiness  as  to  what  would  be 
the  status  of  the  Negro  in  the  war  and  quite  nat 
urally  Tuskegee  Institute  was  one  of  the  centers 
which  helped  in  adjusting  these  conditions.  Dr. 
Moton,  Principal,  and  Mr.  Scott,  made  frequent 
visits  to  New  York  and  Washington,  and  were  con 
stantly  in  consultation  with  the  authorities  at 
Washington.  Out  of  these  discussions  and  toge 
ther  with  the  activities  of  other  agencies  working 
towards  the  same  end,  the  Officer's  Training  Camp 
for  Negro  Officers  was  established  at  Des  Moines, 
Iowa,  and  later,  following  a  conversation  between 
Dr.  Moton  and  Mr.  Scott,  Dr.  Moton  interviewed 
President  Wilson  and  suggested  that  a  colored 
man  be  designated  as  an  Assistant  or  Advisor  in 
the  War  Department  to  pass  upon  various  matters 
affecting  the  Negro  soldiers  who  were  then  being 
inducted  into  the  service  and  as  the  result,  Mr. 
Scott  went  to  Washington  on  October  1st,  1917, 
and  from  then  until  July  1st,  1919,  served  as  Spec 
ial  Assistant  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Among  the  things  that  the  record  of  Mr.  Scott's 
work  in  the  War  Department  will  show  are  the  fol 
lowing: 

1.  The    formation   of   a    Speakers'    Bureau,    or 
"Committee    of    One    Hundred,"    to    enlighten    the 
Colored  Americans  on  the   war   aims   of   the   gov 
ernment. 

2.  Aiding  in  the  breaking  up  of  discrimination, 
based  on  color,  in  the  great  ship-building  plant  at 
Hog  Island. 

3.  Establishing   morale   officers   and   agents     at 
the  Industrial  plants,  North  and  South  where  large 
numbers  of  colored  workmen  were  employed. 

4.  He   was   largely   instrumental   in   the   enroll 
ment  of  Colored   Red  Cross   Nurses   and   securing 
authorization  for  the  utilization  of  their  services  in 
base  hospitals  at  six  army  camps,  in  which  colored 
soldiers  were  located — Funston,  Dix,  Taylor,  Sher 
man,  Grant  and  Dodge. 

5.  The   continuance   of   the   training   camps   for 
colored  officers  and  the  increase  in  their  number 
and  an  enlargement  of  their  scope  of  training. 

6.  Betterment  of  the  general  conditions  in   the 
camps  where  Negroes  are  stationed  in  large  num 
bers,  and  positive  steps  taken  to  reduce  race  fric 
tion  to  a  minimum  wherever  soldiers  or  opposite 
races  are  brought  into  contact. 

7.  The  extension  to  young  colored  men  the  op 
portunity  for  special  training  in  technical,  mechan 
ical,  and  military  science  in  the  various  schools  and 
colleges  of  the  country,  provision  having  been  made 
for  the  training  of  twenty  thousand  through   the 
Students'  Army  Training  Corps,    and  other  practi 
cal  agencies  of  instruction. 

8.  An  increase  from  four  to  sixty  in  the  num 
ber  of  colored  chaplains  for  the  army  service. 

9.  The  recall  of  Colonel  Charles  Young  to  ac 
tive  service  in  the  United  States  Army. 

10.  The    establishment    of    a    Woman's    Branch 
under  the  Council  of  National  Defense,  with  a  col 
ored  field  agent,  Mrs.  Alice  Dunbar  Nelson,  to  or 
ganize  the  colored  women  of  the  country  for  sys 
tematic  war  work. 

76 


11.  The  appointment  of  the  first  colored  regu 
larly-commissioned    war    correspondent,    to    report 
military  operations  on  the  western  front  in  France. 

12.  The  opening  of  every  branch  of  the  military 
service   to   colored   men,   on   equal   terms   with   all 
others,  and   the   commissioning    of    many    colored 
men  as  officers  in  the  Medical  Corps. 

13.  Large    increase    in    the    number    of    colored 
line   officers — the   total   increasing   from   less   than 
a  dozen  at  the  beginning  of  the  war  to  more  than 
1,200. 

14.  Direct   aid   and   material   encouragement    in 
the  "drives"  for  the  Liberty  Loans,  the  Red  Cross, 
the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  Y.  W.  C.  A.,    and    United    War 
Work  Relief  Agencies  in  general. 

15.  The    calling    and    successful    direction    of    a 
Conference  of  Colored  Editors  and  Leaders,  which 
went  far  to  promote  the  morale  of  the   12,000,000 
colored  Americans,  and  led  to  a  declaration  of  the 
Government's  sympathetic  attitude  toward  the  de 
sires  and  aspirations  of  its  colored  citizenry.     No 
conference    held    for    the    consideration    of    Negro 
problems  has  been  so  fruitful  of  big  results  as  this. 

Dr.  Moton,  in  making  his  annual  report  to  the 
Trustees  of  Tuskegee  Institute  in  1918,  said  of  Mr. 
Scott : 

"Our  Secretary,  Mr.  Emmett  J.  Scott,  who  lab 
ored  so  faithfully  with  Dr.  Washington  during  his 
lifetime,  and  who  is  standing  by  the  present  Prin 
cipal  with  equal  loyalty,  was  loaned  to  the  Gov 
ernment  to  become  Special  Assistant  to  the  Secre 
tary  of  War.  Mr.  Scott  is  fitted,  as  perhaps  no 
other  man  in  the  country,  to  do  this  work  with 
rare  tact  and  good  judgment.  Added  to  his  splen 
did  native  ability,  he  has  had  a  peculiar  experience 
here  at  Tuskegee,  which  has  gven  him  as  broad 
a  conception  of  and  insight  into  the  problems  of 
race  relationship  as  any  man  I  know. 

"I  wish  I  could  put  into  this  report  some  of  his 
real  accomplishments  which  are  having  a  far- 
reaching  effect  in  making  lighter  the  burdens  of 
our  wise,  patient  and  courageous  President,  and 
the  Secretary  of  War,  in  meeting  many  of  the 
problems  which  have  grown  out  of  the  enlistment 
of  thousands  of  colored  soldiers,  and  at  the  same 
time  making  it  easier  for  approximately  400.000 
colored  soldiers  now  in  the  service  to  adjust  them 
selves  to  the  many  trying  and  difficult  situations 
which  must  necessarily  arise  in  the  new  life  into 
which  they  have  been  so  suddenly  entered." 

Late  in  June,  1919,  it  was  announced  through  the 
press  that  Mr.  Scott  had  been  elected  Secretary- 
Treasurer  of  Howard  University,  thus  bringing  to 
a  close  twenty-two  years  of  successful,  faithful, 
service  to  Tuskegee  Institute,  and  upon  July  firs* 
he  entered  upon  his  new  duties. 

Perhaps  the  most  beautiful  estimate  of  Mr.  Scott 
is  the  following  comment  from  Dr.  Booker  T. 
Washington,  which  appeared  in  his  book  entitled, 
"Tuskegee  and  Its  People." 

"For  many  years  now,  Mr.  Scott  has  served  the 
school  with  rare  fidelity  and  zeal,  and  has  been  to 
the  Principal  not  only  a  loyal  assistant  in  every 
phase  of  his  manifold,  and  frequently  trying  duties, 
but  has  proved  a  valuable  personal  friend  and  coun 
selor  in  matters  of  the  most  delicate  nature,  ex 
hibiting  in  emergencies  a  quality  of  judgment  and 
diplomatic  calmness  seldom  found  in  men  of  even 
riper  maturity  and  more  extended  experience." 


ULYSSES.  GRANT    MASON,    M.   D. 


HIE  good  book  tells  us  that  men 
have  varying  talents  and  that 
man  is  not  limited  to  one  talent. 
It  is  often  noted  in  men  of  re 
nown  that  they  possess  a  number 
of  talents  with  one  or  more  very 
conspicuous. 

This  is  illustrated  in  the  case  of  Dr.  Mason.  He 
is  prominent  in  his  profession  as  a  physician  and 
no  less  prominent  as  a  business  man  and  withal  he 
is  a  man  of  marked  initiative  ability. 

Dr.  Mason  is  the  son  of  Isaac  and  Mary  Mason, 
and  was  born  in  Birmingham,  Alabama,  Novem 
ber  20th,  1872. 

He  received  his  preparatory  education  at  Hunts- 
ville  College  (now  A.  &  M.  College,  Normal,  Ala 
bama.)  Having  chosen  the  medical  profession  he 
next  entered  the  Meharry  Medical  College,  (Wai- 
den  University,)  at  Nashville,  Tennessee.  Grad 
uating  from  this  college  he  sought  additional  pre 
paration  in  Europe  and  took  a  special  course  in 
surgery,  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  Scot 
land.  Returning  to  this  country,  he  entered  up 
on  his  medical  career  in  Birmingham,  Alabama. 
the  city  of  his  birth  He  at  once  won  recognition 
as  a  physician  and  soon  had  an  extended  practice. 


His  ability  as  a  physician  was  recognized  by  the 
City  authorities,  who  appointed  him  assistant  city 
physician,  which  position  he  held  for  about  eight 
years. 

Dr.  Mason  was  sympathetic  with  all  movements 
which  looked  to  the  elevation  and  advancement  of 
his  people  and  himself  initiated  several  institu 
tions  which  sought  their  good. 

He  was  the  organizer  and  founder  of  the  Home 
and  George,  C.  M.  Hall  Hospital ;  Founder  and 
Surgeon  to  the  Northside  Infirmary,  located  at 
1508  Seventh  Avenue,  Birmingham,  Alabama.  In 
1910  he  organized  the  Prudential  Savings  Bank, 
and  has  been  its  President  since  the  organization. 

These  organizations  indicate  the  trend  of  his 
mind — to  ameliorate  the  sufferings  of  his  people, 
and  encourage  them  in  habits  of  thrift. 

From  1897  to  1908,  he  had  been  the  Vice  Presi 
dent  of  the  Alabama  Penny  Saving  Bank. 

He  is  regarded  as  a  man  of  remarkable  business 
ability  and  his  reputation  is  well  sustained  in  the 
creditable  manner  in  which  he  handles  all  matters 
confided  to  him.  He  has  filled  many  honorable 
positions,  both  as  a  citizen  and  in  a  professional 
way. 

He  was  Delegate  at  large  to  the  Republican  Na 
tional  Conventions,  1908-1912.  Member  Clinical 
Congress  of  Surgeons  of  North  America ;  member 
of  the  Medical  Society  of  the  United  States  of 
America ;  member  John  A.  Andrew  Clinical  So 
ciety  ;  member  National  Medical  Association ; 
member  of  the  State  Medical,  Dental  and  Phar 
maceutical  Association,  and  of  the  Birmingham 
District  Medical,  Dental  and  Pharmacy  Association. 
He  is  the  Endowment  Treasurer  of  Knights  of  Py 
thias  ;  Trustee  of  the  Central  Alabama  Institute, 
and  Trustee  of  the  16th.  Street  Baptist  Church,  of 
Birmingham.  He  has  always  taken  a  prominent 
part  in  public  affairs.  Secretary  Baker  appointed 
him  on  a  committee  of  one  hundred  to  represent 
the  Government  on  War  Aims ;  he  was  chairman 
of  the  War  Saving  Stamps  Committee ;  Member 
of  the  State  National  Council  Defense  and  member 
of  Volunteer  Medical  Service  Corps,  Council  of 
National  Defense. 

Dr.  Mason  has  been  twice  married.  His  first 
wife,  Miss  Alice  Nelson,  of  Greensboro,  Alabama, 
died  September  19th,  1910,  leaving  him  four  chil 
dren,  Vivian.  Ellariz,  Ulysses  G.  Jr..  and  Alice  F. 
June  17th.  1916  he  married  Mrs.  Elsie  Downs  Bak 
er,  of  Columbus  Ohio,  who  has  borne  him  one 
child.  Dorothy  Downs.  Dr.  Mason  finds  great 
pleasure  and  pride  in  his  family  and  home  life. 

Dr.  Mason  has  accumulated  considerable  pro 
perty  .and  is  among  the  wealthiest  negroes  of  the 
South. 

Regarded  from  every  standpoint  he  is  a  success. 


77 


DAVID  HENRY  CLAY  SCOTT,  M.  D. 


ICKNESS  and  disease  is  to  be 
found  in  all  races  of  men  and  in 
all  stations  of  life  and  the  mar 
velous  advance  mftde  by  science 
in  combating  its  ravages  has  at 
tracted  to  the  profession  of  med 
icine  a  great  many  young  men.  Aside  from  its  re 
munerative  attraction  they  see  in  the  medical  pro 
fession  a  field  of  unlimited  usefulness.  A  doctor's 
life  is  not  one  of  ease  but  the  faithful  physician 
who  spends  himself  in  the  interest  of  humanity 
feels  that  he  has  given  his  life  to  a  good  cause. 
Among  the  young  men  who  were  attracted  to  this 
profession  was  Dr.  David  Henry  Clay  Scott. 

Dr.  Scott  was  born  in  Hollywood,  Alabama,  No 
vember  21st,  1871.  Like  quite  a  large  number  of 
colored  youths  he  aspired  to  rise  above  the  lot  of 
a  day  laborer  and  realized  that  in  order  to  do  so  he 
must  have  an  education  and  fit  himself  for  some 
useful  and  remunerative  occupations.  His  choice  of 
a  life  work  was  that  of  medicine  so  he  set  that 
profesion  as  his  goal  and  bent  all  of  his  energies  to 
attain  a  doctor's  certificate. 

He  received  his  first  educational  training  at  the 
Huntsville  State  Normal  School  where  he  acquir 


ed  a  good  foundation  upon  which  he  continued  to 
build  until  his  education  was  complete. 

He  entered  the  Meharry  Medical  College,  to 
prepare  for  his  life  work,  from  which  instituition 
he  received  his  M.  D.  Finishing  his  course 
he  was  ready  for  business  and  selected  Selma  as 
the  city  in  which  to  hang  out  his  shingle.  How 
ever,  he  remained  in  this  city  only  from  March  to 
November,  when  he  moved  to  Montgomery.  His 
career  in  Montgomery  is  the  best  testimony  as  to 
the  wisdom  of  this  change.  His  practice  contin 
ued  to  grow  from  the  beginning  which  is  evidence 
of  his  ability  as  a  physician. 

While  Dr.  Scott's  large  practice  keeps  him  busy 
he  manages  to  find  time  to  devote  to  civic  matters 
and  is  interested  in  all  matters  which  look  to  city 
developement. 

He  was  appointed  chairman  for  the  colored  citi 
zens  in  the  4th.  Liberty  Loan  Drive,  the  success  of 
which  demonstrated  his  ability  as  a  leader. 

The  following  extracts  from  a  statement  issued 
by  him  in  one  of  the  local  papers  tells  the  spirit  in 
which  he  entered  upon  this  work. 

"As  chairman  of  the  colored  people's  Fourth  Li 
berty  Loan  drive,  I  am  extremely  anxious  that  we 
do  not  falter  in  the  last  hours  of  this  all  important 
effort  to  put  Montgomery  'over  the  top,"  and  again 
"There  is  no  special  honor  coming  to  any  one  be 
cause  of  this  effort.  Selfish  be  he  who  buys  bonds 
for  the  sake  of  any  honor  that  may  come  to  him  in 
so  doing."  Dr.  Scott  has  marked  executive  ability 
as  well  a  liberal  endowment  of  business  sagacity 
which  he  has  used  to  great  advantage. 

Recognizing  the  need  for  a  better  class  of  build 
ings  for  the  colored  business  man,  he  purchased  a 
lot  at  the  corner  of  Monroe  and  Lawrence  Streets, 
and  erected  thereon  a  handsome  three-story  struc 
ture.  The  first  floor  is  occupied  as  a  drug  store, 
which  is  run  in  first  class  style,  having  a  fine  soda- 
fount  and  other  modern  attractions.  The  second 
and  third  floors  are  used  for  offices  and  are  all  oc 
cupied  by  live,  wide-awake  business  men.  When 
you  enter  this  biulding  you  are  at  once  impressed 
with  its  business  atmosphere.  Dr.  Scott  also  owns 
and  occupies  his  residence  and  owns  several  other 
pieces  of  property. 

Dr.  Scott  was  married  December  28th,  1897,  to 
Miss  Viola  Watkins,  daughter  of  a  prominent  Con 
tractor  of  the  city  of  Montgomery,  who  erected 
his  store  building.  They  have  no  living  children. 

While  Dr.  Scott  is  interested  in  all  enterprises 
which  seek  the  good  of  his  people  he  is  especially 
interested  in  that  institution,  which  in  addition  to 
its  humanitarian  appeal,  interests  him  from  the 
standpoint  of  his  profession  as  a  physician  and 
surgeon — The  Hale  Infirmary.  He  is  officially 
connected  with  this  institution  and  gives  to  it  his 
best  thought  and  skill  and  much  of  his  time- 


78 


I 
I 


KAWALIGA  ACADEMIC  AND  INDUSTRIAL  INSTITUTE 


HE  Kowaliga  School  was  founded 
in  1898,  by  William  E.  Benson,  a 
native  of  the  community  in  which 
it  is  located.  It  is  located  in  Tal- 
lapoosa  County,  Alabama,  in  the 
center  of  a  community  of  colored 
people  comprising  about  one  thousand  inhabitants. 
It  was  a  part  of  a  general  enerprise  which  includes 
besides  the  school,  the  Dixie  Industrial  Company. 
It  is  owned  by  a  board  of  trustees  of  prominent 
Northern  men  and  women  and  local  colored  men. 
Represented  upon  the  board  is  John  J.  Benson, 
father  of  the  founder,  a  man  known  far  and  wide 
for  his  marvelous  success  as  a  farmer  and  a  man 
who  commands  the  highest  respect  from  both  the 
white  and  black  citizens. 

The  need  for  better  educational  facilities  for  the 
colored  youth  of  the  community  had  long  been 
felt  and  it  was  to  meet  this  need  that  suggested 
the  enterprise  which  resulted  in  the  building  of 
the  school. 

Primarily  it  was  not  the  aim  of  the  school  to 
train  teachers,  but  to  give  to  the  boys  and  girls  of 
the  community  an  elementary  education.  While 
thorough  instruction  is  given  to  the  grammar 
grades,  the  scholars  are  also  given  instruction  in 
manual,  domestic  and  agricultural  training.  Man 
ual  training  in  wood  and  iron  is  taught  the  boys, 
along  with  training  in  agriculture,  while  the  girls 
are  taught  cooking,  sewing,  millinery  and  basketry. 
The  school  is  non-sectarian  but  kept  under  a  strong 
religious  influence.  Although  the  Bible  is  not 
taught  in  the  day  school,  devotional  exercises  are 
held  each  morning  before  the  school  work  begins. 
The  teachers  and  students  visit  all  the  churches 
in  the  community  and  quite  often  the  ministers  of 
the  churches  visit  the  school.  The  first  Saturday 
afternoon  of  each  month  is  known  as  Mother's 
day,  when  the  mothers  meet  and  receive  instruc 
tion  in  bread  making,  house  cleaning,  laundering, 
care  of  children,  etc.  They  are  given  samples  of 
yeast  and  baking-powder  with  instructions  how 
to  use  them.  In  addition  to  their  school  duties, 
the  teachers  give  as  much  time  as  is  possible  in 
doing  extensive  work.  They  make  a  house  to 
house  canvass  in  order  to  ascertain  just  the  needs 


of  the  patrons  and  show  them  the  advantage  of 
sending  their  children  to  school.  This  extension 
work  is  making  the  school  many  friends.  The 
school  has  a  boy's  brass  band,  which  arouses  much 
interest,  both  in  the  school  and  community.  The 
school  has  a  library  of  900  volumes  which  are  used 
by  the  students.  The  Library  needs  replenishing 
and  a  better  selection  of  books  to  stimulate  a  new 
interest  in  it.  Mr.  Benson,  the  founder,  died  Oc 
tober  14th,  1915,  and  was  succeeded  by  James  An 
drew  Dingus,  who  took  charge  of  the  school  De 
cember  2nd.,  1915. 

Professor  Dingus  was  born  in  Tiles  County,  Vir 
ginia,  March  3rd,  1877,  and  received  his  education 
in  Marietta,  Ohio,  where  he  graduated  from  the 
High  School  and  received  the  finishing  touches  at 
the  Hampton  Institute,  in  Virginia.  He  was  es 
pecially  fitted  for  agricultural  instruction  and  for 
three  years  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  Dairy  and 
Poultry  departments  at  Hampton  Institute,  and  for 
three  years  had  charge  of  the  Agricultural  depart 
ment  at  Langston,  Oklahoma. 

When  he  took  charge  of  Kawaliga  school  he 
found  evidence  of  excellent  construction  work 
along  the  line  of  buildings,  but  the  patrons  some 
what  disorganized  owing  to  the  death  of  Mr.  Ben 
son-  His  first  work  was  to  meet  the  local  mem 
bers  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  and  learn  the  needs 
and  condition  of  the  school.  He  realized  that  three 
things  were  necessary  to  guarantee  success  in  his 
efforts — children  to  instruct,  teachers  to  teach 
them  and  money  to  pay  the  teachers.  Having  sat 
isfied  himself  upon  these  points  he  put  his  life  and 
energy  into  the  work  with  the  most  gratifying  re 
sults.  The  enrollment  1917-18  was  196,  with  an 
average  attendance  of  115. 

The  land  upon  which  the  school  is  located  com 
prises  249  acres,  about  fifty  of  which  is  under  cul 
tivation.  It  is  the  purpose  of  Professor  Dingus  to 
make  this  farm  not  only  self-sustaining  but  a  source 
of  profit  to  the  school.  Thus  it  will  serve  the 
double  purpose  of  a  model  farm  for  instruction  and 
a  source  of  income.  Kowaliga  is  an  Indian  name, 
the  name  of  a  little  river  in  the  uplands  of  Alabama, 
along  whose  borders  was  once  an  Indian  Reser 
vation.  Here  is  now  to  be  found  a  thickly  settled 
farming  community,  inhabited  by  a  comparatively 
thrifty  and  industrious  class  of  colored  people.  In 
the  center  of  this  community  is  the  Kowaliga 
school,  exerting  an  influence  over  the  inhabitants 
elevating,  refining,  and  inspiring  to  a  nobler  life. 


79 


REVEREND  JOHN  BONHAM  McDUFFEE 


E.V.  John  Bonham  McDuffee  was 
born  in  Montgomery  County,  Ala 
bama,  May  1st,  1868,  and  has  re 
sided  in  the  county  of  his  birth  al 
most  his  entire  life.  The  call  of 
the  farm  had  a  fascination  for 
him,  and  a  tan  early  age  he  began  his  farming 
operations.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  began  work 
on  his  own  account.  His  farm  was  located  in  Beat 
10,  Montgomery  County,  where  he  has  almost  con 
tinuously  since  tilled  the  soil. 

Like  a  great  many  colored  men,  his  thirst  for 
knowledge  kept  pace  with  his  manual  efforts  so  he 
gave  a  fourth  of  his  time  to  the  cultivation  of  his 
mind.  He  gave  three-fourths  of  his  time  to  the 
farm  and  attended  the  district  school  in  the  winter. 
In  1895  he  joined  the  Baptist  church  at  Hope  Ala 
bama  and  was  by  that  church  ordained  to  the  min 
istry  and  called  to  be  the  Pastor  of  the  church  at 
Letohatchie.  He  served  his  church  for  twelve 
years  before  accepting  work  elsewhere.  The  re 
sult  of  his  ministerial  work  has  been  the  serving 
of  seven  churches,  two  of  which  he  founded  and 
built  from  the  ground  up. 

In  1897  he  was  elected  President  of  the  Alabama 


Middle  district  Sunday  School  Convention,  and 
held  the  office  continuously  for  nine  years. 

In  the  year  1915  he  was  elected  Secretary  of  the 
same  convention,  which  position  he  now  fills. 

Rev.  McDuffee  believes  in  taking  time  by  the 
foreclock,  so  when  he  read  that  the  Boll  Weevil 
was  headed  for  Alabama,  he  immediately  began  to 
plan  to  give  him  a  warm  reception,  not  in  the" sense 
of  a  cordial  reception  but  such  a  welcome  as  would 
prompt  him  to  seek  a  more  congenial  clime.  The 
outcome  of  his  tests  and  experiments  was  the  "Mc 
Duffee  Boll  Weevil  Remedy,"  a  remedy  that  has 
brought  him  into  notice  throughout  the  cotton  pro 
ducing  states. 

His  name  has  become  a  by-word  in  the  homes  of 
many  farmers  in  the  cotton  belts. 

The  cotton  production  has  had  to  face  many  dif 
ficulties  and  -has  met  and  overcome  many  formida 
ble  enemies,  the  great  enemy  it  now  faces  being 
the  boll  weevil.  In  finding  a  remedy  for  this  peai 
the  Rev.  McDuffee  will  save  to  the  cotton  produc 
ing  states  much  wealth. 

No  other  remedy  has  accomplished  the  good  in 
the  destruction  of  the  boll  weevil  that  McDuffee's 
preparation  has  clone  and  hundreds  of  farmers  have 
voiced  their  praise  of  the  remedy  in  letters  of  com 
mendation.  It  came  at  a  time  when  the  farmers 
were  blue  and  it  seemed  that  the  death  knell  to 
cotton  culture  had  been  sounded  and  like  the  morn 
ing  sun  it  dispelled  the  mists  of  doubt  and  uncer 
tainty  which  hung  over  the  farmer  and  gave  him  a 
new  hope. 

Thus  it  often  happens  that  our  brightest  visions 
come  in  the  midst  of  our  hardest  trials.  For  every 
evil  there  is  a  remedy  and  it  fell  to  the  lot  of  Rev 
erend  HcDuffee  to  find  the  remedy  for  the  Boll 
Weevil. 

Before  giving  his  remedy  to  the  public,  Rev.  Mc 
Duffee  partook  freely  of  his  own  medicine.  He 
reasoned  that  if  it  did  not  keep  his  own  fields  free 
of  the  pest  it  would  be  of  no  practical  use  to  others. 
His  experiments  were  so  successful  that  he  imme 
diately  told  others  of  the  blessing  he  had  found. 
Others  have  tried  it,  much  to  the  discomfort  of  the 
Boll  Weevil,  and  the  reputation  of  the  McDuffee 
Boll  Weevil  Remedy  was  assured. 

The  home  life  of  Rev.  McDuffee  has  been  a 
mingling  of  joy  and  sorrow.  He  has  been  married 
three  times  and  twice  has  he  stood  at  the  open 
grave  and  watched  the  bodies  of  his  companions 
lowered  into  mother  earth. 

His  first  wife  was  Miss  Elizia  Normon,  who  he 
married  in  1886.  She  died  leaving  him  four  chil 
dren.  He  next  married  Miss  Susia  Woodley,  who 
gave  him  nine  children.  She  died  August  llth. 
1913.  His  present  wife  was  Miss  Arlean  Johnson, 
and  from  this  union  has  been  born  two  children. 


80 


GEORGE  AUGUSTUS  WEAVER,  M   .D. 

R.  George  Augustus  Weaver,  the 
subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  m 
Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  November 
1st,  1870,  where  the  very  atmos 
phere  breathed  the  spirit  of  edu- 

cation.     Here   the   Alabama   State 

University  is  located,  and  it  is  quite  natural  that  a 
colored  youth  who  was  born  and  raised  in  such  a 
community  should  have  aspirations  for  learning 
and  position. 

With  the  fires  of  ambition  kindled  he  formed  the 
purpose  to  secure  an  education  and  the  fact  that  the 
way  seemed  hard  did  not  deter  him  nor  change  his 
purpose.  He  persevered  until  his  course  was  com 
pleted  and  he  was  enabled  to  hang  out  his  shingle 
as  an  M.  D.  With  the  exception  of  five  dollars  a 
month  given  him  by  his  father  he  paid  his  own  way 
through  school  and  college.  He  served  as  porter 
with  the  Wagner  Palace  Car  Company  and  the  Pull 
man  Company,  and  spent  such  time  as  not  engaged 
in  the  school,  upon  the  road. 

This  work  while  it  gave  him  the  funds  to  contin 
ue  his  studies  also  added  to  the  developement  of  his 
mind.  His  travels  carried  him  all  over  the  United 
States  and  to  many  of  the  cities  of  Canada,  thus 


broadening  his  outlook  and  giving  him  a  greater 
knowledge  of  men.  He  commenced  his  studies  in 
the  city  school,  of  Tuscaloos,  his  native  city,  where 
a  good  foundation  was  laid  and  prepared  him  for 
the  advanced  course  in  other  institutions.  After 
finishing  the  Tuscaloosa  schools  he  entered  the  Tal- 
ladega  College  where  he  graduated  in  1892.  From 
Talladega  College  he  went  to  Howard  University, 
at  Washington,  D.  C,  and  took  the  medical  course, 
graduating  in  1897.  The  Howard  University  was 
founded  in  1867  by  an  act  of  Congress  and  in  varie 
ty  and  quality  of  profesional  training  stands  first 
among  educational  institutions  for  colored  people. 
Thus  by  his  indomitable  spirit,  energy,  patience 
and  perseverence  he  secured  an  education,  and  com 
pleted  his  medical  course  in  one  of  the  strongest  in 
stitutions  in  the  land.  When  he  left  the  University 
he  was  well  equipped  for  his  profession  so  far  as 
knowledge  goes,  but  without  the  means  to  rent  and 
furnish  an  office,  so  he  turned  again  to  the  road, 
and  for  several  months,  from  May  to  January, 
donned  the  uniform  of  a  pullman  porter.  He  open 
ed  his  office  and  began  the  practice  of  medicine  and 
surgery,  in  March,  1898,  in  the  city  of  Tuscaloosa, 
where  he  has  continuously  practiced  since. 

Dr.  Weaver  is  a  member  of  the  First  African 
Baptist  Church  and  takes  an  active  part  in  church 
life.  In  recognition  of  his  ability  and  consecrated 
life  the  church  made  him  Chairman  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  Lodge 
and  has  served  as  Senior  Grand  Warden.  He  is  a 
Knight  of  Pythias,  and  an  Odd  Fellow,  being  Grand 
Medical  Director  of  the  latter.  He  is  also  a  mem 
ber  of  the  volunteer  Medical  Service  Corp.  Ex-Pres 
ident  of  Alabama  Dental  and  Pharmaceutical  Asso 
ciation. 

Dr.  Weaver  was  selected  as  Chairman  of  the 
Fourth  Loan  drive,  and  under  his  management  it 
went  far  "over  the  top."  He  was  one  of  the  "Four 
minute-Speakers,"  in  the  speaking  force  to  push 
the  War  Saving  Stamp  campaign,  and  organized  a 
class  of  Red  Cross  First  Aid. 

In  this  time  of  his  country's  need  his  soul  burned 
with  the  firts  of  patriotism,  and  in  this  way  he 
gave  expression  to  his  loyalty  and  relieved  the  pent 
up  fires  of  patriotism  which  urged  him  to  action. 

In  1900  Dr.  Weaver  was  united  in  marriage  to 
Miss  Mattie  A.  Wallace,  of  Wilsonville,  Ala.,  who 
together,  with  two  children  born  of  this  union,  con 
stitutes  his  family.  One,  a  boy  eight  years  of  age, 
bears  his  father's  name,  and  the  other  a  daughter, 
two  and  a  half  years  of  age,  they  named  Marie  Eli 
zabeth,  and  an  adopted  boy,  Everard  Weaver,  now 
a  student  at  Ttiskegee  Institute. 

Dr.  Weaver  owns  his  home,  which  is  a  pretty 
structure,  worth  $4000,  and  in  addition  he  owns  real 
estate  to  the  value  of  approximately  $13,500. 


81 


STONE  HALL,  SELMA  UNIVERSITY 


R.  Robert  Thomas  Pollard,  A.  B., 
D.  D.,  was  born  in  Gainesville, 
Alabama,  October  4th,  1860.  He 
received  his  early  education  in 
the  common  schools  after  which 
he  entered  the  Selma  University. 
an  institution  to  which  he  gave 
many  of  his  active  and  useful 
years.  After  graduating  from  the  collegiate 
course  he  began  his  work  as  a  minister.  His  first 
labors  were  that  of  a  missionary  in  the  state  of  Ala 
bama.  In  this  work,  he  traveled  for  a  number  of 
years  all  over  the  state.  He  next  became  an  agent 
of  the  American  Baptist  Publication  Society,  of 
Philadelphia,  in  advancing  the  Sunday  School 
work.  He  gave  up  this  work  to  enter  the  service 
of  the  American  Baptist  Home  Mission  Society. 
Again  he  became  a  missionary  for  the  Southern 
Baptist  Convention  and  for  the  Society  of  Alabama 
Baptists.  In  this  service  he  traveled  from  church 
to  church,  and  from  convention  to  convention,  of 
the  colored  people  of  Alabama. 

Having  served  for  a  long  period  as  a  missionary 
he  gave  up  his  field  of  labor  for  the  pastorate  and 
in  this  capacity  he  served  a  number  of  the  leading 
churches  in  Alabama.  He  was  pastor  of  the  church 
es  in  Montgomery,  Marion,  Selma,  Union  Springs 
and  Eufaula.  The  next  step  in  his  career  was  that 
of  an  educator,  being  called  to  the  Presidency  of 
his  alma  mater,  the  Selma  University.  He  con 
tinued  in  this  position  for  nine  years,  from  1902  to 
1911.  While  holding  this  office  he  found  frequent 
opportunities  to  preach,  presenting  the  claims  of 
the  University  and  raising  funds  to  finance  the  in 
stitution.  His  arduous  duties  in  connection  with 
this  institution  impaired  his  health  and  caused  him 
to  resign  his  office  as  president.  He  re-entered 
the  pastorate  for  a  short  period,  when  he  was  elect 
ed  President  of  Florida  Memorial  College,  Live  Oak 
Florida. 

In  1916,  his  successor,  as  president  of  the  Selma 


l/niversity.  Dr.  M.  W.  Gilbert  resigned  on  account 
of  failing  health,  and  Dr.  Pollard  was  again  called 
to  fill  the  post.  Although  he  had  just  been  re-elec 
ted  to  the  presidency  of  the  Florida  Memorial  Col 
lege,  he  felt  it  his  duty  to  respond  to  the  call  to 
again  head  the  Selma  University,  which  position 
he  now  holds. 

The  Selma  University  was  born  of  deep  seated 
conviction  that  the  great  need  of  the  colored  race 
was  an  educated  ministry.  This  conviction  deep 
ened  from  year  to  year  and  was  earnestly  discuss 
ed  at  the  Alabama  Colored  Baptist  State  conven 
tions.  It  finally  took  shape  at  the  convention  held 
in  Tuscaloosa  in  1873,  by  adopting  the  following 
resolution  offered  by  Rev.  W.  II.  McAlpine: 

"Resolved ;  That  we  plant  in  the  State  of  Ala 
bama,  a  Theological  school  to  educate  our  young 
men."  This  gave  to  the  movement  a  definite  aim 
and  purpose  and  inspired  it  with  great  activity. 
The  fight  was  on  and  although  the  battle  for  suc 
cess  was  hard  and  long,  it  was  finally  won  and  the 
institution  is  now  the  pride  of  the  C'olored  Baptists 
of  the  state. 

Starting  the  enterprise  forty-five  years  ago  with 
out  funds  and  only  a  resolution  to  incite  enthusiasm 
and  energy,  the  founders  persevered  in  their  work 
until  their  dream  of  a  great  university  became  a 
reality. 

The  University  is  located  at  Selma,  Alabama, 
upon  a  thirty-two  acre  tract.  It  has  three  brick 
dormitories  and  a  home  for  the  President.  Its  pro 
perty  is  valued  at  $175,000.00,  and  is  free  of  debt. 

Both  Montgomery  and  Marion  wanted  the  Uni 
versity,  but  Selma  won  over  thorn  and  secured  the 
prize. 

The  first  president  of  the  institution  was  the 
Rev.  Harris  Woodsmall,  who  was  elected  Decem 
ber  20th,  1877,  and  directed  to  open  the  school  the 
following  January,  which  he  did,  with  only  four 
pupils.  He  had  an  assistant,  the  Rev.  W.  R.  Petti- 
ford.  The  session  was  held  in  the  St.  Phillips 


82 


SUSIE    FOSTER    HALL,    SELMA    UNIVERSITY 

Street    Baptist    church,      now    the      First      Baptist 
church. 

May  30th,  1878,  five  months  after  the  opening 
of  the  school,  the  Trustees  held  a  meeting  in  Sel- 
ma,  and  authorized  the  Executive  Committee  to 
negotiate  for  the  purchase  of  the  "Old  Fair 
Grounds,"  which  is  its  present  location.  The  large 
amphitheatre  upon  the  grounds  was  repaired  at  a 
cost  of  about  $700.00,  and  used  for  school  purposes. 
In  1880  the  school  was  adopted  by  the  American 
Baptist  Home  Mission  Society,  which  has  since 
contributed  to  its  support. 

March  1st,  1881,  the  school  was  incorporated  as 
the  Alabama  'Baptist  Normal  and  Theological 
School,  and  in  1885  the  name  was  changed  to  Sel- 
nia  University. 

In  1895  the  name  was  again  changed  to  Alabama 
Baptist  Colored  University,  but  in  1908.  its  former 
name,  Selma  University,  was  restored. 

Overcoming  difficulties,  facing  many  vicissitud 
es,  and  through  great  sacrifice,  the  founders  of  the 
institution,  like  all  great  men,  these  pioneers  of 
Alabama  Colored  Baptist,  built  better  than  they 
knew.  The  two  towering  figures  among  the  Col 
ored  Baptist  of  Alabama  in  those  days  of  struggle 
and  pioneer  work  were  ^.  H.  Alpine,  and  C.  C. 
Boothe.  They  were  both  self-made  men  but  men 
of  great  natural  ability  and  force  and  their  influence 
was  great  among  the  colored  Baptists  of  Alabama, 
and  they  held  the  confidence  and  respect  of  their 
white  brethren.  It  was  under  their  leadership  that 
the  school  had  its  inception  and  through  their 
effort  it  was  brought  to  a  successful  issue,  aided  of 
course  by  their  brethren,  who  put  their  souls,  their 
strength  and  their  means  into  the  enterprise.  Dr. 
McAlpine  has  gone  to  his  reward,  but  Dr.  Boothe 
is  still  using  his  great  powers  for  the  uplift  of  his 
people. 

The  following  officers  of  the  Board  of  Trustees 
are  men  of  culture  and  rare  gifts : 

P.  S.,  L.  Lutchins,  D.  D.,  is  chairman,  R.  B.  Hud 
son,  A.  M.,  is  Secretary  and  L.  German,  A.  B.,  is 
Treasurer. 


83 


It  is  a  divine  principle  that  "By  their  fruits  ye 
shall  know  them."  Measured  by  this  standard  the 
Selma  University  occupies  a  high  place  in  the  esti 
mation  of  those  who  have  watched  its  course  from 
the  beginning.  Beginning  with  two  teachers  and 
four  pupils,  the  school  now  has  twenty-three  in 
structors  in  charge  of  about  five  hundred  pupils. 
It  enrolled  one  year  782  pupils.  It  opened  with 
Normal  and  Theological  courses,  but  now  has  a  col 
lege  course.  Bachelor  of  Theology,  Bachelor  of 
Divinity  Course,  a  Pastor's  course,  a  Missionary 
course,  manual  art,  Agriculture,  Domestic  Science, 
Sewing  and  Dress  making.  Stenography,  Type 
writing,  etc.  It  has  turned  out  more  than  six 
hundred  graduates,  who  have  taken  high  places  in 
the  various  avocations  of  life.  The  Institution  has 
been  careful  in  the  selection  of  its  teaching  force, 
who  have  come  from  the  noted  colleges  of  the 
country.  Brown  University,  Chicago  University, 
Leland  University,  Virginia  Union  University,  Har 
vard.  Yale,  Johns  Hopkins,  Vassar,  Columbia  Col 
lege,  Cornell  University,  Meharry  Medical  Col 
lege,  Tuskegee  Institute.  Oberlin  Business  Col 
lege,  etc..  have  all  made  their  contributoin. 
The  University  has  had  eight  presidents;  Rev.  Har 
rison  Wooclsmall,  Dr.  W.  H.  McAlpine,  Dr.  E.  M. 
Bra,wley,  Dr.  Charles  L.  Purse,  Dr.  Charles  S.  Din- 
kins,  Dr.  C.  O.  Boothe.  Dr.  M.  W.  Gilbert  and  the 
present  president,  Dr.  Robert  Thomas  Pollard. 

Dr.  Pollard  was  married  in  1887  to  Miss  Eliza 
beth  J.  Washington,  also  a  graduate  of  Selma  Uni 
versity,  who  has  been  a  great  help  to  him  in  his  ed 
ucational  work.  They  have  one  son  who  is  a  pros 
perous  dentist  at  Florence,  Alabama.  Mrs.  Pollard 
was  for  ten  years  President  of  the  Woman's  State 
Convention,  Editress  of  the  "Woman's  Era,"  au 
thor  of  "Guide,"  one  to  four  and  matron  of  the 
Florida  Memorial  College. 

Dr.  Pollard  has  devoted  most  of  his  life  to  the 
cause  of  Baptist  education,  both  in  the  churches 
and  the  schools,  and  the  greater  part  of  his  activi 
ties  have  been  confined  to  the  State  of  Alabama. 


MANUAL  TRAINING  SHOP,  SELMA  UNIVERSITY 


ANDREW   JACKSON   STOKES,   D.   D. 

OST  of  those  who  fill  the  sacred 
office  are  called  to  the  ministry 
after  reaching  man's  estate,  but 
occasionally  one  is  born  to  the 
cloth.  Among  these  is  the  Rev. 
Andrew  Jackson  Stokes,  who 
commenced  his  pulpit  work  when  a  boy  only  ten 
years  of  age. 

Dr.  Stokes  was  born  in  Orangeburg  County,  S. 
C,  July  25th,  1859,  and  began  his  ministerial  work 
in  Orangeburg  County  in  the  year  1870.  From  the 
first  he  showed  an  aptitude  for  church  building  and 
during  his  ministry  he  has  built  and  remodeled  a 
number  of  church  edifices.  His  first  work  was 
to  build  the  Mt.  Zion  and  Pisgah  churches  in  Or 
angeburg  County,  and  Black  Jack  Church,  in 
Winnsboro  County.  From  1884  to  1886  his  field 
of  labor  was  Clarksville,  Tenn.,  and  here  again  his 
talent  for  church  building  was  called  into  play.  Be 
fore  he  completed  his  labors  in  this  city  he  had 
erected  a  church  building  costing  twenty  thousand 
dollars.  From  Clarksville  he  went  to  Fernan- 
dina,  Florida,  where  he  added  largely  to  the  nume 
rical  strength  of  the  church  and  remodeled  its 
building. 


It  was  in  Montgomery,  Alabama,  however,  where 
he  reached  the  zenith  of  his  active  and  useful  life. 
Upon  the  death  of  the  Rev.  James  Foster,  Pastor 
of  the  Columbus  Street  Baptist  Church,  Dr.  Stokes 
was  called  to  succeed  him.  Coming  to  Montgomery 
in  1891,  he  has  continuously  served  the  church  and 
is  today  its  beloved  Pastor.  When  he  took  charge 
of  the  church  its  membership  numbered  500,  which 
has  increased  to  over  5000.  The  church,  during 
his  administration  has  had  many  seasons  of  revi 
val  and  he  bears  the  distinction  of  having  baptised 
1001  candidates  in  one  day.  The  growing  mem 
bership  required  greater  housing,  and  the  old 
frame  building  in  which  the  church  worshipped, 
was  enlarged  and  remodeled.  The  requirements 
of  the  congregation  soon  called  for  a  more  mod 
ern  structure  and  the  Pastor  with  his  natural  gift 
for  church  building  proved  to  be  the  successful 
leader  in  the  enterprise.  Like  a  wise  leader  he 
first  perfected  his  plans  and  then  made  his  people 
see  the  vision  which  had  come  to  him  and  enthus 
ed  them  with  the  spirit  of  the  enterprise. 

After  months  of  patient  waiting,  unbounding 
sacrifices,  unquenchable  zeal  and  determined  effort, 
the  new  edifice  was  completed  and  dedicated-  And 
today  is  pointed  to  with  commendable  pride,  not 
alone  by  the  congregation  but  by  the  colored  cit 
izens  of  the  Capital  City. 

While  his  main  thought  and  effort  was  the  de 
velopment  of  the  church  life  of  his  people.  Dr. 
Stokes  was  not  unmindful  of  their  educational 
needs,  and  to  meet  these,  he  established  in  1891, 
the  Montgomery  Academy,  the  success  of  which, 
has  met  his  fondest  expectations.  Starting  in  a 
small  way,  with  two  teachers  and  fifty  pupils,  it 
has  steadily  grown  until  today  it  has  six  teachers 
and  two  hundred  pupils  and  is  housed  in  a  well  ap 
portioned  school  building.  From  its  birth,  Dr. 
Stokes  has  been  the  President  of  the  Academy. 
The  object  of  the  founder  was  to  give  to  the  child 
ren  a  Normal  school  education  and  to  fit  them  for 
some  useful  occupaion  in  life.  The  range  of  Dr. 
Stokes'  active  life  extends  for  beyond  his  home 
field.  He  is  a  Trustee  of  the  Selma  University; 
Treasurer  of  the  National  Baptist  Convention,  an 
office  he  has  held  for  the  past  twenty  years,  and 
Moderator  of  the  Spring  Hill  Association.  By  ac 
clamation  he  was  elected  by  the  Congress  for  the 
advancement  of  Colored  People,  as  one  of  a  com 
mittee  to  go  to  France  and  study  conditions  of  en 
listed  men  of  the  United  States  Army. 

Dr.  Stokes  has  been  a  great  traveler,  his  travels 
covering  the  United  States  and  Mexico,  the  coun 
tries  of  Europe,  Egypt  and  the  Holy  Land. 

He  has  accumulated  quite  a  nice  property,  own 
ing  about  2000  acreas  of  land,  besides  an  elegant 
home,  which  adjoins  the  handsome  church  building 
of  which  mention  has  been  made.  His  family  con 
sists  of  a  wife  and  two  children,  Lou  Rosa  Stokes, 
and  Hugo  Benton  Stokes.  His  son  is  an  M.  D. 
graduate  of  Meharry  and  served  as  First  Lieuten- 
in  the  U.  S.  Army.  Dr.  Stokes  received  his  degree 
from  Princeton  in  1914.  He  is  author  of  a  book 
called  "Select  Sermons." 


84 


FIRST  BAPTIST  CHURCH,  COLORED, 
MONTGOMERY,   ALA. 


RIOR  to  the  Civil  War  and  for 
several  years  after  its  close,  the 
Colored  Baptists  of  Montgomery 
worshipped  with  the  white  Bap 
tists,  in  their  brick  church  build 
ing,  situated  at  the  intersection  of 
Court,  Coosa  and  Bibb  Streets.  For  their  accom 
modation  a  gallery  was  built  on  both  the  east  and 
west  side  of  the  auditorium  and  their  spiritual  in 
terests  were  looked  after  by  the  Pastor  of  the 
church  and  the  white  members.  They  received 
baptism  at  the  hands  of  the  Pastor  and  in  the  bap 
tistry  of  the  church. 

Several  years  after  the  war  the  colored  mem 
bers  decided  that  it  would  be  best  to  withdraw 
their  membership  from  the  white  church  and  form 
a  church  of  their  own,  to  be  ministered  to  by  a 
member  of  their  own  race.  Accordingly  in  1867 
letters  were  granted  to  about  forty  of  the  colored 
members  who  organized  the  Columbus  Street  Bap 
tist  church,  and  called  the  Reverend  Nathan  Ashby 
to  be  their  Pastor.  He  served  them  until  the  year 
1877  when  he  resigned  and  the  Reverend  James 
Foster  was  elected  as  his  successor.  During  his 
pastorate  the  membership  of  the  church  was  in 
creased  to  five  hundred,  like  the  illustrious  William 
Carey,  the  Rev.  Foster  was  a  shoe-maker  before 
he  entered  the  ministry.  He  served  the  church 
until  1891,  when  he  entered  into  his  long  rest.  He 


was  greatly  beloved  by  his  people  and  was  highly 
respected  and  esteemed  by  the  citizens  of  Mont 
gomery  in  general,  both  white  and  black.  Succeed 
ing  him  as  Pastor  of  the  church,  was  the  Reverend 
Andrew  Jackson  Stokes,  who  came  to  Montgomery 
from  Fernandena,  Florida.  It  was  under  his  ad 
ministration  that  the  church  began  that  marvelous 
growth  which  has  placed  it  near,  if  not  at  the  head 
of  the  list  of  churches  in  point  of  membership. 
From  five  hundred  members  it  has  grown  to  five 
thousand  members,  requiring  the  enlarging  of  the 
old  frame  building,  in  which  the  church  worshipped 
to  accomodate  the  congregation. 

The  church  saw  the  need  for  better  equipment, 
and  were  planning,  under  the  leadership  of  their 
Pastor,  for  a  new  building  and  while  assembling 
material  for  the  new  structure,  the  frame  building 
was  destroyed  by  fire.  This  hastened  their  plans 
and  gave  them  new  zeal  for  their  work.  After 
months  of  untiring  effort,  generous  giving  and 
willing  sacrifices,  the  building  was  completed,  and 
the  congregation  is  now  worshipping  in  one  of  the 
handsomest  church  edifices  to  be  found  among  the 
colored  citizens  of  the  South.  The  building  has  a 
large  auditorium,  a  commodious  Sunday  school 
room,  and  the  necessary  smaller  rooms  for  the  ac- 
comodation  of  the  church  societies,  class  rooms, 
etc.  It  is  well  located  on  a  corner  lot  facing  the 
Cemetary  Park,  with  nothing  to  obstruct  its  front 
view  for  a  long  distance. 

After  serving  so  large  a  congregation  for  twen 
ty-eight  years,  the  Pastor,  Dr.  Stokes,  is  still  a  man 
of  great  energy,  and  vigor,  and  full  of  zeal  for  the 
welfare  of  his  people.  His  people  stand  by  him  and 
it  is  only  necessary  for  him  to  lay  before  them  his 
plans  of  work  to  inlist  their  cooperation  and  sup 
port.  They  have  found  in  him  a  wise  and  active 
leader  and  they  gladly  follow  him  when  he  points 
out  the  way. 

The  church  will  soon  have  a  pipe  organ  to  aid 
its  splendid  choir,  which  will  add  no  little  to  the 
Sunday  services. 

The  pastor  is  ably  assisted  by  the  following  of 
ficers  :  Deacons  Wm.  Clayton,  Chairman,  Russell 
Johnson,  Treas ;  Kiltis  Singleton,  Henry  Spear, 
Wallace  Johnson,  Robert  Carlton,  Wm.  Bruher, 
Ned  Casby,  Professor,  Henry  Ray,  Levy  Coates, 
Sol  Wallace,  Champ  Williams,  and  Isaac  Croom. 

The  Sunday  School  is  divided  into  two  divisions 
— A  and  B.  Prof  Henry  Ray  is  head  of  Division  A. 
and  Division  B.  is  presided  over  by  Willie  Beasley 
and  Pat  Johnson.  Fred  Thomas  is  at  the  head 
of  the  Board  of  Ushers. 

Missionary  Board:  Mrs.  Fannie  Gable  is  Presi 
dent,  assisted  by  Eliza  Jones,  Mary  Miles,  Hardy 
Martin,  Lucy  Prichard,  Mary  Ward.  Willie  Hall, 
and  Jeanette  McAlpin- 


85 


MONROE  N.   WORK,   PH.   B.,   M.   A. 

C'NROE  N.  Work,  Sociologist  and 
Writer,     Head     of     the      Division 
of  Records    and  Research  of    the 
Tuskegee    Normal    and    Industrial 
Institute,    Editor   of     the     Negro 
Year    Book.     The    subject    of    his 
sketch  was  born  in  Iredell  Coun 
ty,  North  Carolina.  He  was  rear 
ed  in  Illinois  and  Kansas.     His  education  has  been 
as  follows : 

Graduated  from  high  school,  Arkansas  City,  Kan 
sas,  1892;  in  1895,  he  entered  the  Chicago  Theolo 
gical  Seminary,  graduating  in  1898.  While  here  he 
became  interested  in  the  subject  of  sociology,  and 
decided  to  enter  the  University  of  Chicago,  and 
prepare  himself  for  work  in  this  field.  He  remain 
ed  in  this  institution  five  years.  In  1902  received 
the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Philosophy,  in  1903  the 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts,  with  sociology  as  a  ma 
jor  subject  and  experimental  psychology  as  a  min 
or-  His  thesis  for  the  masters  degree  was  "Negro 
Real  Estate  Holding  in  Chicago."  This  attracted 
widespread  attention  and  brought  forth  many  com 
ments  from  the  press  throughout  the  country.  He 
showed  that  the  first  owner  of  property  on  the  site 
of  what  is  now  Chicago  was  a  San  Domingo  Negro, 
Baptist  Point  De  Saible,  who  settled  here  as  an  In 
dian  trader,  about  1790. 

The  first  position,  Mr.  Work  held  after  gradua 
tion  from  the  University  of  Chicage  was  with  the 


Georgia  State  Industrial  College,  as  professor  of 
History  and  Education.  This  position  he  held  for 
five  years.  In  1908  he  came  to  Tviskegee  Institute 
and  established  the  Department  of  Records  and  Re 
search.  The  results  of  the  work  of  this  department 
are  embodied  in  the  Negro  Year  Book,  the  first  ed 
ition  of  which  appeared  in  1912.  This  publication 
has  become  a  standard  authority  on  matters  per 
taining  to  the  race.  It  circulates  widely,  not  only 
in  this  country,  but  throughout  the  world.  Wher 
ever  there  are  persons  interested  in  the  Negro  and 
wish  to  secure  reliable  comprehensive  facts  con 
cerning  him,  they  consult  the  Negro  Year  Book. 
The  following  are  examples  of  the  comments  of  the 
press  concerning  this  publication : 

"Interesting  and  important  is  the  array  of  facts 
relating  to  the  Negro  contained  in  the  Negro  Year 
Book.  The  book  is  a  perfect  encyclopedia  of  ach 
ievements  by  Negroes  in  all  ranks  of  life,  of  the 
history  of  the  race  in  the  United  States,  of  legis 
lative  enactments  relating  to  them,  of  activity  in  all 
branches,  particularly  education.  The  book  is  in 
dispensable  to  all  who  have  to  deal  with  any  phase 
of  the  Negro  question." — New  York  Sun. 

"No  better  prepared  or  more  comprehensive  an 
nual  comes  to  hand  than  the  Negro  Year  Book.  It 
covers  every  phase  of  Negro  activity  in  the  United 
States,  reviews  progress  in  all  lines,  discusses  grie 
vances,  outlines  the  economic  condition  of  the  race, 
presents  religious  and  social  problems,  educational 
statistics  and  political  questions  as  they  relate  to 
the  race.  The  book  is  a  valuable  and  authoritative 
book  of  reference." — Indianapolis  Star. 

Mr.  Work  is  a  member  of  the  following  learned 
societies :  The  American  Negro  Academy,  The 
Association  for  the  Study  of  Negro  Life,  and  His 
tory,  The  American  Sociological  Society,  The  Ame 
rican  Economic  Association,  The  National  Econo 
mic  League,  The  National  Geographical  Society, 
and  the  Southern  Sociological  Congress. 

Mr.  Work  is  also  the  compiler  of  statistics  on 
lynching.  His  annual  reports  of  lynchings  are  the 
recognized  authority  on  this  subject. 

The  subjects  of  important  articles  which  Mr. 
Work  has  published  in  magizines  and  periodicals, 
are:  "Geechee  Folklore,"  Southern  Workman,  No 
vember  and  December,  1905;  "Some  Parallelism  in 
the  Development  of  Africans  and  other  Races," 
Southern  Workman,  November,  1906  and  January, 
February,  March,  1907 ;  "The  African  Family  as  an 
Institution,"  Southern  Workman,  June,  July,  Aug 
ust,  1909;  "The  African  Medicine  Man,"  Southern 
Workman,  October,  1907;  "African  Agriculture," 
Southern  Workman,  November,  December,  1910, 
and  January,  February,  1911;  "An  African  System 
of  Writing,"  Southern  Workman,  October,  1908 ; 
"The  Negro  and  Crime  in  Chicago,"  American  Jour 
nal  of  Sociology,  September,  1900;  "Negro  Crimin 
ality  in  the  South,"  Annals  of  American  Academy 
of  Political  and  Social  Science,  September,  1913; 
"The  Negro  Church  and  the  Community,"  South 
ern  Workman,  August,  1908;  "How  to  Fit  the 
School  to  the  Needs  of  the  Community,"  Southern 
Workman,  September,  1908;  and  many  other  arti 
cles  of  like  nature  and  importance.  "The  Negroes 
Industrial  Problem,"  Southern  Workman,  August, 
1914 ;  "Self  Help  Among  Negroes,"  Survey,  August 
7,  1909. 


86 


REVEREND  ALFRED   C.  WILLIAMS.  A.   R..  A    M. 


EV.  Alfred  C.  Williams,  the  son  of 
>j  i«*»p,i  «,jyj  Hampton  A.  and  Chanly  Williams, 
n  t^r^^\^  vvas  ')orn  at  Monticello,  Florida, 
U  K?V  ^^\  May  28th.  1883.  He  developed 
great  mental  vigor  in  his  youth 
and  graduated  from  the  Howard 
Academy,  of  his  own  town  at  fourteen  years  of 
age. 

He  vvas  converted  and  joined  the  church  at  the 
age  of  fifteen.  During  the  fall  of  the  same  year 
he  entered  the  Florida  Memorial  College,  at  Live 
Oak,  Florida,  from  which  he  was  graduated  at  the 
age  of  nineteen.  In  his  nineteenth  year  he  was  or 
dained  to  the  ministry  and  elected  as  supply  pas 
tor  of  his  home  church.  In  June  of  his  twentieth 
vear  he  was  called  to  the  pastorate  of  the  First 
Baptist  Church,  of  Green  Cove  Springs,  Florida, 
which  pastorate  he  filled  until  he  was  twenty-two, 
at  which  time  lie  resigned  to  enter  Morehouse 
College,  Atlanta,  Georgia.  During  the  first  year 
of  his  student  life,  at  Morehouse,  he  was  called 
to  the  pastorate  of  the  Antioch  Baptist  Church,  of 
Atlanta,  Georgia,  which  pastorate  he  filled  until 
June  1912.  In  May  1912.  he  received  the  Bachelor 
of  Arts  degree  from  Morehouse  College.  In  June 
he  was  married  to  Miss  Louise  N.  Maxwell,  thf 


oldest  daughter  of  the  late  Dr.  L.  B.  Maxwell.  Hav 
ing    received    a    call    to    the    Mt.    Tabor    Baptist 
Church,  of  Pulaska,  Florida,  he  resigned  the  pas 
torate  of  the  Antioch  Baptist  Church,  Atlanta,  to 
accept  this  the  second  largest  church  in  his  home 
state.     In  one  year  and  three  months  he  led  this 
church  from  under  debt  of  more  than  Five  Thous 
and  Dollars,   ($5000,)  and  the  membership  was  in 
creased  more  than  three  hundred.     On  account  of 
the  illness  of  his  wife,  he  accepted  a  call  to  the  Mt. 
Zion    Baptist   Church,   of   Los   Angeles,   California, 
where  he  remained  for  three  years  and  at  which 
time  he  studied  at  the  University  of  Southern  Cal 
ifornia,  at  which  school  he  completed  work  for  the 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts.     In  May,   1916,  he  was 
called    o    the   pastorate    of    Sixteenth    Street    Bap 
tist  Church,  Birmingham,  Alabama,  which  he  now 
fills.     The    Sixteenth    Street    Baptist    Church    was 
organized  in  1873,  by  Reverend  James  Readen  and 
Reverend  Warner  Reed.     Succeeding  pastors  were 
Reverend  J.  S.  Jackson,  Dr.  W.  R.  Pettiford,  Rev 
erend  T.  L.  Jordan,  Dr.  C.  L.     Fisher,     Dr.  J.  A. 
Whitted,   and   its  present    Pastor,    Reverend   A.   C. 
Williams.     All  of  these  men  wrought  well  and  are 
credited    with    having    done    a    great      work.     The 
church  has  always  stood  as  a  monument  to  the  Ne 
gro  race,  especially  the  Negro  Baptists,  of  Alabama 
who  have  felt  a  commendable  pride  in  its  work  and 
achievements.     It  has   had  much   to  do  with     the 
shaping  of  the  religious  thought,  and  molding  sen 
timent    for   the   race.     The   Church   clings     to   the 
"Old  time"  religious  principles  of  its  faith,  but  em 
ploys  modern  methods  of  bringing  the  Gospel  mes 
sage  to  the  hearts  and  minds  of  the  people.     It  re 
cognized  the  power  and  uplifting  influence  of  music 
and    organized  a  choir  whose   famous    high    class 
musicals   attract   hundreds   of   white   people   of   all 
classes  throughout  the  city  and  district  who  come 
to  listen  to  the  old  plantation  melodies,  and  jubilees 
as  well  as  their  high  class   solos,  quartettes     and 
anthems.     All    races    and    creeds    in    Birmingham 
have  high  regard  for  this  church's  attitude  in  mat 
ters  affecting  the  social  and    moral    uplift    of    the 
community.     The   church   has     a    membership     of 
more   than   one   thousand.     It   worships   in   a   most 
beautiful   structure,   an   edifice   built   of   brick   and 
stone,   which    together   with   the    Interior    furnish 
ings  cost  about  Eighty  thousand  Dollars,  ($80,000,) 
It  also  owns  the   Pastor's   home   which   is  a   good 
substantial   building.     The   entire   church   property 
is   valued  at   more   than  $125,000.00.     The   interior 
is  beautifully  adorned  by  expensive  art  glass,  win 
dows  and  other  architectural  designs  calculated  to 
•give  tone,  grace  and  beauty  and  is  highly  attrac 
tive  and  pleasing  to  the  most  discriminating  eye. 
A  church  of  this  character  with  a  choir  holding  an 
enviable   place   in    the   estimation   of   music   loving 
people  of  course  has  a  pipe  organ  in  keeping  with 
it.     The  organ  is  large  and  expensive  and  an   or 
nament  as  well  as  an  instrument  of  use. 

Since  becoming  its  Pastor,  Reverend  Williams 
has  received  into  its  membership  more  than  700 
accessions,  and  has  raised  over  $23,000  for  current 
expenses  and  debts. 


87 


JOHN  G.  WRIGHT. 
EW  Negroes  there  are  in  the 
South  who  can  conduct  their  bus 
iness  in  the  largest  building  of 
the  city  in  which  they  live.  Mr. 
Wright's  barber  shop  has  a  first 
floor  location  in  the  largest  busi 
ness  building  in  Tuscaloosa,  adjoining  the  leading 
city  drug  store  and  under  the  rooms  of  the  city 
Board  of  Trade.  His  shop  is  patronized  by  the 
leading  white  men  of  the  city  and  is  looked  upon 
as  the  most  up-to-date  business  of  the  kind  in  Tus 
caloosa. 

Mr.  Wright  was  a  self-made  man,  who  had  no 
very  great  early  advantages,  either  of  school,  of 
parentage,  money  or  environment.  He  was  born  in 
Hanover,  Hale  County,  in  the  late  sixties.  A  white 
lady  taught  him  the  fundamentals  of  education. 
Of  general  education,  such  as  our  children  get,  he 
appears  to  have  had  very  little. 

In  1892  Mr.  Wright  made  his  way  into  Bir 
mingham,  a  town  at  he  time,  and  began  his 
apprenticeship  as  a  barber.  For  eight  years  he 
served  in  the  shops  of  others  in  the  city  of  Bir 
mingham,  first  as  an  apprentice  and  then  as  a  reg 
ular  workman. 

His  ambitions  led  him  to  establish  a  business  of 


his  own.  In  casting  about  for  a  location  he  de 
cided  in  favor  of  Tuscaloosa.  Here  was  located 
the  State  University,  which  offered  a  good  field  for 
patronage  aside  from  the  local  trade. 

Tuscaloosa  has  since  been  the  scene  of  his  active 
life.  Here  he  established  a  barber's  business, 
which  is  today  one  of  the  best  in  the  State. 

Courteous  in  demeanor,  attentive  to  his  business 
and  maintaining  a  strict  integrity,  he  has  won  the 
confidence  and  respect  of  the  entire  community 
and  occupies  the  proud  position  of  being  one  of  the 
leading  colored  citizens  of  the  city. 

In  thinking  of  Mr.  Wright  you  do  not  regard 
him  simply  as  a  barber  but  as  a  business  men  with 
an  unusual  aptitude  for  large  business  enterprises. 
He  is  the  proprietor  of  two  shops  and  they  occupy 
the  best  locations  in  Tuscaloosa,  one  in  the  lead 
ing  hotel  of  the  city  and  one  in  its  largest  business 
building. 

He  does  not  confine  himself  exclusively  to  his 
barber  shops.  He  is  a  dealer  in  real  estate  which 
has  brought  him  much  profit  and  in  a  sense  is  a 
promoter  of  Negro  enterprises. 

He  owns  his  home — a  residence  to  which  his 
neighbors  point  with  pride.  It  is  beautifully  lo 
cated  and  is  built  on  a  quarter  of  a  block.  Since 
the  building  for  himself  he  has  bought  and  now 
rents  thirteen  other  houses. 

From  beng  strictly  in  business  for  himself  he  has 
become  a  promoter  and  backer  of  Negro  undertak 
ings  generally.  He  is  president  of  the  Alabama 
Protection  and  Aid  Association,  Stockholder  and 
promoter  of  the  People's  Drug  Company  of  Tus 
caloosa,  Trustee  and  Treasurer  of  the  A.  M.  E. 
Zion  Church  of  his  town  and  was  Grand  Master  of 
the  Grand  United  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  of  Ala 
bama  for  four  years,  and  resigned  this  office  in 
August,  1917,  on  account  of  his  business  requiring 
all  of  his  time. 

Tuscaloosa  is  one  of  the  best  towns  of  the  South. 
One  does  not  here  feel  the  stricture  of  race  pre 
judice  or  opposition.  In  few  if  any  other  towns 
in  the  South  can  a  colored  man  find  such  happy 
accommodations,  handsome  homes,  educated  peo 
ple,  good  restaurants,  clean  surroundings  and  the 
best  of  cooking.  It  needed  only  the  up-to-date 
Drug  store  to  round  out  the  comforts  of  the  col 
ored  people.  This  was  provided  mainly  by  Mr. 
Wright,  who  is  both  president  and  treasurer  of 
the  company. 

Mr.  Wright  is  a  Mason,  Knight  of  Pythias  and 
Odd  Fellow.  In  his  work  as  Grand  Master  of  the 
Odd  Fellows  of  Alabama  he  has  traveled  over  the 
whole  country. 

Mr.  Wright  has  no  children,  but  he  will  tell  you 
that  much  of  his  success  in  business  and  in  life  is 
due  to  Mrs.  Wright,  who  was  Miss  Ophelia  Ed 
monds  of  Tuscaloosa. 


ARKANSAS    BAPTIST    COLLEGE. 


HE  college  is  a  creature  of  the  Ar 
kansas  Negro  Baptist  State  Con 
vention  and  came  into  existence 
'at  the  Convention  held  at  Hot 
Springs,  in  August,  1884.  After 
an  experiment  of  one  year  it  was 
incorporated  under  the  name  of  the  Arkansas  Bap 
tist  College.  For  the  first  several  year  of  its  exist 
ence  it  had  no  permanent  abiding  place,  but  moved 
from  church  to  church.  It  finally  located  upon  its 
own  property,  some  distance  beyond  the  city  limits 
of  Little  Rock  where  it  has  continued  until  the  pre 
sent  time.  Its  equipment  is  not  in  keeping  with 
the  growth  and  importance  of  the  institution.  The 
Administration  building  is  its  only  structure  of 
real  and  permanent  value.  While  the  college  has 
grown  the  City  of  Little  Rock  has  far  outstripped 
it  and  while  encroaching  upon  it  has  added  greatly 
to  the  value  of  the  real  estate  holdings.  The  Trus 
tees  have  already  considered  the  question  of  a  new 
location  and  have  secured  and  paid  for  one  hundred 
acres  of  land,  some  four  miles  distant.  The  land 
purchased  has  a  good  elevation,  is  dry  and  well 
drained  and  excellent  for  farming  operations. 

When  the  present  location  is  sold  it  should  sup 
ply  sufficient  funds  to  erect  a  number  of  modern 
structures  to  meet  its  requirements.  Even  with 
this  advantage  it  will  require  outside  aid  to  make 
the  move  and  place  the  institution  upon  a  sure 
foundation. 

The  President,  Dr.  Joseph  A.  Booker,  who  has 
been  the  President  since  1887,  is  now  maturing  a 


plan  to  secure  help  from  the  wealthy  friends  of  the 
college. 

Its  original  purpose  was  to  train  preachers  and 
teachers,,  but  the  scope  has  been  enlarged  to  reach 
all  clases  of  the  Negro  race,  and  prepare  them  for 
some  useful  occupation  in  life. 

Special  training  is  given  to  the  developement  of 
the  mind  while  industrial  and  farming  is  a  marked 
feature  of  the  institution.  The  training  is  thor 
oughly  practical,  the  students  being  required  to 
put  to  a  practical  test  the  theories  they  are  taught. 

The  attendance  of  pupils  has  gone  beyond  the 
three  hundred  mark,  while  the  teachers  number 
eighteen.  All  of  the  teachers  are  colored ;  male, 
eight,  and  female,  ten;  divided  as  follows:  grades, 
four ;  academic,  seven  ;  girls'  industries,  two ;  theo 
logy,  one ;  music,  one ;  and  Matron,  one.  It  is  or 
ganized  as  follows  :  Elementary — The  elementary 
work  covers  the  usual  eight  grades.  Secondary : 
The  secondary,  or  preparatory  course,  includes  La 
tin,  four  years  ;  English,  four  ;  Mathematics,  four  ; 
Greek  or  German,  two ;  Elementary  Scinece 
two  and  one  half;  History,  one;  Psychology,  one; 
Bible,  three  and  one  half.  Emphasis  is  placed  on 
ancient  languages.  Industrial:  The  girls  are  in 
structed  in  cooking  and  sewing. 
The  industrial  instruction  for  boys  is  chiefly  man 
ual  training;  good  work  in  making  brackets,  tie 
racks,  and  chairs  is  done.  A  few  pupils  work  on 
the  farm,  which  is  located  seven  miles  from  the 
school.  Gardening  has  recently  been  added  to  the 
course  of  study,  with  practice  on  the  school  grounds. 
While  it  is  yet  in  the  nature  of  an  experiment,  it 
is  hoped  and  expected  to  be  a  valuable  addition  to 
the  course. 


89 


JOSEPH    HERCULES    BARABIN,    A.    B.,    M.    D. 

HE  prince  of  good  fellows,  the 
king  of  diagnosticians,  this  is 
what  they  tell  you  out  in  Arkan 
sas  about  Dr.  Joseph  Hercules 
Barabin  of  Mariana.  And  then 
you  are  regaled  with  all  the  hon 
ors  that  colored  Arkansas  has  been  only  too  pleased 
to  bestow  upon  its  leading  physician  ;  a  distinguish 
ed  Mason,  a  leading  Odd  Fellow,  a  prominent 
Knight  of  Pythias,  a  substantial  Mosiac  Templar, 
a  foremost  member  of  the  Royal  Circle  of  Friends 
and  of  the  Supreme  Council  of  Good  Shepherds, 
the  local  examiner  for  all  the  secret  orders  in  the 
State,  a  former  athlete,  the  patron  of  all  athletics. 
Moreover,  he  is  a  big  business  man,  being  pres 
ident  of  the  Colored  Commercial  Club  of  Mariana, 
and  owning  in  addition  to  his  residence,  a  brick 
store,  seven  rent  houses,  286  acres  of  farm  land,  all 
improved,  all  free  from  debt. 

Dr.  Barabin's  rise  to  a  prominent  place  makes 
one  of  those  romantic  biographical  tales  so  inter 
esting  in  all  democracies,  so  dear  to  the  heart  of  all 
Americans.  Dr.  Barabin  was  born  in  Jeanerette, 
Louisiana,  March  19th,  1874.  An  ex-union  soldier, 
left  over  from  the  war,  and  none  too  advanced  in 
education,  gave  the  young  lad  his  first  lessons  in 


books.  When  he  was  sixteen  years  of  age,  he  made 
his  way  into  Gilbert  Academy,  at  Baldwin,  Louisi 
ana.  Five  years  of  study  and  work,  of  work  and 
study,  for  he  was  in  and  out  of  his  classes,  having  to 
pay  his  own  way,  completed  his  studies  at  Gilbert 
Academy.  The  adage  of  the  ancients,  that  a  little 
learning  is  a  dangerous  thing  impressed  him  ;  and 
so  the  young  man  sought  a  higher  institution  in 
which  to  pursue  his  studies. 

Fisk  University  was  then,  as  it  still  is,  the  star 
of  hope  for  a  great  many  Negroes  with  college  as 
pirations.  Here  in  1895,  Dr.  Barabin  matriculated. 
In  a  while  he  was  a  leader  in  all  the  big  things  of 
college  life.  He  was  a  brilliant  man  in  the  col 
lege  and  city  societies  (and  who  knows  how  much 
this  social  success  has  counted  in  his  professional 
career?)  he  was  a  formidable  adversary  in  the 
debates  and  in  the  oratory  of  the  college,  and  he 
was  a  ferocious  plunger  on  the  football  field. 

Graduating  as  a  Bachelor  of  Arts  in  1900,  Dr. 
Barabin  resolved  that  he  would  study  medicine. 
Business  careers  for  young  Negroes  were  not  com 
mon  then.  The  young  college  graduate  had  es 
sayed  school  teaching  at  odd  times,  and  decided  that 
he  did  not  especially  care  for  life  in  the  school 
room. 

Casting  about  for  a  medical  college  of  high  stand 
ing,  moderate  expense  and  congenial  to  colored 
people,  he  finally  selected  the  Illinois  Medical  Col 
lege  of  Chicago.  Moreover,  he  felt  that  Chicago 
would  offer  the  best  opportunity  for  clinical  prac 
tice  and  also  work  in  odd  times  for  a  student  who 
was  earning  his  own  way.  All  happily  came  out 
as  he  had  planned,  or  even  better.  He  was  able 
along  with  working  in  the  Pullman  service  during 
summer,  to  pay  two  years  expenses  by  playing  foot 
ball,  and  to  pay  the  other  two  years  by  embalming 
the  bodies  in  the  medical  school.  Indeed  it  was  not 
long  before  the  embalming  department  was  put  in 
his  charge.  Despite  his  having  to  work,  the  voung 
doctor  was  one  of  the  two  men  in  his  class  to  re 
ceive  a  special  honor  diploma  for  excellence  in 
scholarship,  and  up  to  that  time,  the  only  colored 
man  to  receive  this  honorary  diploma. 

In  1905,  having  finished  his  medical  course,  Dr. 
Barabin,  after  casting  about  for  a  while,  hung  out 
his  sign  in  Mariana,  where  it  has  hung  these  thir 
teen  years,  and  where  instead  of  being  forty  dollars 
in  debt,  the  sum  borrowed  to  start  business  on, -he 
is  worth  thirty  thousand  dollars.  He  is  a  physi 
cian  and  surgeon,  practicing  within  a  radius  of  fifty 
miles,  going  into  the  country  as  well  as  in  the  town. 
He  is  frequently  called  in  consultation  in  Little 
Rock,  in  Memphis,  Oklahoma  and  in  many  smaller 
places. 

Dr.  Barabin  was  married  on  December  28th,  1905. 
to  Miss  Lulu  Margaret  Benson  of  Kowaliga.  Ala 
bama.  Their  four  children,  Jennie  Maudeline  ;  Jos 
eph  Benson;  William  Strickland  and  Harold  Croc 
kett  are  all  little  folks  getting  their  first  days  in 
school. 


90 


WALLACE  LEON  PURIFOY. 

AVE  you  ever  heard  of  the  United 
Order  of  Jugamos?  It  i|  one  of 
those  secret  and  useful  bodies, 
•  whose  secrets  are  no  secrets  at 
all.  It  has  head  and  several  sub 
heads  in  various  capacities- 
The  head  and  subordinate  officers  make  up 
the  Imperial  Council  of  the  Jugamos.  These  are 
responsible  for  insurance  relief  funds,  burial  and 
the  like,  of  members  of  the  Jugamos.  Its  present 
habitat  is  Arkansas,  the  head  quarters  being  in  For 
est  City.  However,  it  is  to  have  state  headquar 
ters  in  Tennessee,  in  Illinois,  in  Mississsippi,  in 
Louisiana,  in  Oklahoma.  It  has  a  membership  of 
7,500  and  an  annual  income  of  $35.000.  The  or 
ganization  has  grown  at  the  rate  of  more  than  a 
thousand  members  per  year,  being  founded  in  1910 
and  having  now  a  membership  of  7,500. 

The  founder  of  this  order  is  Mr.  Wallace  Leon 
Purifoy.  Mr.  Purifoy  was  born  near  Perry,  Geor 
gia,  in  Houston  County,  February,  ninth,  1869. 
Born  on  the  farm,  lie  put  in  much  time  with  tin- 
plow  and  hoe. 

While  still  young,  Mr.  Purifoy  left  Georgia,  and 
took  up  residence  in  Arkansas,  in  Forest  City. 


Here  he  began  his  education,  attending  the  public 
schools  of  that  city,  and  Philander  Smith  College, 
in  Little  Rock.  All  this  seeking  and  studying  to 
complete  his  training  was  accompanied  by  hard 
work  and  privation,  on  his  own  part  and  on  the 
part  of  a  sacrificing  mother.  The  mother  did 
washing  and  ironing  to  aid  him  through  school.  He 
helped  here,  however,  in  the  actual  work  of  bund 
ling  the  clothes.  Mr.  Purifoy  did  many  other 
jobs  to  gain  his  education.  For  a  while  he  worked 
as  a  laborer  on  big  buildings ;  then  he  drove  drays ; 
then  he  taught  school. 

When  he  reached  the  point  in  his  career  where 
he  could  command  a  school,  the  burden  on  both  his 
shoulders  and  his  mother's  began  to  lighten.  Be 
ginning  to  teach  school  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  he 
devoted  many  years  to  the  class  room  both  for  pu 
pils  and  for  teachers  before  he  founded  the  Juga 
mos. 

During  his  early  years  at  the  work,  he  taught 
many  schools  in  St.  Francis  County.  He  was  for 
twenty-five  years  Deputy  County  Examiner.  He 
conducted  a  summer  Normal  School  for  teachers, 
taught  for  two  years  in  Texas,  and  for  a  while  as 
principal  in  Pine  Bluff,  Arkansas.  His  real  sub 
stantial  school  work,  however,  was  done  in  Forest 
City,  his  home.  Here,  for  twenty-three  years  he 
has  been  principal  of  the  Colored  High  School,  reg 
ulating  the  courses  until  the  students  from  the 
Forest  City  High  School  are  admitted  without  ex 
aminations  to  any  college  in  the  state. 

As  regular  and  as  steady  as  has  been  Mr.  Puri- 
foy's  courses  in  education,  it  has  been  just  as 
steady  and  persistent  in  business.  Looking  about 
him,  he  saw  the  city  growing  and  his  people  need 
ing  homes.  Investing  his  earnings  wisely,  he  soon 
became  the  owner  of  several  pieces  of  valuable  pro 
perty.  He  built  homes  to  rent  and  bought  lots. 
He  also  built  a  beautiful  residence  for  himself. 
His  property  holdings,  in  rent  houses,  vacant  lots, 
and  his  own  residence  now  amounts  to  $20,000. 

Mr.  Purifoy  has  also  been  Grand  Keeper  of  the 
Record  and  Seals  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  of  the 
state  of  Arkansas.  He  is  a  member  and  Deacon  of 
the  First  Baptist  Church  of  Forest  City.  He  has 
traveled  extensively  in  the  eastern  and  Western 
parts  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Purifoy  was  married  to  Miss  Fannie  J.  Wat- 
erford,  of  Edmonston,  Arkansas,  in  1895.  They 
were  married  at  Forest  City,  where  they  now  re 
side.  There  are  several  children  in  the  Purifoy 
family,  all  of  whom,  except  Harold,  a  deceased 
son,  are  pursuing  their  work  in  school.  Wallace 
Leon,  Jr.,  is  studying  pharmacy  at  North  Western 
University;  Mayme  Marie  is  attending  Knoxville 
COllege,  in  Tennessee  ;  Minnie  Edna,  Roosevelt,  and 
Middlebrooks  are  students  in  the  Forest  City  High 
School. 


91 


SCOTT  BOND. 


Scott  Bond 


N    the    Southwest    they    call    him 
"Unc     Scott"     and     number   him 
among    the    sages.      They    quote 
Socrates,  Cicero,  and  Benj.  Frank 
lin  :     And    then     they    will   quote 
_____    "Unc    Scott"    Bond    of    Madison. 
Arkansas. 

Born  a  slave  in  Mississippi  in  1852,  Mr.  Bond 
migrated  as  chattel  to  Tennessee,  thence  to  Arkan 
sas.  In  grapic  language  such  as  few  others  can 
employ  Mr.  Bond  told  of  his  coming  into  the  vil 
lage  of  Madison,  with  all  his  personal  belongings 
done  up  in  a  red  bandana  handkerchief  thrust  on 
the  end  of  a  stick  and  swung  over  his  shoulder. 

During  slavery  days  and  in  migrating  from  State 
to  State  Mr.  Bond  had  learned  to  judge  the  soil. 
When  his  eyes  fell  on  the  rich  loam  land  of  Madi 
son,  which  is  really  in  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi, 
he  flung  down  his  load  and  exclaimed,  "Lord,  this 
is  the  place  for  me." 

Like  most  ex-slaves,  who  struck  out  for  them 
selves,  Mr.  Bond  rented  land  on  which  to  farm. 
You  should  hear  him  tell  the  story  of  those  rentals. 
The  rent  ran  up  into  the  hundreds.  He  used  to 
sell  his  cotton  to  a  local  merchant  who  was  a  sort 
of  banker,  the  merchant  would  credit  Bond  with 
the  cotton  and  then  pay  the  farm  rents  and  other 
bills,  balancing  from  time  to  time.  But  the  bank 
er  and  the  landlord  got  at  logger-heads.  Thus  it 
turned  out  that  Mr.  Bond  had  to  get  the  money 
and  take  it  to  the  landlord.  The  sum  demanded 
was  $500  which  he  counted  out  to  "Unc  Scott"  in 
crisp  bills.  Mr.  Bond  says  he  looked  at  the  money, 
then  looked  again  and  again  before  he  would 
touch  it.  Finally  he  put  it  away  down  in  his  in 
side  pocket  and  "sort  a  hugged  it."  On  his  way  to 
the  landlord's  he  was  beseiged  with  a  desire  to 
look  at  the  money.  Fearing  robbery  he  rode  into 
the  deep  wood,  tied  his  horse  and  spread  the  money 
out  on  a  log  and  went  around  the  log  gazing, 
Then  he  said: 

"Lord,  if  I  live,  I'm  goin'  to  have  somebody  pay 
me  rents  just  this  way." 

From  this  hour  his  struggle  began.  He  married 
poor,  having  little  else  but  a  bed  and  a  broken 
skillet.  He  began  to  work  from  "Can't  to  cant"- 
can't  see  in  the  morning  until  can't  see  at  night. 

He  worked  in  season  and  out  of  season,  bright 
days  and  rainy  days,  the  weather  never  stopping 
him  in  the  accomplishment  of  his  set  purpose.  On 
cold,  rainy  days  he  chopped  or  hauled  or  sold 
wood.  He  had  caught  his  vision  and  had  formed 
his  purpose  and  no  work  was  too  hard  for  him 
nor  no  obstacles  could  stand  in  his  way  until  he 
had  accumulated  a  large  rent  roll. 


The  way  to  his  goal  was  extremely  hard  until  by 
chance  he  invested  in  a  small  tract  of  land.  Part 
of  it  was  a  wash  out  in  a  creek  bottom  and  offer 
ed  but  little  prospect  for  farm  purposes.  His  neigh 
bors  thought  he  was  a  fool  and  told  him  so  for 
they  use  plain  language  out  in  Arkansas. 

Mr.  Bond's  eye  keen  for  judging  the  soil  no 
doubt  failed  to  see  in  the  tract  he  purchased  much 
encouragement  for  growing  a  crop,  but  he  saw 
value  in  the  gravel  and  sand  found  in  the  creek 
bottom.  The  sequel  to  his  purchase  showed  the 
wisdom  of  his  venture. 

The  Rock  Island  Railroad  was  greatly  in  need 
of  sand  and  gravel  and  just  such  a  deposit  as  was 
found  on  Mr.  Bond's  land. 

They  investigated  his  gravel  pit  and  immediately 
saw  they  had  found  what  they  had  been  looking 
for  for  many  months.  They  entered  into  negotia 
tions  with  him  which  resulted  in  the  signing  of  a 
contract  which  brought  about  the  development  of 
one  if  not  the  best  gravel  pit  in  the  state.  With 
the  signing  of  this  contract  with  the  Rock  Island 
Railroad  the  stream  of  money  began  to  flow  his 
way  and  it  was  not  long  before  he  realized  his 
dream  and  made  good  his  vow.  Money  was  no 
longer  a  marvel  to  him. 

Mr.  Bond  saw  the  possibilities  of  his  contract 
with  the  Rock  Island  Railroad  and  to  meet  it  would 
call  for  large  and  modern  facilities  for  handling  the 
output  of  his  pit.  With  his  characteristic  energy 
and  push  he  addressed  himself  to  this  task  and  now 
has  an  equipment  which  meets  all  demands  and 
enables  him  to  meet  his  part  of  the  contract. 

As  fast  as  money  came  in  he  began  to  buy  more 
land  to  rent  out.  Today  he  owns  more  than  four 
thousand  acres  of  .rich  fertile  land  and  has  these 
acres  peopled  with  tenants.  He  owns  and  operates 
one  of  the  largest  cotton  gins  of  that  section.  A- 
long  with  farm  land  Bond  bought  timber  land. 
Finding  a  big  demand  for  timber  Mr.  Bond  estab 
lished  a  saw  mill,  now  he  ships  lumber  to  Chicago, 
Pittsburg,  and  other  large  cities. 

The  spot  on  which  he  chopped  wood  for  30  cents 
a  day  when  he  first  came  to  Madison  now  holds 
his  large  co-operative  store.  He  owns  and  lives  in 
the  house  of  the  man  who  first  hired  him  to  plow. 
In  all,  the  property  and  holdings  of  this  ex-slave 
are  valued  at  $280,000. 

Finer  than  all  this  is  the  fact  that  this  "black 
Rockefeller,"  as  some  call  him,  has  given  his  child 
ren  college  education. 

He  was  married  in  1877,  and  his  wife  has  borne 
him  eleven  children,  four  of  which  are  living.  She 
has  been  not  only  a  great  help  in  his  affairs  but  an 
inspiration  to  his  life. 


93 


J.  H.  BLOUNT. 

CHOOLM ASTER  and  a  business 
man,  Professor  J.  H.  Blount,  of 
Forest  City,  Arkansas,  has  been 
fortunate  enough  to  attain  and 
hold  distinction  in  both  his  voca 
tion  and  avocation  for  more 
than  a  quarter  of  a  century.  He  was  born  in  Clin 
ton,  Jones  County,  Georgia,  September  17,  1860. 
Madison  Blount,  the  father  was  a  slave  belonging 
to  the  Blount  family  of  Jones  County :  the  mother 
belonged  to  another  family  by  the  name  of  Ander 
son.  During  the  refugeeing  of  the  two  white  own 
ers  of  the  parents,  the  mother  and  father  were  sep 
arated. 

The  parents  were  thus  so  widely  separated  that 
they  lost  track  of  each  other  for  many  years,  and 
when  they  learned  of  each  other's  whereabouts, 
both  had  married  again.  The  son  remained  with 
his  mother  all  the  time,  except  when  he  went  to  live 
with  his  father  for  the  purpose  of  going  to  school 
in  Macon,  Georgia. 

During  the  great  exodus  from  Georgia,  which 
took  place  in  1873,  Rev.  I.  H.  Anderson  took  many 
immigrants  to  Arkansas  as  tenants.  Among  this 
number  was  William  Clark,  the  stepfather  of  Mr. 
J.  H.  Blount.  After  spending  a  few  years  in  the 

94 


public  schools  in  Arkansas,  Mr.  Blount  yearned  for 
more  and  better  learning  than  he  could  get  at  that 
time  in  Arkansas.  At  this  time  Dr.  R.  F.  Boyd 
came  to  his  home  town  lecturing  and  soliciting  stu 
dents  for  Central  Tennessee  College  and  Meharry 
Medical  College.  He  induced  the  young  Georgian 
to  go  to  Nashville,  Tennessee,  instead  of  attending 
Atlanta  University,  Atlanta,  Georgia,  as  he  and  his 
parents  had  planned.  He  entered  Central  Tennes 
see  College  in  1884  and  continued  in  school  there 
until  1890.  During  his  vacation  he  taught  summer 
school  in  the  town  of  Forest  City,  Arkansas.  As 
the  summer  school  of  this  town  gradually  grew  un 
der  his  tutorship,  from  a  summer  school  to  an 
eight  months  graded  school,  he  finally  concluded  to 
satisfy  his  thirst  for  an  education  by  spending  his 
vacation  in  the  Universty  of  Chicago,  where  he 
worked  very  hard  for  four  summers. 

He  is  still  a  diligent  student,  and  thinks  more  of 
his  library  than  anything,  except  his  children.  For 
the  past  twenty-eight  years,  he  has  served  as  prin 
cipal  of  the  following  named  schools :  Forest  City 
Public  School,  Langston  High  School,  Hot  Springs 
Arkansas  ;  Orr  High  School,  Texarkana,  Arkansas 
and  Peabody  High  School.  Helena,  Arkansas. 

He  was  deputy  County  Examiner  of  St.  Francis 
County  for  ten  years,  and  his  prominence  in  educa 
tional  affairs,  made  him  without  his  seeking,  take 
a  leading  part  in  politics-  His  people  soon  required 
that  he  should  take  an  active  part  in  the  affairs  of 
his  county  and  state.  His  education  and  abundance 
of  general  information,  coupled  with  his  skill  to 
manage  public  affairs,  made  him  a  favorite  in  his 
community  and  county.  From  state  politics,  he  be 
came  active  in  national  affairs.  He  was  an  alter 
nate  delgate  at  large,  to  the  Republican  National 
Convention,  that  gave  the  Nation  Roosevelt  and 
Fairbanks  for  president  and  vice-president  respect 
ively. 

Being  a  teacher  in  education  and  in  politics,  did 
not  cause  Mr.  Blount  to  neglect  his  church  and  the 
fraternal  orders  of  which  he  was  a  member.  He  is 
one  of  the  few  thirty-third  degree  masons  of  the 
state  of  Arkansas,  and  has  served  in  nearly  every 
official  position  in  the  Masonic  Grand  Lodge  of  Ar 
kansas.  He  has  held  the  position  of  Secretary- 
Treasurer  for  four  terms  and  that  of  Deputy  Grand 
Master  for  five  terms ;  he  is  chairman  of  the  com 
mittee  on  Foreign  Correspondence  at  the  present 
time. 

Mr.  Blount  is  an  active  member  of  other  frater 
nal  orders  such  as  the  Odd  Fellows,  Knights  of 
Pythias,  Royal  Circle  of  Friends  of  the  World, 
Knights  and  Daughters  of  Tabor,  and  the  United 
Brothers  of  Friendship.  He  is  also  a  leading  mem 
ber  of  the  Missionary  Baptist  Church  and  a  Sun 
day  School  worker. 

Professor  Blount  owns  hundreds  of  acres  of  land, 
both  farm  and  forest ;  and  city  property  in  three 
Arkansas  towns.  His  property  will  readily  bring 
$50,000.00,  which  is  a  conservative  valuation,  lie  al 
so  carries  $20.000.00  in  life  insurance,  not  includ 
ing  his  fraternal  insurance. 

He  was  married  in  August  1906  to  Miss  Almira 
Justina  E.  Payne  of  Holly  Springs,  Mississippi,  who 
was  to  him  a  real  helpmate  till  her  death  in  January 
1917.  In  the  Blount  home  there  are  three  children 
— J.  H.  Blount,  Jr.,  Scott  Bond,  and  E.  Louise,  all 
of  whom  are  pupils  in  their  father's  school. 


BISHOP  JAMES  M.  CONNER,  S.  T.  B.,  B.  D., 
D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  PH.  D. 

ORN  in  Winston  County,  in  Mis 
sissippi,  in  1863,  Bishop  James 
M.  Conner  fought  hard  for  even 
a  rudimentary  education.  Against 
all  kinds  of  poor  school  facilities. 
which  facilities  include  the  teach 
er,  he  managed  to  secure  his  foundation  in  Mis 
sissippi  and  Alabama.  While  still  a  young  man 
and  but  mid-way  his  education  he  had  thought  and 
planned  out  for  himself  his  career. 

lie  felt  called  to  the  ministry  and  like  Paul, 
yielding  to  the  divine  call,  he  immediately  set  to 
work  to  prepare  himself  for  his  heavenly  mission. 
Without  waiting  to  complete  his  education  he 
took  up  his  life  work  and  went  forth  holding  aloft 
the  banner  of  the  cross,  to  an  unselfish  and  de 
voted  service  which  he  has  steadily  pursued  dur 
ing  his  long  and  useful  career. 

Converted  in  1881  he  at  once  joined  the  A.  M. 
K.  (.  hurch  and  was  licensed  to  preach  one  year 
later. 

He  was  given  his  first  appointment  in  1883  and 
placed  in  charge  of  the  Aberdeen  Mission,  Aber 
deen,  Mississippi.  He  entered  upon  his  work  with 
enthusiasm  and  soon  converted  his  mission  into  a 


live  church,  erecting  a  new  building  for  them  and 
building  up  a  fine  congregation.  Recognizing  his 
ability  and  special  endowment  for  such  work 
Bishop  T.  W.  D.  Ward,  the  following  year,  1884, 
made  him  a  Deacon  and  an  Elder. 

From  this  time  on  his  reputation  was  establish 
ed  and  his  co-operation  eagerly  sought.  He  was 
recognized  as  a  man  who  did  things  and  it  was 
generally  accepted  that  when  he  undertook  a  ser 
vice  it  would  be  satisfactorily  rendered. 

Thenceforth  for  a  number  of  years  he  became 
known  as  a  church  builder  and  a  champion  "Dol 
lar"  money  raiser.  He  built  a  church  at  Forrest 
City,  Arkansas,  in  1885.  Then  a  new  church  at 
Oceola  and  a  church  at  Newport,  Arkansas.  To 
quote  Mr.  R.  R.  Wright,  Jr.:  "At  all  these  places 
he  gave  the  connection  good  churches  and  added 
many  new  members  to  the  church  and  carried  ex 
cellent  conference  reports,  excelling  all  previous 
records." 

However  vigorously  he  waged  campaigns  for 
money,  erected  churches,  and  converted  souls, 
Bishop  Conner  never  forgot  personal  growth.  Like 
the  dying  German  poet  he  was  always  crying 
"More  Light."  To  satisfy  his  longing  he  went 
from  time  to  time  to  some  large  institution  to 
pursue  such  courses  as  he  needed  for  his  work.  In 
1891  he  received  from  the  National  University  of 
Chicago  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Sacred  The- 
olngy.  He  later  finished  courses  gaining  the  de 
gree  of  B.  D.  from  the  American  Institute  in  the 
University  of  Chicago,  in  1897,  and  from  Shorter 
College  in  1905.  Campbell  College  conferred 
upon  him  the  degree  of  LL.  D.  He  became 
President  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Shor 
ter  College  and  chancellor  of  Campbell  College  and 
Lampton  College  at  Alexandria,  Louisiana.  Mor 
ris  Brown  University  conferred  upon  him  the  de 
gree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity,  and  Paul  Quinin  Col 
lege  at  Waco,  Texas,  made  him  Doctor  of  Philoso 
phy. 

That  he  has  richly  earned  these  honors  is  made 
clear  from  his  advancements.  He  is  the  author  of 
several  books.  Among  these  being  his  "Outlines 
of  Christian  Theology,"  "Doctrines  of  Christ"  and 
"The  Elements  of  Success."  He  has  been  a  dele 
gate  to  every  General  Conference  since  1896.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  financial  board  for  eight 
years. 

Bishop  Conner  was  married  to  Miss  Glovenia  L. 
Stewart,  of  Kentucky,  in  1886.  They  had  three 
children,  two  of  which  died-  Zola  X,  their  only  liv 
ing  child  was  a  student  of  Shorter  College.  James 
and  Qu!ntella  died  young. 

Bishop  Conner  is  an  extensive  property  holder, 
owning  his  home  and  other  valuable  pieces  of  real 
estate.  At  present  he  is  Bishop  of  Arkansas  and 
Oklahoma. 


95 


S.  W.  HARRISON,  M.  D. 


HAT  no  man  is  a  hero  to  his  valet, 
or  to  his  neighbor,  is  somtimes 
disapproved.  This  is  true  in  the 
case  of  Dr.  S.  W.  Harrison  of  Fort 
Smith,  Arkansas.  He  was  born  in 
Fort  Smith ;  was  educated  as  far 
as  possible  there  and  returned  there  to  practice  his 
profession.  Yet,  so  useful  has  been  his  career  that 
his  neighbors  speak  of  him  in  their  papers  as  fol 
lows  : 

"Dr.  S.  W.  Harrison,  President  of  the  Negro 
Business  League  and  Colored  Fair  Association,  is 
one  of  the  best  known  leading  Negroes  of  this  sec 
tion. 

"He  is  one  of  the  greatest  exponents  of  the  pro 
gressive  side  of  his  race,  and  delights  to  furnish 
others  with  examples  of  race  progress.  He  ranks 
with  the  foremost  physicians  of  the  state  ;  is  one 
the  most  astute  of  business  men  and  wields  an 
influence  in  the  city  among  both  races  that  is 
equaled  by  few." 

As  his  life  story  will  show,  not  always  has  Dr. 
Harrison's  name  been  a  symbol  of  progress  and 
emulation.  Born  in  Fort  Smith,  September  22nd, 
1879,  he  began  at  a  very  early  age  to  taste  the 


fruits  of  combat  sometimes  bitter,  but  nevertheless 
stimulating.  He  attended  Lincoln  High  School  of 
his  native  city  and  was  graduated  in  1895.  He  was 
graduated  from  Meharry  Medical  College  in  1900. 

Both  in  medical  school  and  in  high  school  his 
education  cost  him  dearly.  In  his  early  school  days 
he  made  himself  a  sort  of  grocery  delivery  wagon, 
carrying  goods  to  so  many  customers  for  a  stipu 
lated  sum.  However,  this  latter  proved  a  most 
profitable  investment ;  for  the  people  he  once  served 
with  groceries  are  now  among  his  best  patrons. 

Dr.  Harrison's  choice  of  a  life  work  was  medi 
cine  and  surgery,  but  how  to  secure  the  necessary 
preparation  for  his  work  was  a  problem  which  re 
quired  great  nerve  and  determination  on  his  part 
to  solve.  Nothing  daunted  he  left  for  Nashville 
and  arrived  there  with  only  ten  cents  in  his  pocket. 
He  did  not  have  the  money  to  purchase  his  neces 
sary  books  but  overcame  this  difficulty  by  bor 
rowing  books  until  he  had  earned  sufficient  money 
to  buy  his  own. 

During  the  summer  he  taught  school  but  at  one 
time  this  post  failed  him,  and  he  was  again  con 
fronted  with  the  problem  of  how  to  continue  his 
course.  However,  he  was  determined  to  do  so  and 
while  brightening  his  wits  to  find  a  way  to  secure 
his  end,  he  gave  up  the  school  master's  rod  and 
books  for  the  boot  black's  brush  and  box  and  went 
forth  to  shine  shoes. 

Graduating  in  1900  Dr.  Harrison  first  opened 
office  in  Smithville,  Texas.  After  remaining  here 
four  years  he  decided  to  return  to  his  native  city. 
Here  he  has  worked,  as  a  physician,  a  business 
man,  a  man  of  public  service.  He  is  a  member  of 
the  A.  M.  E.  Church,  a  Mason,  an  Odd  Fellow,  a 
Knight  of  Pythias,  a  Mosaic,  a  member  of  the  U. 
B.  F.  of  Tabor  and  of  all  local  societes.  As  has 
been  quoted  he  is  president  of  the  Negro  Business 
League ;  he  is  ex-president  of  the  state  Medical 
Association  ;  he  is  a  trustee  of  Shorter  College ; 
Grand  Trustee  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  medical 
inspector  of  the  Negro  Public  Schools  of  Fort 
Smith  and  a  high  ranking  candidate  for  the  Grand 
Chancellorship  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias. 

His  business  ventures  have  been  as  successful  as 
his  practice  in  medicine  and  his  public  service.  He 
owns  his  home,  an  elegant  two  story  residence  on 
Ninth  Street  in  Fort  Smith.  He  owns  eight  rent 
houses  and  six  unimproved  lots.  He  is  a  stock 
holder  in  the  Standard  Life  Insurance  Company  of 
Atlanta.  Georgia.  He  has  traveled  extensively  in 
this  country  on  business  and  for  pleasure. 

Dr.  Harrison  was  married  to  Miss  Margie  Ka- 
tona  Gordon,  December  31,  1902.  Their  two  child 
ren,  Margie  Edith,  who  is  fourteen,  and  Gordon 
Henry,  who  is  twelve,  are  in  school. 


96 


FERDINAND  HAVIS. 


HERE  are  few  men  of  any  race 
who  carry  so  much  of  the  bone 
and  fibre  of  American  history  in 
their  personal  experience  as  does 
Ferdinand  Havis,  of  Pine  Bluff, 
Arkansas.  He  is  one  of  those 
typical  Americans,  almost  impossible  in  other 
countries,  who  from  the  bottom  of  the  scale,  suc 
ceeds  by  hard  work  in  reaching  the  top. 

Mr.  Havis  was  born  in  Shay  County,  Arkansas, 
November  15th,  1847.  He  attended  for  a  little 
while  the  public  school.  But  at  an  early  age  he 
had  to  leave  school  to  work.  A  very  novel  plan 
was  then  hit  upon  as  a  means  of  getting  an  educa 
tion  for  the  young  man.  His  mother  went  to  the 
school  each  day,  mastered  the  lessons  and  then  at 
night  taught  them  to  the  ambitious  boy  who  was 
so  eagerly  waiting  for  them.  A  boy  with  the  am 
bition  makes  a  man  of  mark. 

By  the  time  Mr.  Havis  was  twenty-one  he  had 
run  the  gauntlet  as  a  laborer.  He  had  learned  the 
barber's  trade  and  opened  a  ship  in  Pine  Bluff. 
Three  years  later  he  was  elected  alderman  from  the 
third  ward.  Year  after  year  for  the  space  of  twen 
ty-four  years,  Mr.  Havis  was  elected  and  served  in 
this  capacity.  In  1873  he  was  elected  to  the  state 


Legislature,  but  he  resigned  this  post  to  serve  as 
assessor.  This  post  of  assessor  was  offered  him 
by  Governor  Baxter,  and  he  served  in  it  for  two 
years.  In  1882  he  was  elected  Circuit  Clerk,  a 
post  which  he  held  for  ten  years.  He  was  Re 
publican  Nominee  for  United  States  Senator  from 
Arkansas,  in  1886.  Mr.  Havis  has  served  his 
party  as  a  delegate  to  the  National  Republican 
Convention  every  year  since  1880  with  the  ex 
ception  of  two  years.  These  exceptions  were  in 
1912  and  1916,  when  Taft  and  Hughes  were  nomi 
nated.  He  was  a  colonel  on  the  staff  of  General 
H.  King  in  the  Brooks  and  Baxter  War,  and  was 
one  of  the  306  who  stood  by  General  Grant  in  his 
endeavor  to  become  president  of  the  United  States. 
He  is  on  record  as  having  voted  for  General  Grant 
thirty-six  times.  He  was  chairman  of  the  Repub 
lican  County  Control  Committee  of  Arkansas  for 
twelve  years.  This  shows  in  brief  the  political  life 
of  Mr.  Ferdinand  Havis. 

Having  made  good  in  his  political  career  by  ap 
plying  himself  to  the  task  in  hand,  Mr.  Havis,  when 
he  decided  to  retire  to  private  life,  used  the  same 
method  of  self  applicaton  in  the  work  he  began. 
The  same  acumen  which  kept  him  in  office  and  on 
boards  of  importance  soon  asserted  itself  in  dealing 
in  real  estate  and  in  farming.  Mr.  Havis  has  inves 
ted  heavily  in  farm  lands.  He  owns  about  3000 
acres.  Of  this  amount,  1000  acres  are  under  culti 
vation.  The  rest  is  in  pasture  land  and  timber.  In 
addition  to  this  country  property,  Mr.  Havis  has 
large  interests  in  the  city.  One  of  the  buildings 
which  he  owns,  a  building  on  Main  Street,  rents  for 
$200  per  month.  He  also  has  half  interest  in  four 
stores  which  bring  in  rent.  Then  to  private  fam 
ilies  he  is  able  to  rent  twenty-five  homes. 

Mr.  Havis  owns  his  own  home.  This  is  a  beaut 
iful  place  on  one  of  the  principal  residence  streets 
of  Pine  Bluff.  Here  he  lives  with  his  family.  Mr. 
Havis  has  been  married  three  times. 
There  are  two  sons  and  one  daughter. 
In  his  church  and  loge  affiliations,  Mr.  Havis  is  a 
member  of  the  A.  M.  E.  church,  of  the  Masons,  a 
member  of  the  United  Brothers  of  Friendship,  of 
the  Odd  Fellows  and  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias.  He 
is  the  Grand  Master  of  the  United  Brotherhood  of 
Friendship  of  America  and  of  the  world.  He  is 
president  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  of  the  Lucy 
Memorial  Hospital.  Mr.  Havis  is  referred  to  by 
all  Pine  Bluff  as  their  Colored  Millionaire. 


Since  the  above  was  written,  Mr.  Ferdinand  Ha 
vis  has  passed  away.  After  about  a  month's  illness 
he  died  at  his  home  on  Baraque  Street,  August  25, 
1918.  Pine  Bluff  feels  that  it  has  lost  a  very  sub 
stantial  citizen. 


97 


NAPOLEON  BONAPARTE  HOUSER,  M.  D. 

OMING  from  a  family  of  workers, 
Dr.  N.  B.  Houser,  M.  D.,  of  Hel 
ena,  Arkansas,  has  found  it  sec 
ond  nature  to  make  work  his  di 
version  as  well  as  his  occupation 
When  he  was  nine  years  old  he 
began  working  with  his  father.  It  was  not  an 
easy  trade  that  he  put  his  hands  to,  being  that  of 
making  brick.  However  he  acquired  and  worked 
with  a  diligence  and  patience  that  astonished  and 
pleased  his  parents.  From  the  age  of  nine  to  the 
age  of  sixteen  during  spare  hours  and  school  holi 
days  and  vacations,  he  labored  away,  making  brick, 
learning  the  ins  and  outs  of  the  trade. 

At  the  age  of  sixteen,  the  father's  business  hav 
ing  greatly  multiplied,  the  son  became  private  sec 
retary  and  bookkeeper.  This  post  he  held  for  six 
teen  years,  estimating  contracts,  and  figuring  out 
margins,  pertaining  to  his  father's  interest  as  if 
he  were  really  joint  partner  of  the  firm.  It  was 
really  through  him  that  the  father  was  able  to 
gain  fair  profits  and  to  maintain  his  contracting 
business  on  a  systematic  scale.  Though  engross 
ed  in  keeping  accounts,  the  young  man  did  not  for 
get,  however,  that  he  had  a  duty  to  himself  and  to 
his  people,  the  duty  of  educating  himself  and  of 


serving.  Born  near  Castoria,  in  Gaston  County, 
North  Carolina,  February  14,  1869,  he  attended  the 
schools  round  about,  until  he  was  sufficiently  ad 
vanced  in  years  and  books  to  enroll  at  Biddle  Un 
iversity  at  Charlotte,  N.  C.  Completing  this  work 
at  Biddle  and  becoming  convinced  that  his  calling 
in  life  was  that  of  a  doctor,  though  a  good  position 
was  awaiting  him  back  there  with  his  father,  he 
became  a  student  in  Leonard  College  of  Medicine 
at  Shaw  University  in  1887,  won  the  prize  "tor  su 
perior  knowledge  in  Obstetrics",  did  the  four  year's 
work  in  a  little  less  than  three  years,  graduating 
in  1891. 

Returning  to  Charlotte,  the  seat  of  his  alma 
mater,  Biddle  University,  he  hung  out  his  sign  and 
began  life's  bsuiness.  He  soon  became  what  is 
known  as  a  "successful  practicing  physician."  With 
his  general  practice  he  became  the  consulting  phy 
sician  for  Biddle  University.  Paying  a  visit  to  his 
brother  in  Arkansas  in  1900,  Dr.  Houser  was  so 
favorably  impressed  with  the  possibility  for  a  good 
doctor  and  drug  business  that  though  having  well 
established  himself  in  his  ten  year's  practice  at 
Charlotte,  he  decided  to  go  west  and  build  anew 
his  practice  and  to  contribute  his  mite  in  building 
up  the  country;  and  so  he  left  North  Carolina, 
where  he  was  most  popular  with  the  men  of  his 
profession,  having  served  as  president  and  secre 
tary  of  the  North  Carolina  Colored  Medical  Asso 
ciation,  and  having  been  physician  in  charge  of  the 
Samaritan  Hospital  at  Charlotte  for  three  years. 
In  Helena,  Arkansas,  where  he  began  his  new 
career,  progress  in  his  profession  surpassed  even 
that  of  North  Carolina.  Beginning  practice  here 
in  1901,  he  had  by  1908  gained  sufficient  footing 
and  confidence  to  open  the  Black  Diamond  Drug 
Store,  a  business  which  prospered  from  the  out 
set,  which,  because  of  expanse,  he  had  to  move 
three  times,  until  now  he  has  it  on  one  of  the  main 
streets  and  in  one  of  the  most  desirable  spots  in 
Helena. 

Had  Dr.  Houser  not  been  a  brilliant  success  as  a 
physician  and  a  man  of  business,  he  would  still  no 
doubt  have  been  a  very  poular  man ;  for  he  is  a 
musician  of  rare  talent,  playing  on  many  different 
instruments,  an  engaging  companion,  a  fervent 
church  worker,  being  a  Baptist  in  his  religious 
choice,  and  a  member  of  nearly  every  lodge  extant 
in  the  state  of  Arkansas — a  Mason,  an  Odd  Fellow, 
a  Knight  of  Pythias  and  a  Mosaic  Templar. 

In  all  of  these  orders  he  made  his  personality 
felt  and  contributed  no  little  to  their  work  and 
development.  He  was  not  content  to  be  a  mem 
ber  only  but  brought  to  their  aid  his  great  fund  of 
intelligent  executive  ability. 

Dr.  Houser  was  married  to  Miss  Amie  A.  Alston 
of  Louisburg,  North  Carolina,  January  18th,  1902. 
One  daughter,  Weillie  Henry,  graces  their  home. 


MRS.   MAME  STEWART  JOSENBERGER,  A.   B. 

RS.  Maine  Stewart  Josenberger, 
one  of  the  really  remarkable  wo 
men  of  the  age,  was  born  in  Os- 
wega,  New  York.  In  her  youth 
she  attended  the  grammar  schools, 
the  high  school  and  the  Free 
Academy  of  Oswega.  From  the  Free  Academy  of 
Oswega  she  went  to  the  Fisk  University,  Ten 
nessee,  where  she  graduated  with  the  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Arts. 

After  her  graduation  at  Fisk  she  entered  the  pro 
fession  of  school  teaching  and  began  a  long  career 
as  a  school  teacher.  This  covered  a  period  from 
1888  to  1903. 

During  her  first  year  as  teacher  she  gave  in 
struction  at  the  State  Normal  School,  at  Holly 
Springs,  Mississippi.  This  was  in  1888  and  1889. 
In  1890  she  taught  in  the  graded  schools  of  Fort 
Smith,  Arkansas,  and  from  1891  to  1901  she  was 
a  teacher  in  the  Fort  Smith  High  School. 

While  in  the  school  room  Mrs.  Josenberger  was 
the  model  teacher,  her  whole  thought  and  atten 
tion  given  to  her  work,  but  after  school  hours  her 
mind  had  time  to  take  in  other  interests  and  she 
was  soon  identified  with  those  institutions  seek 
ing  the  uplift  of  the  Negro  race.  It  was  contrary 


to  her  disposition  to  be  a  passive  member  in  the 
orders  to  which  she  belonged  and  her  activity  and 
thorough  equipment  for  service  was  soon  recog 
nized  by  them  and  led  to  her  rapid  promotion 
among  them. 

These  duties  finally  took  so  much  of  her  time 
that  it  became  necessary  for  her  to  choose  be 
tween  them  and  her  profession  of  teacher.  Be 
lieving  that  she  could  serve  her  people  best  along 
the  lines  of  public  service  she  yielded  to  the  point 
ing  of  Providence  and  gave  up  the  school  room  for 
a  larger  sphere  of  usefulness. 

Thus  in  1903  she  left  the  school  room  to  take 
the  position  of  Grand  Register  of  Deeds  in  the  Or 
der  of  Calanthe,  a  position  she  has  held  continu 
ously  for  fifteen  years. 

Mrs.  Josenberger  lost  her  husband  in  1909.  From 
then  until  she  became  Register  of  Deeds  for  Calan 
the  she  conducted  the  undertaking  business  left  by 
him.  Her  public  duties  and  engagments  now  be 
came  so  pressing  that  she  gave  up  altogether  the 
business  of  her  husband  and  devoted  her  energies 
to  work  for  the  public  good.  She  had  joined  the 
Episcopal  Church  in  1909,  being  confirmed  by  Rev. 
Father  McClure,  who  was  at  that  time  archdeacon 
of  Arkansas.  She  joined  also  the  Royal  Circle,  the 
Eastern  Star,  the  American  Woodmen,  and  several 
other  fraternal  orders.  In  all  these  bodies  she  be 
came  an  adviser  and  a  leading  worker. 

It  would  seem  that  these  were  enough  member 
ships  for  any  one  person  to  hold,  especially  where 
one  is  a  worker  as  is  Mrs.  Josenberger.  But  Mrs. 
Josenberger  was  soon  enlisted  outside  the  state. 
She  became  a  member  of  the  Standard  Life  Insu 
rance  Company  and  was  forthwith  put  on  the  Ad 
visory  Board.  She  joined  the  National  Negro  Bus 
iness  League,  soon  becoming  a  life  member.  She 
is  a  member  of  the  N.  A.  A.  C.  P.,  Past  Supreme 
Conductress  of  the  Order  of  Calanthe ;  President  of 
the  Phyllis  Wheatlely  Club,  which  is  the  first  local 
Federation  Club  of  Fort  Smith,  is  vice  president  of 
the  State  Federation  and  chairman  of  the  peace 
committee  among  the  N.  A.  colored  women. 

Serving  in  so  many  positions  Mrs.  Josenberger 
has  traveled  extensively  and  has  had  wide  and  help 
ful  contact. 

Mrs.  Josenberger  was  married  in  1892  to  Mr. 
William  Ernest  Josenberger,  who  was  a  postman  in 
Fort  Smith,  then  an  undertaker.  She  is  as  suc 
cessful  in  business  affairs  as  she  is  in  doing  uplift 
work.  She  is  worth  about  $30,000  which  includes 
a  two-story  cement  store  building  and  a  two-story 
brick  building,  which  has  five  stores  on  the  first 
floor  and  a  large  auditorium  on  the  second. 

Mrs.  Josenberger  has  one  daughter,  William  Er 
nest  Josenberger — now  Mrs.  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  a 
musician. 


99 


Scipio  Africanus  Jordan 


CIPIO  Africanus  Jordan,  is  one 
of  the  old  and  leading  citizens  of 
Little  Rock,  Arkansas.  He  has 
grown  with  the  city  and  each  is  a 
sort  of  mutual  contributor  to  the 
growth  of  the  year.  He  was 
born  in  Montgomery  County,  Arkansas,  January 
1st,  1860.  Mr.  Jordan,  when  a  lad,  attended  the 
public  schools  of  Little  Rock  and  later  the  colored 
High  School.  He  was  a  member  of  the  first  grad 
uating  class  of  the  Little  Rock  Colored  High  School 
which  awarded  its  first  diploma  in  1880. 

After  graduating  from  the  Little  Rock  Colored 
High  School,  Mr.  Jordan  cast  about  for  work  and 
entered  the  service  of  the  United  States  Govern 
ment,  becoming  a  janitor  of  the  post  office  build 
ing.  This  position  he  held  for  twelve  months  when 
he  received  the  appointment  of  letter  carrier.  As 
letter  carrier  he  went  his  daily  rounds  over  mi 
streats  of  Little  Rock  for  more  than  thirty-six 
years  delivering  mail.  By  his  courteous  and  oblig 
ing  manner  he  made  many  friends  among  all 
classes.  He  was  possibly  the  best  known  man  in 
Little  Rock — men,  women  and  children  knowing 
him  by  name  and  watching  for  his  daily  visits. 

In  1896  he  was  appointed  chairman  of  the  Board 
of  Civil  Service  Examiners  for  the  Post  Office  of 
Little  Rock. 

While  Mr.  Jordan  gave  his  first  thought  and  at 
tention  to  his  business  and  won  favor  with  the 
Government,  as  his  promotions  give  evidence,  he 
always  found  time  to  serve  his  people  and  became 
interested  in  all  agencies  looking  to  their  good.  In 
and  help  and  his  fellow  citizens  found  in  him  a 
all  matters  pertaining  to  the  betterment  of  the 
colored  race  he  gave  the  benefit  of  his  wise  counsel 
and  help  and  his  fellow  citizens  found  in  him  a 
willing  helper. 

He  joined  most  of  the  secret  orders  of  his  state 
and  became  very  active  in  their  work  and  soon 
was  a  recognized  leader  among  them,  taking  a 
prominent  part  in  all  their  gatherings  and  in  the 
working  out  of  their  plans. 

His  fine  executive  ability  advanced  him  to  posts 
of  honor  and  responsibility.  In  1889  he  was  elect 
ed  Chief  Grand  Mentor  for  the  Knights  of  Tabor 
and  then  ten  years  later  in  1899  he  succeeded 
Father  Moses  Dickson  as  International  Chief 
Grand  Mentor.  Both  of  these  positions  he  is  still 
holding  which  is  a  glowing  tribute  to  his  worth 
and  popularity. 

However,  these  posts  did  not  tend  to  lighten  his 
responsibilities,  but  rather  to  increase  them.  He 
has  long  been  a  member  of  the  Bethel  A.  M.  E. 
Church  of  his  city,  for  twenty  years  he  has  been 


a  trustee.  He  is  a  Mason,  and  an  Odd  Fellow  as 
well  as  a  Knight  of  Tabor.  He  became  a  mem 
ber  of  the  Lincoln  Farm  Association  in  1907.  He 
has  been  colonel,  acting  on  the  staff  of  the  major 
of  the  Grand  United  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  for  a 
number  of  years.  Working  in  so  many  positions 
Mr.  Jordan  has  traveled  in  all  of  the  United  States 
combining  business  and  pleasure. 

Mr.  Jordan  has  accumulated  a  goodly  amount  of 
real  estate  and  personal  property  in  Little  Rock. 
He  owns  his  home,  one  of  the  best  residences  of 
Colored  Little  Rock.  He  owns  eleven  vacant  lots 
and  eleven  rent  houses. 

Mr.  Jordan  was  married  in  1884  to  Miss  Pinkie 
E.  Venable  of  Little  Rock.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jordan 
have  a  large  family,  there  being  born  to  them  9 
children,  seven  of  whom  are  living.  Toney  C.  Jor- 
don,  who  is  deceased,  was  a  graduate  of  Howard 
University ;  Miss  Mabel  E.,  who  is  now  married, 
is  a  graduate  of  the  public  schools  of  Little  Rock ; 
Dr.  J.  V.  Jordan  is  a  dentist,  being  a  graduate  from 
the  school  of  denistry,  of  Howard  University,  and 
of  Northwestern ;  Miss  Scipio  is  a  graduate  of  the 
public  schools  of  Little  Rocok  and  of  Philander 
Smith  Commercial  department ;  Yancy  B.  is  a  grad 
uate  of  the  pupils  schools,  mechanical  course,  and 
is  now  in  the  Virginia  shipyards;  Miss  Myrtle  is 
pursuing  a  commercial  and  high  school  course  at 
the  Arkansas  Baptist  College;  Valmer  H.  is  a 
school  boy  and  Olga  is  still  enjoying  the  freedom  of 
childhood. 

Had  Mr.  Jordan  done  nothing  but  rear  and  edu 
cate  this  large  family  he  would  still  have  deserved 
a  place  of  honor  among  those  of  his  race  or  any 
race  for  contributing  so  largely  to  the  welfare  of 
the  race  and  state.  His  children  stand  as  monu 
ments  to  the  earnest  endeavors  of  this  man.  Not 
one  of  the  large  family,  but  was  sent  through  at 
least  one  school  and  most  of  them  secured  two 
diplomas.  Mr.  Jordan  himself,  though  born  at  a 
time  when  it  was  easy  for  the  colored  lad  to  miss 
getting  an  education,  was  a  graduate.  Having  ed 
ucated  himself  at  a  sacrifice,  he  was  willing  to  do 
all  in  his  power  for  the  development  of  his  chil 
dren.  But  as  is  the  law  of  things,  while  doing  for 
his  children,  he  continued  to  advance  himself.  We 
find  Mr.  Jordan  developed  into  one  of  the  leading 
citizens  of  his  city  and  state.  He  is  a  real  asset 
to  the  community  of  which  he  is  a  member.  His 
work  in  the  various  organizations  of  which  he  has 
been  for  a  great  number  of  years  one  of  the  leaders 
has  been  one  of  the  things  that  has  made  of  Little 
Rock  a  good  community  for  our  people.  Mr.  Scri- 
pio  A.  Jordan  can  well  be  pointed  out  to  the  young 
as  one  worthy  of  emulation. 


100 


ELIAS  CAMP  MORRIS,  D.  D.,  PH.  D. 

EAR  Spring  Place  in  Georgia, 
born  a  slave,  May  7,  1855,  Dr.  E. 
C.  Morris  of  Helena,  Arkansas, 
was  fortunate  enough  to  have  a 
father  who  could  read  and  write. 
The  father,  a  tradesman  from 
North  Carolina,  was  permitted  to 
visit  his  children  on  the  planta 
tion  twice  a  week.  At  such  times  he  taught  his 
children  to  read  and  write. 

In  1864-65  Dr.  E.  C.  Morris  attended  school  at 
Dalton.  He  also  studied  in  the  public  schools  of 
Chattanooga,  Tennessee  and  at  the  Stevenson  In 
stitute  in  Alabama.  In  1874-75,  he  was  a  student 
at  the  Nashville  Institute,  now  Roger  Williams 
University. 

Going  into  life  Dr.  Morris  essayed  many  things. 
For  a  time  he  taught  school  in  North  Alabama. 
While  serving  as  a  minister  in  Alabama,  he 
worked  at  his  trade  as  a  shoemaker.  In  1877 
he  set  his  face  westward,  intending  to  go  to 
Kansas.  Stopping  over  in  Arkansas  he  decided  to 
remain  in  Helena.  Here  in  1879,  he  was  ordained ; 
here  he  was  given  his  first  church,  the  only  church 
over  which  he  has  presided  and  he  is  the  only  pas 
tor  the  church  has  had  for  nearly  forty  years.  This 
church,  the  Centennial  Baptist,  over  which  he  be 
came  pastor,  was  at  that  time  composed  of  a  group 
of  twenty-two  members,  homeless  and  without 
property  of  any  kind.  Today  it  has  a  membership 
of  seven  hundred,  a  stately  edifice,  which  is  valued 

101 


at  $40,000,  an  active  Sunday  School  of  399  children. 
While  toiling  for  the  growth  of  his  church,  Dr. 
Morris  launched  forth  every  kind  of  movement  to 
promote  the  religious  growth  of  the  whole  state. 
In  1879,  the  same  year  he  became  pastor  of  Cen 
tennial  Church,  he  organized  the  Phillips  Lee  and 
Monroe  County  District  Association,  and  was  sec 
retary  for  two  years.  In  1880  he  was  elected  sec 
retary  of  the  Arkansas  Baptist  State  Convention 
and  served  in  this  capacity  for  two  years.  In  1882 
he  was  chosen  president  of  the  Arkansas  Baptist 
State  Convention,  a  position  he  has  held  for  thirty 
six  years.  He  founded  the  Baptist  Vanguard,  a 
Baptist  weekly  newspaper,  and  was  its  editor  for 
two  years.  He  helped  to  found  Arkansas  Baptist 
College  in  1884,  and  was  chairman  of  the  board  of 
trustees  for  twenty-four  years  .  For  eighteen  years 
he  has  been  chairman  of  the  Arkansas  State  Mis 
sion  Board,  an  organization  which  works  in  con 
junction  with  the  National  Baptist  Convention  and 
with  the  Southern  White  Baptist  Convention.  In 
1891  he  was  made  vice  president  of  the  National 
Baptist  Convention,  and  president  in  1894. 

Under  his  administration  many  plans  for  expan 
sion  have  been  effected.  At  his  recommendation, 
the  National  Publishing  Board  of  Nashville,  the 
Baptist  Young  People's  Union  of  Nashville,  the 
National  Baptist  Woman's  Auxiliary  of  Washing 
ton,  D.  C.,  the  National  Benefit  Association,  and  the 
Baptist  Home  Mission  Board  of  Little  Rock,  have 
all  been  organized  and  advanced  until  they  are  now 
among  the  perfect  bodies  of  their  kind. 

Outside  of  his  special  sphere  Dr.  Morris  began 
to  win  many  honors  both  in  the  church  and  in  pub 
lic  affairs.  He  aided  in  organizing  the  General  Con 
vention  of  North  America,  which  is  made  up  of  all 
Baptists  of  both  races,  and  is  the  only  Negro  mem 
ber  of  the  executive  committee  of  this  body.  He 
aided  in  organizing  the  American  executive  com 
mittee  of  this  body.  In  public  life  he  represented 
the  First  Arkansas  Congressional  District  at  the 
Republican  National  Convention  three  times — at 
the  nomination  of  James  G.  Elaine  in  1884,  of  Benj. 
Harrison  in  1892;  of  Theodore  Roosevelt  in  1904. 
He  was  alternate  delegate  at  large  in  1908  to  nom 
inate  William  H.  Taft.  He  has  been  a  delegate  to 
every  Arkansas  State  Republican  Convention  for 
nearly  forty  years. 

Active  in  the  church  and  in  the  state  Dr.  Morris 
has  not  forgotten  the  business  interest  of  colored 
people.  He  organized  the  State  Business  League ; 
he  took  great  interest  in  the  Mound  Bayou  Oil  Mill 
project,  becoming  one  of  the  directors ;  he  is  di 
rector  of  the  Phillips  County  Land  and  Investment 
Company.  He  himself  owns  mining  stock,  has  a 
seventy-five  acre  farm,  owns  unimproved  property, 
has  a  home  and  four  pieces  of  improved  property, 
valued  at  $10,000. 

Dr.  Morris  was  married  in  1884  to  Miss  Fannie 
E.  Austin  of  Faekler,  Alabama.  Their  five  children, 
Elias  Austin,  Frederick  Douglass,  Mattie  M.  Mar 
quess,  Sarah  Hope  and  John  Spurgeon,  are  all  giv 
ing  good  account  of  themselves.  Mr.  Elias  Austin 
is  First  Lieutenant  in  Company  M.  366  Infantry  U. 
S.  A. ;  Frederick  Douglass  is  Grand  Keeper  of  Rec 
ords  and  Seal  of  Knights  of  Pythias  Grand  Lodge, 
of  the  Arkansas  jurisdiction.  Mrs.  Marquess  and 
Miss  Morris  are  teaching  school.  John  Spurgeon 
is  a  student  in  the  Arkansas  Baptist  College. 


JOHN  EDWARD  BUSH. 


John  Edward  Bush 


VER  since  J.  E.  Bush  departed 
this  life  he  has  been  the  subject 
of  eulogy.  And  yet  it  is  very 
doubtful  if  any  assembling  of 
words,  no  matter  how  frought 
with  poetic  figures,  will  prove  so 
eleoquent,  as  the  plain  simple  recitation  of  the  facts 
of  that  heroic  struggle  of  his  from  poverty  and 
neglect  to  a  place  of  the  highest  esteem  in  the 
hearts  of  all  American  Negroes.  Mr.  Bush  was 
born  a  slave.  He  was  born  in  Moscow,  Tennes 
see,  in  1858.  Shortly  after  slavery  he  was  brought 
to  Little  Rock,  Arkansas,  by  his  mother.  In  a  lit 
tle  while  the  mother  died,  and  the  ex-slave  lad  was 
left  in  the  streets  of  Little  Rock  an  orphan. 

Merely  to  live  now  became  to  him  a  very  serious 
problem.  He  slept  in  houses  when  he  could  find 
a  man  or  woman  so  kind  as  to  extend  to  him  that 
privilege,  a  privilege  which  was  some  times  ac 
corded  for  such  small  services  as  the  little  boy 
could  render.  Most  commonly  however  he  slept 
under  bridges,  in  the  livery  stables  and  in  deserted 
houses.  He  earned  his  bread  by  doing  chores,  run 
ning  errands,  watering  stock,  and  washing  dishes. 
Moreover,  J.  E.  Bush  was  classed  as  a  bad  boy, 
which  did  not  help  him  to  get  a  night's 
lodging  or  an  extra  crust  of  bread.  However,  some 
good  soul  forced  him  off  the  streets  into  a  school 
house.  In  a  little  while  the  boy  of  mischief  was 
lost  in  the  study  of  books.  Though  he  could  not 
afford  regular  attendance,  yet  he  tasted  enough  to 
pronounce  the  food  of  the  right  kind  and  whole 
some.  Henceforth  John  E.  Bush  was  a  student. 
He  made  such  good  out  of  his  spare  time  in  the 
midnight  hours  that  he  soon  became  a  school  teach 
er.  This  post  he  held  in  Little  Rock  for  a  number 
of  years.  However,  it  appears  that  he  overstepped 
the  bounds  circumscribed  for  one  of  his  station,  by 
marrying  out  of  his  class.  He  lost  his  position  im 
mediately.  He  secured  the  principalship  of  a  school 
in  Hot  Springs  and  taught  here  for  two  years.  In 
1875  he  entered  the  railway  mail  service.  For  sev 
enteen  years  he  followed  this  calling,  but  finally 
resigned  to  start  a  newspaper. 

All  the  time  Mr.  Bush  was  an  active  Republican. 
In  1884  he  ran  for  the  county  clerkship  of  Rosalie 
County,  Arkansas,  on  the  Greenback  Ticket.  In 
1898  he  was  appointed  United  States  Land  Office 
Receiver  by  President  McKinley.  He  was  reap- 
pointed  by  Theodore  Roosevelt  and  again  by  Presi 
dent  Taft.  He  even  survived  the  Republican  Black 
Broom,  which  swept  Negroes  so  very  clean  from 
Federal  Offices,  under  the  kind  Mr.  Taft.  This  ap 
pointment  had  come  and  was  the  result  of  a  long 


series  of  hard  fights  and  small  victories  in  the  pol 
itics  of  Arkansas. 

In  1882  Mr.  Bush  founded  the  Mosaic  Templars 
of  America.  How  he  came  to  found  this  order,  and 
what  the  order  means  to  the  Negroes  of  America 
has  been  briefly  told  elsewhere — for  the  few  who 
may  not  know  tHe  whole  history  already.  Suffice 
it  to  say  here  that  the  need  of  a  poor  woman,  beg 
ging  for  help  to  bury  her  husband,  the  contempt  of 
a  white  man  and  the  chagrin  of  Mr.  Bush  at  the 
whole  situation  started  this  organization.  The 
body  grew  rapidly,  and  with  it  grew  also  J.  E. 
Bush.  He  learned  not  only  more  about  the  intri 
cacies  of  business  but  he  learned  a  great  deal  about 
men.  Most  important  of  all,  the  organization 
brought  J.  E.  Bush  the  deserved  place  he  had  won 
by  hard  work. 

In  a  few  years  he  became  known  the  country  ov 
er  as  a  strong  business  man  and  a  public  benefac 
tor.  He  was  introduced  to  Booker  T.  Washington, 
and  almost  immediately  these  two  giants,  both  with 
the  experience  of  sleeping  under  bridges,  behind 
them,  became  fast  friends.  When  Booker  T.  Wash 
ington,  who  was  himself  a  great  political  adviser, 
sought  political  advice,  it  was  to  J.  E.  Bush  he  turn 
ed.  When  the  wizard  of  Tuskegee  was  touring  the 
states  of  the  south  and  bewitching  the  great  crowds 
with  his  anecdotes  and  shrewd  common  sense,  he 
frequently  called  into  service  the  founder  of  the 
Mosaic  Templars  of  America,  and  when  Dr.  Wash 
ington  saw  the  need  of  laying  the  task  of  carrying 
forward  the  work  of  the  Negro  National  Business 
League  upon  the  shoulders  of  a  group  of  strong 
men,  J.  E.  Bush  was  one  of  the  first  looked  to  .  He 
was  for  years  one  of  the  Vice-presidents  and  a 
member  of  the  executive  committee  of  this  body. 

Though  an  extremely  busy  man  J.  E.  Bush  found 
time  to  do  many  deeds  of  uplift  in  schools,  church 
es  and  the  like.  He  was  a  strong  supporter  of  the 
Arkansas  Baptist  College  and  a  trustee  of  the  First 
Baptist  Church  of  Little  Rock.  In  secret  orders, 
he  was  a  Mason,  an  Odd  Fellow,  and  of  course  the 
founder  and  promoter  of  The  Mosaic  Templars  of 
America. 

Mr.  Bush  was  married  in  1879,  to  Miss  Winfry  of 
Little  Rock.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bush  had  three  children, 
all  three  of  whom  survive  their  father:  Miss  Stella 
E.  Bush,  Mr.  Chester  E.  Bush,  who  succeeds  his 
father  as  the  National  Grand  Secretary  and  Treas 
urer  of  the  Mosaic  Templars  and  Alridge  E.  Bush, 
who  is  the  Secretary  and  Treasurer  of  the  Mon 
ument  Department  of  the  Mosaic  Templars. 

John  E.  Bush  left  a  fair  name,  a  business  in  per 
fect  order,  and  worldly  possessions  amounting  to 
$500,000. 


103 


MOSAIC    TEMPLARS'    OFFICE    BUILDING,    LITTLE    ROCK,  ARKANSAS. 


ENTION  the  Mosaic  Templars  of 
America  and  you  think  of  John 
E.  Bush.  Mention  John  E.  Bush 
and  you  think  of  the  Mosaic  Tem 
plars.  The  Mosaic  Templars  ot 
America  was  founded  by  J.  E. 


Bush  in  1883.    Its  two  sponsors  were  John  E.  Bush 


and  C.  W.  Keats.  As  stated  by  Hamilton  McConi- 
co,  the  organization  had  its  beginning  from  a  three 
fold  source :  The  scorn  of  a  white  man,  "a  Negro 
woman's  poverty  and  a  Negro  man's  shame."  All 
this  arose  out  of  J.  E.  Bush  standing  on  the  street 
talking  to  a  white  man  when  a  colored  woman 
came  by  begging  for  alms  to  bury  her  dead  hus 
band.  The  white  man  like  Mr.  Bush,  gave,  but  he 
afterwards  cast  aspersions  on  the  Negro  people  for 
their  improvidence.  From  this  John  E.  Bush  re 
solved  to  found  an  order  which  should  protect  the 
poor  of  his  race. 

The  organization  was  started  as  a  benevolent 
society,  with  no  intention  of  operation  outside  of 
Little  Rock.  But  in  a  few  years  the  demands  for 
its  services  drew  it  into  other  states.  It  began  with 
one  lodge  and  fifteen  members.  It  now  has  2,000 
lodges  and  a  membership  of  more  than  80.000.  It 
began  in  one  city.  It  now  operates  in  twenty-six 

104 


states,  in  Central  America,  Panama  and  the  West 
Indies.  It  opened  without  sufficient  funds  to  in 
corporate.  It  now  has  assets  exceeding  $300,000. 
It  started  without  shelter,  the  two  founders  work 
ing  out  their  plans  on  the  doorsteps  of  an  old  build 
ing.  Today  upon  the  site  of  the  old  building  it  has 
one  of  the  finest  brick,  steel  and  stone  structures 
of  any  Negro  lodge  in  America,  a  building  which 
has  offices,  stores,  and  all  kinds  of  rooms  to  ac 
commodate  the  business  and  professional  men  of 
Little  Rock.  Thus  has  it  brought  pride  and  self- 
respect  to  all  the  Negroes  of  Little  Rock  and  in 
deed  to  the  Negro  everywhere. 

When  the  two  founders  of  the  Mosaic  Templars 
sat  on  the  steps  of  that  old  building  in  Little  Rock, 
their  only  thought  was  to  provide  a  means  of  safe 
guarding  the  pennies  of  the  poor  and  needy.  They 
had  no  dream  of  departments,  sections  and  various 
ramifications  of  a  great  order.  As  the  body  grew 
and  gained  the  unlimited  confidence  of  the  people 
everywhere,  however,  they  with  the  helpers  it  was 
necessary  to  call  in,  found  that  many  departments 
and  divisions  had  to  be  formed  to  meet  the  more 
complex  needs  of  the  public.  Thus  one  after  anoth 
er  departments  were  organized,  until  now  there  are 
in  the  body  six  main  divisions  or  departments,  each 


with  its  head,  yet  all  workng  under  the  central 
head  of  the  Mosaic  Templars.  These  are  the  En 
dowment  Department,  The  Juvenile  Department, 
the  Temple  Department,  the  Uniform  Rank  De 
partment,  the  Monument  Department,  the  Arkan 
sas  Charity  Fund,  Recapitulation,  Analysis,  Rec 
ommendations.  Each  Department  is  a  unit  in  it 
self;  yet  each  is  a  part  of  the  great  whole.  For 
example,  though  each  Department  is  a  memher  of 
the  whole,  yet  each  must  be  responsible  for  all 
the  business  coming  under  its  head.  If  the  given 
Department  runs  behind  in  its  accounts,  or  gets 
entangled  in  its  bookkeeping  that  Department  and 
not  the  whole  organization,  becomes  sponsor. 
Thus,  while  all  move  under  a  general  head,  yet 
there  is  ample  departmental  responsibility  to  keep 
the  whole  body  on  the  qui  vive.  Each  head  of  a 
Department  and  each  worker  in  the  department 
feels  a  personal  responsibility  and  a  personal  and 
departmental  pride  in  keeping  his  work  to  the  fore. 
For  in  every  instance,  if  the  department  fails  the 
head  and  all  his  co-workers  also  fail. 

It  therefore  turns  out  that  while  J.  E.  Bush 
founded  a  most  helpful  organization  he  also  estab 
lished  a  body  which  is  a  splendid  object  lesson  of 
what  the  Negro  can  do  when  working  together,  a 
body  which  is  helpful  in  promoting  the  respect  of 
the  white  for  the  black  man  and  in  inspiring  self- 
respect  in  the  black  man. 

Of  equal  service  perhaps  is  this  order,  in  that  it 
furnishes  dignified  employment  to  hundreds  of  our 
educated  men  and  women. 

When  we  consider  that  all  these  people  would  be 
living  on  half  pay  from  the  school  room,  or  whole 
pay  from  the  Pullman  or  steam  boat  services,  some 
adequate  notion  can  be  formed  as  to  the  real  serv 
ice  of  this  organization,  outside  of  its  direct  pur 
pose.  Every  such  organization  is  a  great  milestone 
in  a  race's  progress,  and  he  who  establishes  such  is 
building  a  school  and  a  business  at  the  same  time. 
For  in  no  other  way  could  our  men  and  women 
become  accustomed  to  handling  the  intricacies  of 
bookkeeping  and  the  question  of  high  finance. 

Finally,  The  Mosaic  Templars  have  found  men. 
In  its  own  state  it  began  very  early  to  teach  the 
people  of  Arkansas  who  their  great  thinkers  and 
leaders  were.  Then  it  reached  out  its  hand  into 
this,  then  into  that,  until  in  every  state  of  the 
south  and  in  many  in  the  north,  there  are  scores 
more  of  solid  leaders  than  would  otherwise  have 
been  known.  The  organization  has  been  left  in  the 
hands  largely  of  the  sons  of  the  founder,  C.  E. 
Bush,  National  Grand  Secretary  and  A.  E.  Bush, 
Secretary-Treasurer.  This  again  follows  the  line 
of  a  great  service,  affording  a  big  lesson  for  the 
men  of  the  race.  Young  Morgan  is  running  his 
father's  bank;  young  Hill  is  carrying  forward  the 
great  railroad  interests  of  James  J.  Hill.  And  the 

105 


sons  of  J.  E.  Bush  are  holding  and  increasing  the 
heritage  left  to  them  and  to  the  Negro  people  of 
America. 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  report  to  the 
National  Grand  Lodge,,  meeting  at  Little  Rock, 
Ark.,  July  10-13,  1917,  by  the  National  Grand 
Scribe ;  "From  comparative  insignificance  we  have 
now  forged  to  the  front  and  have  attracted  nation 
wide  attention.  We  have  set  a  pace  in  the  Frater 
nal  World  that  up  to  this  writing  has  not  been 
out-distanced.  Our  growth  being  steady,  having 
increased  membership  about  25  per  cent  since  our 
Tuskegee  meeting  and  our  assets  have  increased 
approximately  more  than  one  hundred  thousand 
dollars  above  what  they  were  at  Tuskegee. 

"The  same  plan  of  economy  inauguarted  at  the 
birth  of  the  organization  has  been  steadfastly  ad 
hered  to.  The  main  object  in  view  is  to  properly 
safeguard  and  handle  the  money  that  the  people  in 
trust  to  our  keeping.  If  we  have  achieved  any 
success  it  is  due  more  to  this  principle  than  any 
other  element.  Examiners  from  various  insurance  i 
departments  have  marveled  at  the  low  expense 
budget  maintained  to  operate  our  organization. 

"That  our  Organization  is  well  organized  is  evi 
denced  by  the  minimum  amount  of  friction  in  the 
management.  All  of  our  officials  and  leaders,  with 
few  exceptions,  are  men  and  women  of  level  heads 
and  well  balanced  minds.  The  discordant  element 
is  so  little  encouraged  in  our  Organization  that  it 
soon  seeks  other  quarters  of  its  own  volition.  A 
big  business  like  the  Mosiac  Templars  of  America 
can  only  have  successful  management  by  having 
harmony  in  all  of  its  working  departments.  Many 
people  in  dealing  with  the  Mosiac  Templars  are 
very  much  surprised  when  they  learn  that  the  Na 
tional  Grand  Master's  office,  the  National  Grand 
Scribe's  office,  the  Attorney  General's  office,  the 
Auditor's  office,  the  Monument  office  all  operate 
without  one  interfering  with  the  other.  Each  de 
partment  head  is  held  responsible  for  success  in 
his  or  her  department.  If  he  fails,  then  no  blame 
can  be  placed  upon  any  other  department  and  the 
report  must  be  made  to  you,  the  final  judges." 

The  Mosaic  Templars  stand  for  the  unification 
of  one  common  brotherhood,  of  every  man  or  wo 
man  with  Negro  blood  coursing  through  his  or  her 
veins,  of  good  moral  character,  into  a  common 
brotherhood  of  helpfulness  and  usefulness.  It  be 
lieves  that  whatever  agencies  or  forces  that  are 
conducive  to  the  uplift  of  the  white  race  will  have 
a  corresponding  effect  on  the  Negro. 

It  stands  for  a  symmetrical  development  of  the 
Negro  on  moral,  religious,  educational  and  indus 
trial  lines.  It  believes  that  whatever  safeguards 
that  are  thrown  around  one  race  to  enoble  it,  and 
prepare  it  for  beter  citizenship,  the  same  ought 
to  be  extended  the  Negro. 


RICHARD    ARNETT    WILLIAMS,    M.    D. 


HE  unthinking  world  is  too  apt  to 
discredit  men  of  visions,  and  yet, 
without  the  visionary  men  this 
world  would  be  poor  indeed,  and 
would  still  be  in  a  chaotic  state. 
Men  must  see  things  before  they 
can  be  accomplished  and  to  the  credit  of  the  men 
of  visions,  be  it  said,  that  they  paved  the  way  for 
all  great  achievements.  Such  a  man  is  Dr.  R.  A. 
Williams. 

Dr.  Williams  was  born  September  13th,  1879,  in 
Forest  City,  Arkansas.  Although  his  parents  were 
not  rich,  they  possessed  sufficient  means  to  enable 
them  to  aid  their  son  to  secure  an  education.  They 
saw  the  advantages  of  a  good  education  and  de 
termined  that  they  could  do  no  better  part  for  their 
children  than  to  do  what  they  could  in  the  devel 
opment  of  their  minds.  They  early  placed  the 
Doctor  in  the  public  schools  of  his  native  city, 
where  he  graduated  at  the  tender  age  of  twelve. 
His  appetite  for  knowledge  was  whetted  by  his 
course  in  the  public  school,  and  he  determined  to 
pursue  his  studies  further.  This  he  did  at  the 
Danville  Industrial  High  school,  of  Danville  Vir 
ginia.  After  a  course  at  this  school  he  continued 
his  literary  studies  in  the  Arkansas  Baptist  College, 


Little  Rock,  Arkansas,  and  graduated  from  the 
Academic  Department  of  this  institution,  in  1896. 
He  bears  the  distinction  and  honor  of  being  the 
first  graduate  of  this  department  which  has  since 
sent  out  so  many  well  prepared  young  men  and 
women.  At  an  early  age,  Dr.  Williams  gave  much 
thought  to  the  question  of  his  life  work,  and  decid 
ed  upon  the  medical  profession.  This  decision  re 
mained  with  him  through  all  of  his  college  life,  and 
all  of  his  preparation  looked  to  this  end.  It  was 
in  1898,  that  he  began  to  see  the  fruition  of  his 
hope  and  the  consummation  of  his  dream.  It  was 
this  year  that  he  matriculated  at  Meharry  Medi 
cal  College.  He  finished  his  course  of  study  in 
this  well  known  school  and  not  only  won  honors 
but  also  the  confidence  and  esteem  of  his  fellow 
students.  His  career  as  a  student  was  not  without 
its  trials  and  difficulties  and  he  found  it  necessary 
to  engage  in  business  ventures  from  time  to  time 
in  order  to  raise  the  money  necessary  to  pay  his 
way. 

At  the  early  age  of  fourteen  he  assumed  the  du 
ties  of  the  school  master  and  governed  himself,  ev 
en,  at  this  early  age,  with  the  dignity  befitting  one 
in  that  profession.  His  next  venture  was  that  of 
a  merchant  and  under  the  firm  name  of  Williams 
and  Brown  he  conducted  for  two  years  a  grocery 
business.  This  venture  was  successful  but  could 
not  tempt  him  to  give  up  the  purpose  to  become  a 
physician.  It  enabled  him,  however,  to  carry  out 
his  well-formed  plan  for  a  medical  education. 

After  graduating  at  the  Meharry  College,  he 
went  to  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  and  commenced  his  pro 
fessional  career.  Here  he  remained  for  three 
years  and  won  the  confidence  of  the  people,  and 
established  a  good  practice.  He  could  not  re 
main  satisfied  at  Knoxville,  for  the  lure  of  his  na 
tive  state  was  upon  him.  He  could  not  turn  a 
deaf  ear  to  its  call,  so  in  1905,  he  left  Knoxville,  and 
turned  his  face  toward  Arkansas.  Helena  was  the 
city  of  his  choice  and  here  he  located  and  here  he 
has  remained,  building  up  for  himself  a  good  prac 
tice  and  an  enviable  reputation.  Being  a  man  of 
sympathetic  nature,  he  was  not  slow  to  put  him 
self  in  touch  with  the  needs  of  his  people,  and  to 
interest  himself  in  their  behalf.  His  work  as  a 
physician  enabled  him  to  see  the  great  need  of 
money  in  times  of  sickness  and  when  the  death  an 
gel  spread  its  wings  over  the  home  and  it  was  this 
that  gave  him  this  vision  of  a  society  that  would 
supply  this  need.  He  put  his  mind  to  work  and 
as  a  result  of  his  thinking  he  brought  into  exis 
tence  the  "Royal  Circle  of  Friends  of  the  World." 
To  this  organization  he  has  given  his  time  and  ex 
ecutive  skill  and  in  its  interest  he  has  had  to  travel 
extensively.  Seeing  in  it  such  great  possibilities, 
he  has  given  it  so  much  of  his  time  that  he  has  had 
to  curtail  his  general  practice  and  confine  himself 
to  an  office  practice  and  to  a  specialty. 


106 


The  Royal  Circle  of  Friends  is  one  of  the  most 
modern  organizations  calling  upon  the  public  for 
its  support.  It  bases  its  claims  for  support  alone 
upon  merit.  It  has  found  favor  from  the  start, 
and  continues  to  hold  its  friends.  Its  growth  is 
phenominal  and  has  exceeded  the  hopes  of  its  foun 
der.  Its  first  lodge  was  organized  in  1909  and  the 
number  has  increased  to  about  three  hundred  lod 
ges,  and  about  nine  thousand  members.  The  lod 
ges  are  scattered  over  five  states,  Arkansas,  Miss 
issippi,  Alabama,  Kentucky  and  Oklahoma.  The 
order  has  several  main  features.  It  has  an  en 
dowment  feature  by  which  the  beneficiary  of  a  de 
ceased  member  gets  Three  Hundred  Dollars  at 
his  or  her  death.  This  endowment  is  paid  prompt 
ly  within  a  week  after  the  death  of  a  member  and 
if  the  family  is  in  great  need  it  is  paid  immediately. 
Another  feature  rewards  the  member  for  a  ten 
year  connection  therewith.  It  is  a  one  hundred 
dollar  endowment.  It  also  provides  for  a  sick  and 
accident  benefit.  This  feature  alone,  has  done  in 
calculable  good.  The  order  is  noted  for  its  prompt 
ness  in  settlement  of  its  claims  and  is  multiplying 
its  strength  in  the  accumulation  of  a  surplus.  The 
founder  recognizes  the  importance  of  keeping  in 
touch  with  its  members  and  to  this  end  he  has  es 
tablished  a  paper,  known  as  the  Royal  Messenger. 

Much  of  the  success  of  the  Royal  Circle  of 
Friends  is  due  to  the  popularity  of  its  founder  and 
his  rare  business  judgment. 

The  aim  of  the  founder  of  the  Royal  Circle  of 
Friends  was  to  give  to  his  people  the  largest  bene 
fits  at  the  least  cost  and  to  insure  the  prompt  pay 
ment  of  all  claims.  To  make  it  possible  for  all  to 
share  in  its  benefits  the  initiation  fee  was  placed  at 
Two  Dollars  and  Fifty  Cents,  and  a  quarterly  en 
dowment  fee  of  One  Dollar.  When  the  substan 
tial  benefits  derived  from  this  organization  are  con 
sidered  its  fee's  are  more  reasonable  than  any  oth 
er  order. 

The  great  majority  of  the  men  and  women  who 
come  into  the  organization  are  young.  This 
gave  the  order  an  advantage.  To  meet  conditions 
which  will  naturally  arise  as  the  members  grow 
older  a  surplus  has  been  created  which  is  being 
added  to  annually. 

Dr.  Williams,  the  founder  and  President,  has  the 
handling  of  funds  of  the  order  and  has  already  de 
monstrated  his  ability  to  handle  them  with  consu- 
mate  business  skill.  His  intregrity  is  above  ques 
tion  and  the  members  feel  safe,  so  long  as  the  af 
fairs  of  the  order  remain  in  his  hands.  An  order 
of  this  character  has  to  get  out  much  printed  mat 
ter  and  in  keeping  with  its  economical  manage 
ment  a  printing  press  was  purchased  and  by 
means  of  this  outfit  much  money  has  been  saved 
the  Order  in  the  item  of  printing  alone.  Dr.  Wil 
liams  is  constantly  in  receipt  of  letters  commending 
the  order  and  acknowledging  the  good  it  has  done 
for  the  colored  race.  It  has  been  especially  gra- 

107 


tifying  to  him  to  receive  so  many  letters  of  per 
sonal  commendation  and  to  know  that  he  is  held  in 
such  high  personal  esteem  by  his  friends.  To  feel 
that  you  have  done  something  worth  while  always 
brings  pleasing  reflections  but  to  know  that  you 
have  started  a  movement  which  will  continue  long 
after  you  have  passed  away,  to  bless  the  people 
whom  you  love  and  wish  to  serve  is  thrilling  in  its 
contemplation.  Such  is  the  joy  that  has  come  to 
Dr.  Williams  in  establishing  the  order  of  the  Royal 
Circle  of  Friends.  He  has  lived  to  see  it  a  success 
and  to  see  the  great  good  it  has  already  accomplish 
ed.  If  he  should  cease  from  his  labors  now  he  has 
done  enough  to  hand  down  his  name  to  posterity 
and  in  a  way  to  brnig  only  pleasant  memories  of 
him. 

He  has  built  his  monument  which  will  be  more 
enduring  than  granite,  or  stone,  and  as  long  as  the 
Royal  Circle  of  Friends  exists,  Dr.  Williams  will 
be  held  in  fond  remembrance. 

"Fading  away  like  the  stars  of  the  morning, 
Losing  their  light  in  the  glorious  sun — 
Thus  would  we  pass  from  earth  and  its  toil 
ing, 
Only  remembered  by  what  we  have  done." 

August  25th.,  1903  Dr.  Williams  was  married  to 
Miss  Cora  E.  Morgan  of  Memphis,  Tennessee.  She 
is  a  daughter  of  one  of  the  wealthiest  planters  of 
Shelby  County,  Tennessee,  and  is  a  woman  of  cul 
ture,  refinement  and  great  ability. 

Mrs.  Williams  was  graduated  from  the  LeMoyne 
Institute  of  Memphis  and  for  several  years  was 
one  of  the  leading  teachers  in  her  native  county. 

A  daughter,  Vera  Louise  Williams,  makes  the 
Williams'  home  one  of  happiness. 

She  is  a  very  bright  young  person  and  makes 
life  interesting  for  the  father  and  mother. 

At  the  time  of  his  marriage  Dr.  Williams  was 
a  man  of  small  means  and  only  attained  to  his  pres 
ent  standing  in  the  financial  world  by  the  practice 
of  the  strictest  economy.  He  is  now  housed  in  his 
own  home  and  lives  in  a  style  that  is  befitting 
a  high  class  professional  man. 

Dr.  Williams  gives  much  of  the  credit  for  their 
financial  success  to  his  wife.  She  it  was  who 
helped  him  to  rise  in  life  and  who  was  an  in 
spiration  to  him  in  the  dark  hours  that  come  to  all 
who  struggle  upward. 

It  is  not  often  that  a  man  accomplishes  so  much 
in  so  short  a  period  of  his  life  and  it  must  be  a 
matter  of  supreme  satisfaction  to  Dr.  Williams  to 
see  the  seed  of  his  planting  blossom  into  so  frag 
rant  and  beautiful  a  flower,  whose  aroma  of 
friendship  will  bless  the  coming  generations.  The 
man  who  confers  a  benefit  upon  his  race  is  blessed 
in  his  work  for  others  and  the  reflex  influence  upon 
his  own  life  brings  to  him  a  personal  blessing. 

A  life  of  service  is  a  successful  life  and  brings  its 
own  sure  and  blessed  reward. 


E.   O.   TRENT. 

OR  a  man  to  hold  the  same  posi 
tion  for  considerably  over  a  quar 
ter  of  a  century,  and  still  keep 
thoroughly  abreast  with  the 
times,  shows  a  great  strength  of 
character.  One  of  the  easiest 
things  for  a  man  who  serves  the  public  to  do,  is 
to  get  in  a  rut.  Then  his  days  of  usefulness  are 
numbered.  But  when  a  man  can  serve  the  public 
year  in  and  year  out,  giving  something  new  to  each 
set  of  people  who  come  directly  under  his  care, 
when  a  man  can  do  this,  he  is  a  success. 

For  thirty-three  years  E.  O.  Trent  has  served  as 
principal  of  the  High  and  Industrial  School,  at  Fort 
Smith,  Arkansas.  During  all  these  years  he  has 
kept  his  school  up  to  the  standard  in  every  particu 
lar.  His  teachers  have  caught  something  of  his 
spirit  of  service  and  give  freely  of  their  time  and 
energies  during  off  hours. 

Professor  Trent  was  born  in  Columbus,  Ohio, 
February  24,  1859.  Fortunate  for  him  he  was  in  a 
section,  where  even  in  those  days  a  boy  of  color 
could  have  some  chance  at  an  education.  So  from 
the  age  of  six  to  twenty-three  he  attended  school 
in  his  native  state.  He  graduated  from  the  Ger 


man  High  School  of  Columbus  and  then  entered  the 
Ohio  State  University.  From  this  institution  he 
was  graduated  in  1882.  In  seeking  for  a  place 
where  he  could  best  serve  his  people  in  the  capacity 
of  school  master,  he  left  his  native  state  and  went 
to  Missouri.  Here  for  one  year  he  taught  and  then 
having  received  the  opening  at  Fort  Smith,  Arkan 
sas,  he  gave  up  his  work  in  Missouri  and  went  to 
Arkansas.  Here  he  has  remained,  teaching  in  the 
school  room  and  out  of  it  both  young  and  old, 
some  of  the  lessons  from  books  and  many  of  the 
fundamental  lessons  of  life. 

Professor  Trent  did  not  confine  his  work  to  the 
town  of  Fort  Smith.  He  saw  the  need  of  a  State 
Teachers  Association  for  the  colored  teachers  of 
Arkansas,  and  became  one  of  the  prime  movers  in 
organizing  this  body.  That  through  this  act  alone 
Professor  Trent  has  served  the  entire  State  of  Ar 
kansas,  can  not  well  be  disputed.  All  the  teachers 
through  this  organization  have  been  brought  up  to 
a  higher  standard  of  teaching.  All  of  them  know 
more  fully  just  what  they  are  trying  to  do  for  the 
boys  and  girls,  who  come  directly  under  their  care. 
In  this  way  has  the  influence  of  Professor  Trent 
been  broadened. 

In  religious  affiliation  the  subject  of  this  sketch 
is  a  stanch  Baptist.  He  is  an  active  member 
of  the  Missionary  Baptist  Church  in  Fort  Smith. 
In  this  church  he  has  held  many  responsible  posi 
tions.  He  has  served  as  deacon,  as  clerk,  as  a  lead 
er  of  the  young  people's  organization  and  as  Su 
perintendent  of  the  Sunday  School.  Through  the 
Sunday  School,  Professor  Trent  has  been  able  to 
touch  the  lives  of  his  pupils  from  the  standpoint  of 
religion,  and  because  of  this  he  has  been  able  to 
help  develop  well  rounded  young  men  and  women. 

In  fraternal  Orders  he  is  also  a  man  of  promi- 
.nence.  He  was  for  seventeen  years  Secretary  of 
the  Odd  Fellows  Benefit  Association.  He  is  C.  C. 
of  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  he  is  a  member  of  the 
Masonic  Order,  he  is  H.  H.  R.,  of  the  Eastern  Star, 
a  member  of  the  Mosiac  Templars  and  of  the  Roy 
al  Arch  Masons.  Through  these  organizations, 
Professor  Trent  has  come  more  directly  in  contact 
with  the  men  and  women  of  his  adopted  town.  And 
so  we  see  that  his  life  has  touched  the  lives  of  the 
people  of  Fort  Smith,  from  many  different  points. 
In  return  for  all  the  things  he  has  done  for  the  peo 
ple  of  Fort  Smith,  they  have  given  him  honor  in 
many  particulars.  He  has  held  positions  of  honor 
and  trust  in  the  churches,  fraternal  orders  and 
in  the  Sociological  Congress. 

Professor  Trent  was  married  to  Miss  Hattie  S. 
Smith,  August  25,  1886,  in  Columbus,  Ohio.  There 
are  two  children  in  the  Trent  family.  E.  E.  Trent 
is  in  business  for  himself  in  Fort  Smith.  He  is  a 
very  successful  merchant.  Alphonso  Trent  is  still 
a  student.  He  is  in  the  Lincoln  High  School  at 
Fort  Smith. 

During  all  the  years  that  he  has  been  out  working 
for  himself,  Professor  Trent  has  managed  to  accu 
mulate  considerable  of  this  worlds  goods.  He 
owns  thirty-two  rent  houses  and  a  truck  farm.  A 
conservative  estimate  of  the  value  of  his  holdings 
is  placed  at  $50.000.00. 


108 


BIRD'S  EYE  VIEW  OF  ATLANTA  UNIVERSITY 


TLANTA  University  is  one  of  the 
pioneer  institutions  for  the  Chris 
tian  education  of  Negro  youth. 
It  possesses  excellent  equipment 
for  the  work  of  high  school, 
normal  school  and  college  classes, 
and  has  accommodations  for  one 
hundred  and  sixty  boarding  stu 
dents.  It  is  the  first  institution  in  the  State  of 
Georgia  to  undertake  work  of  college  grade  for 
Negroes,  and  steadily  emphasizes  the  importance 
of  genuine  scholarship.  It  enjoys  the  cumulative 
advantage  which  results  fro  mforty-nine  years  of 
continuous  effective  work.  It  has  been  unusually 
fortunate  in  the  continuity  of  its  administration. 
It  was  founded  in  1865  under  the  auspices  of  the 
American  Missionary  Association,  by  Edmund  Asa 
Ware.  It  was  presided  over  by  him  until  his 
death,  in  1885.  President  Ware  was  a  graduate 
of  Yale  University  of  the  class  of  1863.  In  1875 
his  Yale  classmate  Horace  Bumstead,  succeeded 
to  the  presidency  and  held  the  position  until  1907, 
when  he  resigned,  and  became  the  recipient  of  a 
Carnegie  penson.  His  successor  is  Edward  Twichell 
Ware,  son  of  the  founder  and  first  president,  a 
graduate  of  Yale  University  of  the  class  of  1897. 
On  the  teaching  force,  there  have  always  been,  as 
there  are  now,  men  and  women  who  have  received 
the  best  education  that  this  country  affords. 
Among  the  colleges  represented  by  the  teachers 
are  Harvard,  Dartmouth,  Chicago,  Smith,  and 
Wellesley. 

The  University  is  beautifully  situated  upon  the 
summit  of  a  hill  in  the  Western  part  of  the  City  of 
Atlanta,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  campus  of  sixty 
acres.  There  are  seven  substantial  brick  buildings, 
three  of  them  covered  with  Boston  Ivy.  The  value 
of  the  property,  all  told,  is  $300.000.  The  invested 
funds  amount  to  about  $125,000.  For  the  proper 
maintenance  of  the  work,  about  $39,000  is  required 
each  year  in  addition  to  the  amount  reasonably  to 
be  expected  from  payments  of  students  and  income 
from  funds.  For  this  extra  amount  the  Institution 
depends  upon  the  endowment  of  friends  who  give 
from  year  to  year. 

Instruction  in  domestic  science  and  manual  train 
ing  is  required  of  all  the  high  school  students  and 
there  are  opportunities  for  pursuing  this  work 
further  in  the  college  course  of  mechanic  arts  and 


in  the  Furber  Cottage  for  the  normal  students. 
The  normal  course  comprises  two  years  following 
the  high  school  course. 

During  the  Senior  year  the  girls  live  in  the  Fur 
ber  Cottage  in  groups  of  fifteen  and  under  the  su 
pervision  of  the  matron,  do  all  the  work  of  the 
home. 

The  Institution  also  possesses  a  well  equipped 
printing  office,  from  which  is  issued  the  catalogue, 
the  school  and  alumni  papers.  Here,  there  is  an 
opportunity  to  learn  the  art  of  printing.  It  is  the 
purpose  of  Atlanta  University  to  make  the  home 
life  in  the  school  strong  and  wholesome. 

There  is  probably  no  school  for  the  Negroes  in 
the  South  better  equipped  with  facilities  for  home 
training,  for  library  work,  or  for  the  preparation 
of  teachers.  This  institution  has  also  been  long 
prominent  for  the  excellence  of  its  work  in  sociol 
ogy.  Its  annual  publications  on  the  Negro  prob 
lem  have  received  wide  recognition  from  scholars 
and  may  be  found  in  the  best  libraries  in  this  coun 
try  and  abroad. 

Opportunities  for  Post  Graduate  Study  leading 
to  the  degree  of  A.  M.  are  offered  to  a  limited  ex 
tent , 

There  are  enrolled  over  five  hundred  students. 
About  two-thirds  of  them  come  up  the  hill  every 
day  from  the  City  of  Atlanta.  The  rest  are  in  the 
boarding  department  and  represent  sixteen  states, 
and  thirty-nine  counties  in  the  State  of  Georgia. 
These  young  people  are  many  of  them  children  of 
the  graduates  of  Atlanta  University  and  most  of 
them  have  received  their  training  in  schools  over 
which  the  graduates  preside. 

This  Institution  is  an  outgrowth  of  the  Christian 
spirit  which  brought  so  many  earnest  and  devoted 
teachers  South,  in  the  educational  crusade  of  the 
sixties  and  seventies.  The  work  is  essentially 
Christian.  It  is  undenominational  and  strong  in 
religious  motive.  Students  attend  church  and 
Sunday  school.  They  also  have  their  voluntary 
:  eligious  organizations,  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  and  Y.  W. 
C  A.  Participation  in  the  religious  exercises  and 
in  the  home  life  of  the  school  has  often  been  in 
strumental  in  molding  the  character  of  the  student 
for  the  most  efficient  service  among  their  people. 

The  chief  source  of  encouragement  for  the  work 
rests  in  the  almost  uniform  success  of  the  grad 
uates  of  Atlanta  University. 


109 


MRS.  ROSA  LULA  BARNES. 


N  recent  years  the  Negro  woman 
has  begun  to  find  herself.  Time 
was  when  both  by  herself  and  in 
the  minds  of  the  general  public  it 
was  decided,  yea  determined,  that 

her  place  was  in  the  home,  in  the 

school  room  and  in  the  Sunday  School.  Gradually 
she  got  into  founding  institutions,  schools,  so 
cial  settlements  and  the  like.  She  went  on  the  lec 
ture  platform.  She  traveled  in  America  and  in  Eu 
rope  as  a  singer.  In  all  these  places  she  found  her 
self  a  complete  success. 

Then  a  few  ventured  into  unheard  of  fields — into 
politics  and  in  business.  Again  success  is  crowning 
their  endeavors.  Why  should  they  not  enter  any 
and  all  branches  of  work? 

One  of  the  leading  Negro  women  in  business,  in 
^odge,  and  general  social  work  is  Mrs.  Lula  Barnes 
of  Savannah,  Georgia.  Though  an  Alabamian  by 
birth  and  education  Mrs.  Barnes  is  a  Georgian  by 
adoption  and  achievement.  She  was  born  in  Hunts- 
ville,  Alabama,  near  the  scene  of  the  labors  of  the 
late  Dr.  Council.  Born  August  22nd,  1868,  she  had 
many  difficulties  in  getting  an  early  education. 
However,  Huntsville  Normal  and  Industrial  Insti 


tute  was  near  at  hand;  and  so  after  several  years 
she  entered  here  and  gained  her  life  training. 

Soon  after  her  school  days  she  was  married  and 
set  about  to  make  a  happy  home  and  to  aid  her 
husband  in  every  possible  way.  Providence  deem 
ed  it  otherwise.  Spurred  by  adversity,  she  now  be 
gan  to  cast  about  for  a  livelihood.  Living  in  Sa 
vannah,  she  thought  she  saw  an  opening  for  a  Ne 
gro  grocery.  She  thought  also  that  a  Negro  wo 
man  should  just  as  well  conduct  this  business  as 
could  a  man.  Hence  she  launched  forth  into  the 
business.  She  opened  a  store  on  Price  Street,  and 
by  courtesy,  fair  dealing  and  shrewd  business  tact 
made  her  store  one  to  be  reckoned  with  in  the 
business  world.  For  ten  years  she  was  a  grocer, 
and  gave  up,  or  sold  out,  only  to  enter  other  fields. 

The  grocery  business  proving  very  confining,  and 
an  opportunity  opening  for  her  services  in  lodge 
work,  she  closed  her  grocery  books  in  1893,  and  ac 
cepted  work  with  the  Court  of  Calanthe.  She  be 
came  Grand  Worthy  Counsellor  of  the  Court  of 
Calanthe  and  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias.  The  post 
with  the  latter  she  still  hollds. 

During  her  ten  years  in  business  Mrs.  Barnes 
had  practiced  economy.  She  now  made  several 
paying  investments.  She  bought  a  handsome  resi 
dence,  which  is  her  home,  on  East  Henry  Street. 
She  bought  twelve  rent  houses,  which  in  them 
selves  provide  her  with  a  pretty  comfortable  in 
come.  She  owns  five  vacant  lots  in  Savannah. 

Having  made  these  investments,  which  were  safe 
and  which  would  protect  her  in  case  of  inability, 
she  felt  safe  in  placing  money  in  several  worthy 
enterprises.  She  owns  stock  and  is  a  director  in 
the  Wage  Earner's  Bank  of  Savannah,  in  the 
Standard  Life  Insurance  Company,  in  the  Afro- 
American  Company  and  in  the  Union  Development 
Company. 

Mrs.  Barnes  now  gives  her  life  very  largely  to 
service  in  lodges  and  in  the  church.  She  is  a  mem 
ber  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Church,  of  the  Court  of  Calan 
the,  of  the  Household  of  Ruth,  of  the  Eastern  Star, 
of  the  Good  Samaritan.  She  has  been  honored 
with  the  post  of  Grand  Worthy  Chancellor  of  the 
Court  of  Calanthe  of  Georgia ;  Supreme  Worthy 
Inspector  of  the  National  Court  of  Calanthe ;  Past 
District  Most  Noble  Governor  of  Georgia :  Past 
Grand  Worthy  Superior  of  the  Household  of  Ruth  ; 
and  Past  Grand  Matron  of  the  Eastern  Star. 

With  these  honorary  positions,  with  the  duties 
and  responsibilities  entailed,  Mrs.  Barnes  has 
traveled  in  all  parts  of  the  United  States.  There 
are  few  people  and  places  in  the  country,  about 
which  she  cannot  give  a  very  intimate  account. 

Mrs.  Barnes  was  married  to  Mr.  Richard  Barnes 
at  Savannah,  Aug.  16th,  1884.  Mr.  Barnes  died  in 
Sept.  2nd,  1911.  Left  alone  Mrs.  Barnes  has  de 
voted  her  life  to  making  bright  the  every  day  lives 
of  others. 


110 


HENRY   RUTHERFORD   BUTLER,   M.  D. 


NE  of  the  conspicuous  figures  in 
colored  Georgia  during  this  last 
quarter  century  has  been  Dr.  H. 
R.  Butler.  He  has  been  the  ex 
ponent  in  business  enterprises  and 
in  uplift  work  and  has  been  :>.  sort 
of  sponsor  for  the  good  name  of  Atlanta  to  the 
world.  To  him,  being  a  physician  is  but  an  item 
in  his  career.  He  is  a  strong  church  man,  being  a 
member  of  the  African  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
and  a  steward  in  the  Bethel  Church  of  Atlanta. 

In  membership  and  activity  in  secret  orders  as 
well  as  in  national  bodies,  few  men  anywhere  are 
his  peers.  He  is  a  thirty-third  degree  Mason.  More 
than  this  he  is  the  Grand  Master  of  the  Maso*is  of 
Georgia,  a  post  he  has  held  for  fifteen  years.  Hi;  is 
also  a  Royal  Arch  Mason  and  Past  Eminent  Grand 
Commander  of  Georgia.  He  is  an  Odd  Fellow,  a 
Knight  of  Pythias,  being  a  Brigadier  General  of 
the  Uniform  Department  and  Supreme  representa 
tive  of  this  body.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Eastern 
Star  and  Court  of  Calanthe.  He  belongs  to  the 
Red  Cross  Society  and  to  the  National  Georgraph- 
ical  Society.  He  was  surgeon,  with  rank  of  first 
lieutenant  in  the  Second  Battalion  of  Georgia  Vol 


unteers  until  that  battalion  was  mustered  out  in 
1896. 

He  organized  the  colored  Medical  Association  of 
Georgia  in  1891  and  was  its  first  president.  He  was 
for  four  years,  physician  to  Spelman  Seminary,  the 
largest  school  in  the  world  for  Negro  girls.  He 
was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Atlanta  State  Sav 
ings  Bank  and  is  now  one  of  its  directors.  He  was 
the  first  regular  Negro  contributor  to  the  Atlanta 
Constitution.  He  is  manager  of  the  Fair  Haven  In 
firmary  of  the  M.  B.  U. 

Amazing  as  all  this  work  may  appear,  it  becomes 
more  so  when  it  is  known  that  Dr.  Butler  gained 
his  education  by  the  hardest  of  struggle.  He  was 
born  in  the  country  in  a  log  cabin,  in  Cumberland 
County,  North  Carolina,  April  11,  1861.  The  spot  of 
his  birth  place  is  some  four  miles  from  Fayette- 
ville,  on  the  Willington  Road.  The  first  few  years 
of  his  life,  he  worked  on  the  farm  as  a  laborer. 
Then  he  moved  to  Wilmington  and  became  a  wharf 
hand,  then  a  stevedore.  From  here  he  went  into 
the  lumber  yard  as  a  workman,  thence  to  the  Wil 
mington  Compress  Company,  for  whom  he  finally 
became  a  cotton  buyer. 

All  this  time  he  was  carrying  a  burning  desire  to 
be  educated,  to  become  a  man  and  hold  positions 
of  trust  and  responsibility.  To  be  sure  he  had  but 
little  to  book  on  or  build  on.  Back  there  in  Cum 
berland  he  had  enjoyed  three  months  schooling  in 
a  log  cabin  school  house.  His  parents  could  give 
him  no  more.  To  pay  his  way  he  worked  as  bell 
boy,  waiter,  side  waiter  and  finally  head  waiter  in 
the  Northern  Hotels.  His  mother  sent  him  one 
green  back  dollar,  while  he  was  in  school.  The 
rest,  for  both  his  elementary,  college  and  profes 
sional  education,  he  raised  himself. 

Completing  his  course  in  the  study  of  medicine, 
Dr.  Butler  went  to  Atlanta  in  1890  and  began  to 
practice  medicine  and  to  become  a  part  of  the  life 
in  Atlanta  and  in  Georgia.  In  his  profession  he 
ranks  foremost  and  enjoys  a  very  wide  practice  in 
Atlanta  and  surroundings.  In  company  with  Dr. 
T.  H.  Slater,  he  was  owner  of  the  flourishing  Drug 
Store  under  the  name  of  Butler,  Slater  and  Com 
pany.  Dr.  Butler  is  one  of  the  leading  property 
owners  in  Atlanta.  He  owns  a  very  handsome 
home,  owns  other  property  in  Atlanta,  in  Southern 
Georgia,  and  in  Lincoln,  property  and  buildings 
which  amount  in  value  to  twenty-five  thousand 
dollars. 

Dr.  Butler  was  married  May  2nd,  1893,  to  Miss 
Selana  May  Sloan.  They  have  one  son,  Henry 
Rutherford,  Junior,  who  is  at  present  a  student  in 
Atlanta  University,  but  who  is  to  attend  and  be 
graduated  from  the  Harvard  Divinity  School  in 
Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 

The  Butler  family  of  three  has  traveled  much. 
Dr.  Butler  himself  has  crossed  the  American  Con 
tinent,  indeed  is  a  registered  physician  in  Califor 
nia,  and  in  Los  Angeles.  He  and  his  family  have 
traveled  through  Canada  and  Europe,  where  he 
spent  much  time  in  study  in  the  hospitals  of  London 
and  Paris. 


Ill 


BISHOP    RANDALL   ALBERT    CARTER 
A.  B.,  A.   M.,  D.   D. 

ISHOP  Randall  A.  Carter  of  the  C. 
M.  E.  Church,  in  his  early  years, 
planned  to  enter  the  law,  but 
thanks  to  an  early  conversion  and 
a  deep  interest  in  religious  mat 
ters  growing  out  of  this,  he 
changed  his  plans,  and  became  a  minister  instead. 
Bishop  Carter  was  born  in  Fort  Valley,  Georgia, 
January  1,  1867;  but  while  still  a  small  child  he 
moved  with  his  parents  to  Columbia,  South  Caro 
lina.  Here  in  Columbia  he  attended  the  public 
schools,  applying  himself  to  all  the  tasks  that  were 
set  for  him.  He  completed  the  common  schools  of 
his  home  and  was  ready  for  higher  training,  at  the 
time  of  the  founding  of  the  Allen  University,  in 
Columbia,  S.  C.  So,  instead  of  going  away  to  col 
lege  he  was  fortunate  enough  to  have  the  college 
come  to  him.  Bishop  Carter  was  among  the  first 
students  to  matriculate  in  the  University.  He  re 
mained  in  Allen  University  long  enough  to  com 
plete  the  Freshman  Class. 

While  studying  in  this  school  he  was  converted 
during  a  great  revival.  It  was  not  long  after  this 
that  he  felt  a  call  to  the  ministry  and  so  he  joined 
the  South  Carolina  Conference  of  the  C.  M.  E. 


Church.  Bishop  Wm.  H.  Willis,  of  Louisville,  Ken 
tucky,  was  the  presiding  officer  at  the  Conference 
at  the  time  Bishop  Carter  joined. 

Bishop  Carter,  as  a  minister,  served  many  im 
portant  charges  both  in  South  Carolina,  and  in 
Georgia.  While  working  in  Georgia,  Bishop  Car 
ter  completed  his  full  college  course  at  Payne  Col 
lege.  He  graduated  with  the  degree  of  A.  B.,  with 
the  highest  honors.  For  a  number  of  years  the 
subject  of  this  sketch  served  as  presiding  Elder  in 
the  Georgia  Conference.  He  was  the  confidential 
advisor  of  Bishop  Holsey  for  many  years  and  was 
the  recognized  leader  of  the  Georgia  Conference, 
of  the  C.  M.  E.  Church.  He  was  elected  chairman 
of  the  delegation  from  his  conference  to  the  gen 
eral  conference  for  twenty  years  in  succession.  He 
was  the  first  Epworth  League  Secretary  of  that 
department  of  his  church.  He  was  the  fraternal 
delegate  from  his  church  to  the  general  conference 
of  the  M.  E.  Church,  held  in  Chicago,  Illinois.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  delegation  from  his  church 
to  the  Ecumenical  Conference  of  Methodism,  heM 
in  London,  England.  While  abroad,  Bishop  Carter 
took  advantage  of  the  opportunity  and  visited 
many  of  the  countries  of  Europe. 

In  1914  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  he  was  elected  a  Bishop 
of  his  church.  At  this  time  Bishop  Carter  received 
the  highest  vote  ever  given  any  aspirant  for  that 
position.  Thus  Bishop  Carter  has  come  from  the 
ranks  to  the  highest  position  in  the  gift  of  his 
church.  Starting  as  a  school  teacher,  who  wanted 
to  be  a  preacher,  joining  the  conference  and  serv 
ing  first  small  and  then  larger  charges,  he  has 
developed  wonderfully  in  this  time.  In  recognition 
of  his  growth  and  development  he  was  given  the 
degree  of  A.  M.  in  1900  and  of  D.  D.  in  1901.  Both 
of  these  came  from  his  Alma  Mater. 

Bishop  Carter  is  recognized  as  one  of  the  fore 
most  orators  and  most  scholarly  preachers  in  his 
church.  He  is  a  member  of  the  National  Geogra 
phic  Society,  the  National  Association  for  the  Ad 
vancement  of  the  Colored  People.  A  member  of 
the  committee  on  Church  and  Country  Life  of  the 
Federal  Council  of  Churches,  and  a  member  of  the 
Association  for  the  Study  of  Negro  Life  and  His 
tory.  Bishop  Carter  has  held  and  served  in  many 
other  positions  which  are  honorary  and  which  work 
for  the  public  good.  Among  those  in  which  he 
is  still  actively  engaged  we  might  mention  that  he 
is  President  of  the  Board  of  Missions  of  the  C.  M. 
V..  Church,  President  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  of 
the  Texas  College  of  Hagood,  Arkansas,  and  of  the 
Indiana  College,  of  Pine  Bluff,  Arkansas. 

Bishop  Carter  has  traveled  extensively  in  this 
country  and  abroad.  He  has  covered  this  country 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific.  He  owns  pro 
perty,  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  in  Columbia, 
South  Carolina,  and  in  Atlanta,  Georgia. 

In  1891,  on  the  22nd  of  April,  Bishop  Carter  was 
married  to  Miss  Janie  S.  Hooks,  of  Macon,  Georgia. 
There  is  one  child  in  the  family,  Miss  Carrie  Car 
ter,  who  is  a  freshman  in  Atlanta  University. 

Born  of  poor  parents,  we  might  say  born  in  real 
poverty,  Randall  Albert  Carter  has  made  a  good 
record  for  himself  during  his  half  century.  His 
is  a  life  that  will  lend  inspiration. 


112 


SILAS  X.  FLOYD,  A.  M.,  D.  D. 


D 


ILAS  X.  Floyd  was  born  Octo 
ber  2nd,  1869,  in  the  City  of  Au 
gusta,  Georgia,  and  here  he  has 
lived  tor  the  greater  part  of  his 
•  life.  During  his  childhood  period 
it  was  hard  tor  a  colored  youth  to 
secure  a  thorough  education,  but  Dr.  Floyd  was  an 
exception.  He  secured  a  good  education  but 
through  close  application  to  his  studies  and  a  de 
termination  to  succeed.  When  a  lad  he  attended 
the  schools  of  his  native  city  and  then  entered  At 
lanta  University.  He  graduated  at  this  institution 
in  1891,  and  in  1894  received  his  M.  A.  degree  from 
his  Alma  Mater.  Finishing  his  course  he  returned 
to  Augusta,  Georgia,  where  he  immediately  began 
and  has  continued  a  marvelously  active  life.  An 
enumeration  of  his  activities  seems  almost  in 
credible  that  one  man  could  accomplish  so  much 
and  retain  his  health  and  strength.  But  Dr.  Floyd 
is  an  unusual  man.  Dr.  Floyd  is  first  a  preacher 
and  from  1899  to  1900  he  was  the  Pastor  of  the 
Augusta  Tabernacle  Baptist  Church.  Prior  to 
this,  from  1891  to  1896,  he  was  principal  of  the 
Public  School  and  editor  of  the  Augusta  Sentinel. 
From  1896  to  1899  he  was  field  representative  of 
the  International  Sunday  School  Association,  and 

113 


from  1900  to  February,  1903,  he  was  field  worker 
for  Georgia  and  Alabama  for  the  American  Bap 
tist  Publication  Society.  Since  that  time  he  has 
served  continuously  as  Principal  of  the  Public 
School  of  his  native  city. 

Dr.  Floyd  has  many  gifts  but  the  two  which  are 
preeminent  are  those  of  teacher  and  author.  By 
means  of  these  he  has  left  an  impress  upon  the 
colored  citizens  of  Augusta,  and  in  fact  the  entire 
country,  which  will  tell  for  the  good  of  the  race 
for  ages  to  come. 

For  many  years  he  has  conducted  every  Sunday 
morning  a  colored  people's  page  in  each  of  the  two 
white  daily  newspapers  published  in  Augusta.  He 
has  also  held  the  unique  position  of  being  a  paid 
reporter  on  two  Southern  white  papers  in  the  same 
city.  This  has  given  him  a  great  local  power  to 
help  his  people.  But  Dr.  Floyd  has  not  confined  his 
work  to  the  school  room,  nor  to  the  pen.  His  great 
heart  embraces  the  whole  colored  race  and  he  is 
interested  in  all  efforts  for  their  uplift.  To  this 
end  he  has  served  as  Secretary  of  the  National  As 
sociation  of  Teachers  in  Colored  schools ;  he  was 
the  President  of  the  first  Negro  State  Press  Asso 
ciation,  in  the  United  States,  for  Colored  Newspa 
pers  ;  he  was  the  originator  of  a  system  of  syndica 
ting  the  news  among  colored  newspapers ;  he  is  a 
member  of  the  Walker  Baptist  Institute,  Augusta ; 
he  is  a  member  of  the  American  Historical  Asso 
ciation,  and  a  member  of  the  American  Social 
Science  Association.  In  these  various  organiza 
tions  he  has  come  face  to  face  with  many  of  the 
problems  of  the  race  and  has  done  his  share  towards 
the  adjustment  of  them. 

Dr.  Floyd's  writings  have  been  voluminous  and 
have  been  extensively  read.  He  has  made  contri 
butions  to  such  well  known  periodicals  as  the  New 
York  Independent.  Youth's  Companion,  Lippin- 
cctts,  Judge,  and  Leslie's  Weekly.  He  is  the  au 
thor  of  "Floyd's  Flowers,"  a  booko  of  stories  for 
colored  children,  the  first  book  of  its  kind  ever 
published  in  the  history  of  the  race  in  the  United 
States.  He  has  also  written  the  "life  of  C.  T.  Wal-^ 
ker,"  the  "Gospel  of  Service  and  other  Sermons," 
and  a  number  of  stories  and  verses  which  have  ap 
peared  from  time  to  time  in  the  leading  papers  and 
magazines  of  the  country. 

Dr.  Floyd  has  made  his  contribution  to  the  civic 
life  of  Augusta,  and  has  rendered  valuable  service 
to  the  commonwealth  on  many  occasions.  In  re 
cognition  of  his  invaluable  aid  in  relief  work,  fol 
lowing  the  great  fire  which  swept  Augusta,  the 
Chairman  of  the  White  Relief  Committee  publicly 
presented  him  with  a  beautiful  gold  watch  and  fob. 
During  the  war  which  has  happily  come  to  a  close, 
Dr.  Floyd  was  conspicious  for  his  patriotic  service 
and  was  placed  at  the  head  of  many  of  the  commit 
tees  which  this  service  called  into  existence. 

Space  alone  prevents  further  record  of  his  ach 
ievements.  A  fitting  end  is  to  speak  of  his  happy 
home  life.  His  family  consists  of  a  wife,  (for 
merly  Mrs.  Ella  Jam'es,)  and  a  daughter,  Miss 
Marietta  James,  who  are  in  perfect  accord  and 
sympathy  with  him  and  in  their  own  home  they 
present  the  ideal  family  circle. 


BENJAMIN  JEFFERSON   DAVIS. 


Benjamin  Jefferson  Davis 


R.  Benjamin  Jefferson  Davis,  the 
subject  of  this  sketch,  was  born 
in  Dawson,  Georgia,  in  1870.  He 
passed  his  childhood  under  the 
usual  disadvantages  of  the  Negro 
child  in  those  days.  He  was 
born  with  an  insatiable  thirst  for  knowledge,  and 
with  an  ambition  and  will  to  do  whatever  his  hands 
found  to  do  better  than  anybody  else  could  do  it. 
His  longing  to  render  service  for  his  race  and  man 
kind  ripened,  and  accordingly  he  resolved  to  acquire 
an  education  that  would  fit  him  for  life's  work ;  and 
he  entered  Atlanta  University  and  availed  himself 
of  every  opportunity  to  better  his  condition.  As 
a  student  he  was  brilliant  and  showed  unmistaka 
bly  the  elements  of  leadership,  which  has  made  him 
a  leader  of  men.  As  success  marked  his  efforts,  he 
never  forgot  to  appreciate  the  friends  who  encour 
aged  and  helped  him  to  prepare  himself  for  the 
task  which  he  had  mapped  out. 

After  spending  several  terms  in  Atlanta  Univer 
sity,  he  decided  to  teach  school  to  aid  him  in  his 
preparation  and  to  secure  the  amount  of  money 
necessary  to  carry  out  what  he  had  undertaken  and 
planned  for  the  future.  Meanwhile,  he  was  ten 
dered  a  government  position  which  he  accepted ; 
but  it  was  not  long  before  he  felt  that  he  could  bet 
ter  serve  his  race  and  generation  by  giving  up  the 
government  service  and  taking  up  work  more  in 
keeping  with  his  Life's  ambition.  But  he  had  the 
foresight  to  see  that  there  were  great  possibilities 
for  racial  development  in  the  G.  U.  O.  O.  F.,  in 
America.  He  joined  the  Order  at  seventeen.  His 
mother,  Mrs.  Katherine  Davis,  who  was  very  much 
devoted  to  her  boy,  partly  kept  up  his  dues  during 
the  time  he  was  attending  school.  He  rose  rapidly 
in  the  Order  and  became  a  Past  officer  in  1891,  and 
a  member  of  the  District  Grand  Lodge  in  1892; 
he  was  elected  District  Grand  Treasurer  in  1900; 
was  elected  Grand  Director  of  the  National  Branch 
of  the  Order,  in  Columbus,  Ohio,  in  1904,  and  serv 
ed  two  years.  He  was  elected  Grand  Treasurer  of 
the  National  Branch  in  1906  at  Richmond,  Va., 
which  position  he  filled  four  years.  He  was  elected 
Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Order  in 
Baltimore  in  1910,  and  served  four  year.  In  1917, 
at  the  Macon  District  Grand  Lodge,  he  was  again 
re-elected  District  Grand  Secretary  for  the  Eighth 
Biennial  term,  making  sixteen  years  ;  and  he  was 
elected  General  Manager  of  the  Corporation  of  the 
G.  U.  O.  O.  F.  of  America,  Jurisdiction  of  Geor 
gia.  In  1916,  when  the  Order  was  placed  in  the 
hands  of  a  Receiver  by  the  courts,  he,  on  account 
of  his  signal  ability,  and  intricate  knowledge  of  the 


affairs  of  the  Order  was  appointed  by  the  court  as 
Assistant  Receiver. 

He  is  a  member  of  the  K.  of  P.,  Supreme  Circle, 
Knights  of  Tabor,  a  Director  of  the  Standard  Life 
Insurance  Company,  Stockholder  of  the  Atlanta 
State  Savings  Bank  and  President  of  the  Atlanta 
Independent  Publishing  Company — publishers  of 
the  Atlanta  Independent. 

In  politics,  he  is  a  Republican,  and  is  usually  one 
of  the  Big  Four  Delegates  from  the  State-at-large 
to  the  Republican  National  Convention  every  four 
years.  At  the  19th  Republican  National  Conven 
tion  he  was  a  member  of  the  Committee  on  Plat 
form  and  Resolutions  of  which  Senator  Henry  Ca 
bot  Lodge  of  Massachusetts,  was  the  Chairman. 

The  strongest  institution  in  which  Mr.  Davis  is 
interested,  and  the  one  which  wields  a  world  of 
good  for  both  races,  is  the  Atlanta  Independent.  As 
owner  and  editor  of  this  widely  read  and  circulated 
journal,  he  shapes  ks  policy  and  is  considered  one 
of  the  ablest  journalists  and  writers  of  his  day. 

It  is  impossible  to  discuss  the  Negro  progress  in 
America  without  mentioning  "Ben  Davis"  and  the 
Odd  Fellows  Block  in  Atlanta,  which  stands  as  a 
monument  to  his  vision,  perseverance  and  organ 
izing  genius.  He  is  essentially  an  organizer  and 
leader  of  men.  Twenty  years  ago  when  he  be 
came  officially  identified  with  the  G.  U.  O.  O.  F. 
in  Georgia,  it  represented  a  membership  of  less 
than  10,000  and  as  a  state  organization,  it  was 
struggling  and  gasping  for  breath,  so  to  speak.  To 
day  the  membership  is  more  than  fifty  thousand, 
including  the  Household  of  Ruth,  Juveniles,  Divis 
ion  Meeting  and  Deputy  and  Supervisor's  Institute. 

When  Mr.  Davis  took  charge  of  the  office  of 
District  Grand  Secretary,  he  addressed  himself  to 
the  task  of  re-constructing  the  Order  and  placing 
it  upon  a  substantial  basis.  His  first  efforts  were 
to  systematize  the  business  of  the  office  and  build 
up  confidence  in  the  Order  in  the  minds  of  the 
people.  This  having  been  accomplished,  he  felt 
that  the  time  was  propitious  to  have  a  strong  or 
gan  in  the  State  of  Georgia  with  which  to  give 
publicity  to  the  work  and  the  benefit  of  the  Or 
der,  and  widen  the  circle  of  the  Race's  influence. 
Out  of  this  idea  sprang  the  Atlanta  Independent, 
which,  from  the  beginning,  was  a  popular  and  fear 
less  sheet  and  exerted  a  powerful  influence  for 
good  not  only  in  Georgia,  but  throughout  the  coun 
try — and  today  the  Independent  is  the  most  wide 
ly  read  Negro  paper  in  America  and  is  read  by 
white  and  black  people  alike. 

In  his  struggles  for  the  erection  of  the  present 
Odd  Fellow  Block  on  Auburn  Avenue  in  the  City 
of  Atlanta  in  the  year  1912,  the  story  will  never  be 


115 


known  in  its  entirety ;  for  only  God  and  Mr.  Davis 
alone  know  in  the  broadest  sense  the  fiery  ordeals 
through  which  he  passed.  Even  those  who  were 
most  intimately  associated  with  him  do  not  know 
as  he  did,  for  in  many  respects,  "He  trod  the  wine 
press  alone."  Mr.  Davis  conceived  the  idea  in  the 
erection  of  the  Odd  Fellow  Block  that  every  mem 
ber  of  the  Order  in  Georgia  give  $1.00  as  a  Free- 
Will  offering  on  Thanksgiving  Day,  May  14,  1911. 
As  a  result  of  this  idea  over  $50,000  was  raised  in 
one  day.  The  Block  was  completed  at  a  cost  of 
more  than  $300,000  without  a  dollar  of  incum- 
brance  upon  it. 

When  you  think  of  Benjamin  Jefferson  Davis, 
you  think  of  three  things — The  Atlanta  Indepen 
dent,  The  growth  of  the  Odd  Fellows  and  the  Odd 
Fellows'  Block  in  Atlanta,  Ga.  The  paper  speaks 
for  itself — it  is  the  most  aggressive  and  influen 
tial  paper  published  in  the  country  for  Negro  peo 
ple.  No  paper  is  more  eagerly  sought-for  and 
more  widely  read  than  the  Atlanta  Independent.  Of 
his  work  among  the  Odd  Fellows,  his  chief  distinc 
tion  arises  from  putting  the  organization  on  a 
business  basis  and  extending  the  membership  in  a 
little  more  than  ten  years  in  the  State  of  Georgia, 
from  10,000  to  50,000;  from  a  depleted  treasury  to 
an  accumulated  wealth  of  $600,000,  carrying  a  cash 
balance  of  $50,000. 

But,  perhaps,  his  crowning  achievement  in  con 
nection  with  his  great  work  with  the  G.  U.  O.  O.  F., 
is  the  establishment  of  the  Bureau  of  Endowment 
for  widows  and  orphans,  who,  until  this  time  had 
been  left  destitute  at  the  death  of  their  husbands 
and  fathers.  He,  therefore,  put  through  an  amend 
ment  whereby  every  member  must  carry  a  death 
benefit  of  not  less  than  $200.00  and  not  more  than 
$500.00.  The  effect  of  this  act  has  been  far-reach 
ing  and  has  laid  a  broad  foundation  upon  which  the 
Race  can  build  for  all  time  to  come.  It  has  been 
the  forerunner  for  many  other  institutions  of  the 
Race — such  as  banks,  insurance  companies,  first- 
class  professional  offices  and  hundreds  of  business 
places  for  young  men  and  women  of  the  Race. 

He  was  happily  married  August,  1898,  to  Miss 
Jimme  W.  Porter  of  Dawson,  Ga.,  and  their  home 
has  been  blessed  with  two  children — a  boy,  B.  J. 
Davis,  Jr.,  and  a  girl,  Johnnie  Katherine. 

Mr.  Davis  is  less  than  fifty  years  old  and  is  in 
the  very  prime  of  his  intellectual  and  physical  pow 
ers.  He  is  ambitious,  gifted  and  determined.  He 
knows  no  such  thing  as  "can't"  and  never  ceases 
until  the  thing  undertaken  is  put  "Over  the  top." 
It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  he  is  one  of  the 
Race's  greatest  leaders.  He  is  today  the  greatest 
exponent  of  the  principles  of  Odd  Fellowship  in 
America.  He  is  a  National  character  and  a  born 
leader. 
The  race's  greatest  constructive  and  economic 


contribution  to  the  national  growth  is  Odd  Fellow 
Block,  200  Auburn  Ave.,  between  Bell  and  Butler 
Streets,  Atlanta,  Georgia. 

Odd  Fellow   Block,  which  consists  of  two  large 
buildings,  is  the  largest  and  the  most  up-to-date  of 
fice  building  owned  by  the  Race  in  America.  These 
vast  properties  were  erected  in   1912  and   1913  by 
District  Grand  Lodge  No.  18,  G.  U.  O.  O.  F.,  of  Am 
erica,  Jurisdiction  of  Georgia,  a  corporation.     The 
corporation  consists  of  fifty  thousand  male  and  fe 
male  members  of  G.  U.  O.  O.  F.,  of  America,  Jur 
isdiction  of  Georgia.     The  main  building  is  known 
as  Odd  Fellow   Building  and     is     located     on   the 
northeast  corner     of     Auburn     Avenue     and   Bell 
Street,  and  is  seven  stories  high  above  the  ground. 
The  building  consists  of  six  stores,  fifty-six  offices, 
three  lodge  rooms  and  the  roof  garden.     The  roof 
garden   will   seat   and   accommodate   one   thousand 
people.    It  is  the  largest  and  the  most  modern  roof 
garden  in  the  country,  adapted  to  use  all  seasons 
of  the  year — sanitary,  ventilated  and  heated  by  the 
most  modern   systems.     The  lodge   rooms   are   oc 
cupied  by  many  of  the  different  secret  Orders  in 
the  city.     The  offices  are  used  by  such  substantial 
concerns  as  the  Standard  Life  Insurance  Company, 
Atlanta  Mutual  Insurance  Company,  Chatham  Mu 
tual  Insurance  Company,  Atlanta     State     Savings 
Bank,  District  Grand  Lodge  No.  18,  G.  U.  O.  O.  F., 
of  America,  Jurisdiction  of  Georgia,  The  N.  C.  Mu 
tual  &  Provident  Association  and  the  Masonic  Re 
lief  Association.    The  main  building  fronts  Auburn 
Avenue  60  feet,  and  runs  north  on  Bell  Street  one 
hundred  feet. 

The  Odd  Fellow  Auditorium  and  Office  Build 
ing  is  situated  on  the  corner  of  Auburn  Avenue 
and  Butler  Street,  facing  Auburn  Avenue  138 
feet  front,  and  consists  of  eight  stores,  eighteen 
offices  and  the  Odd  Fellow  Auditorium  Theatre. 
The  building  is  two  stories  high,  and  the  offices 
on  the  second  floor  are  occupied  almost  entirely  by 
the  leading  colored  physicians  of  the  city.  The 
stores  are  always  rented ;  the  Gate  City  Drug  Store 
occupies  the  corner.  This  great  property  of  the 
Order  was  erected  at  a  cost  to  the  Corporation,  in 
cluding  the  land,  quite  $400,000  and  is  today  valued 
at  a  half  million  dollars.  The  Order  contributes  to 
the  State  of  Georgia  and  the  City  of  Atlanta  $5,000 
in  taxes  each  year  on  its  holdings. 

More  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  young  men  and 
women  are  engaged  in  the  various  enterprises,  do 
ing  business  in  the  Odd  Fellow  Block.  This  invest 
ment  is  a  paying  proposition,  netting  to  the  Or 
der — above  operating  expenses — each  year  $10,000 
which  is  credited  to  the  Endowment  Fund,  guar 
anteeing  the  payment  of  the  Death  Benefit  Certifi 
cates  held  by  the  members  of  the  Order  throughout 
the  Jurisdiction.  This,  the  greatest  contribution  of 
the  Race  to  the  National  growth,  argues  most 
largely  its  possibilities  and  is  due  entirely  to  the 
leadership  of  the  District  Grand  Secretary,  Benja 
min  Jefferson  Davis,  and  stands  as  a  monument  to 
hi.-;  energy,  push  and  pluck. 


116 


ODD   FELLOWS    BLOCK,   MAI  M   BUILDING,  ATLANTA,  GA. 


CHARLES  HENRY  DOUGLASS. 


N  Macon,  Georgia,  there  is  an  up- 
to  date  negro  theatre,  one  of  the 
few  negro  theatres  of  any  kind  to 
be  owned  and  managed  by  a  Ne 
gro.  It  was  built  in  1911,  with 
modern  appliances.  It  has  a  seat 
ing  capacity  of  330  and  is  sanitary  throughout. 
It  has  both  oscilating  and  exhaust  fans  to  keep 
the  air  within  pure  and  the  building  sanitary. 
This  enterprise  is  the  work  of  Charles  Henry 
Douglass,  who  in  this  way  has  made  provision 
for  the  recreation  and  pleasure  of  his  people.  Here 
every  afternoon  and  evening  the  tired  housewife, 
servant  or  laborer  can  drop  in  and  enjoy  a  pleas 
ant  hour  without  embarrassment  or  discrimina 
tion.  Seeing  an  opportunity  for  a  Negro  amuse 
ment  house  in  Macon,  he  leased  in  1904,  the  Oc- 
mulgee  Park  Theatre,  which  he  operated  for  two 
years,  when  he  sold  his  lease  and  purchased  a  lot 
on  Broadway  and  erected  the  Colonial  Hotel,  a 
three  story  brick  building,  which  stands  on  this 
business  thoroughfare  in  the  midst  of  the  big  bus 
iness  of  the  city.  The  building  cost  eighteen 
thousand  dollars  ($18,000),  and  is  the  only  piece 
of  property  on  Broadway  to  be  owned  by  a  Ne- 

118 


gro.  While  operating  his  hotel,  Mr.  Douglass  or 
ganized  a  theatrical  company  of  about  thirty-five 
of  forty  colored  people  and  traveled  with  his  com 
pany  through  fourteen  states,  giving  performances 
in  many  cities,  winning  favorable  patronage  which 
established  his  reputation  and  earned  him  much 
money.  Selling  out  his  interest  in  the  Theatrical 
Company  he  added  the  proceeds  to  other  funds  and 
erected  the  "Douglas  Theatre."  This  theatre  he 
operates  entirely  with  Negro  help.  He  has  the 
only  Negro  picture  operator  permitted  to  operate 
a  machine  in  the  State  of  Georgia.  In  contemplat 
ing  a  successful  man  it  is  interesting  to  note  the 
steps  by  which  he  climbed  the  ladder  of  success. 
We  will  go  back  now  and  trace  the  history  of  Mr. 
Douglass  from  his  childhood  days. 

Mr.  Douglass  was  born  in  Macon,  Georgia,  in 
1870  and  reared  in  comparative  poverty,  his  parents 
being  very  poor.  Necessity  laid  upon  him  the  bur 
den  of  money  making  from  early  life,  in  fact  from 
the  time  that  he  could  earn  a  penny.  His  first  job 
was  to  peddle  light  wood  and  vegetables.  To  this 
work  he  devoted  his  mornings  but  attended  the 
public  school  in  the  afternoon.  He  chopped  cotton 
when  he  was  so  small  that  he  had  to  saw  off  the 
hoe  handle  so  that  he  might  wield  the  hoe.  When 
fourteen  years  of  age  he  left  the  cotton  patch  and 
went  to  the  city.  Here  he  secured  a  position  as 
buggy  boy  for  a  physician,  and  received  as  wages, 
Six  Dollars,  ($6.00)  per  month. 

This  position  he  held  until  the  death  of  his  fa 
ther.  When  his  father  died  the  support  of  his 
mother  and  two  sisters  fell  upon  his  shoulders. 
Without  flinching  he  assumed  the  responsibility 
and  set  himself  to  the  task. 

He  realized  that  he  could  not  meet  the  demands 
of  the  family  upon  the  small  wages  that  he  was 
receiving,  so  he  gave  up  his  position  of  buggy  boy 
and  sought  employment  in  other  lines.  He  se 
cured  work  as  a  day  laborer,  finding  employment 
in  a  saw  mill,  where  he  received  seventy-seven 
(77)  cents  per  day.  Here  he  labored  until  he 
found  an  opening  where  the  wages  were  larger. 
From  the  saw  mill  he  returned  to  Macon,  where 
he  entered  a  box  factory,  earning  wages  of  from 
$1.75  to  $2.00  per  day.  It  cost  him  five  dollars  to 
get  this  job. 

While  working  as  a  laborer  with  his  hands  his 
mind  was  working  upon  a  plan  to  start  a  business 
of  his  own,  and  to  this  end  he  began  to  save  his 
money.  When  he  had  saved  twenty-four  dollars 
($24),  he  was  ready  for  his  venture.  With  this 
small  capital  he  opened  a  bicycle  repair  shop,  which 
continued  to  grow  until  the  auto  made  its  appear 
ance.  This  was  the  beginning  of  his  business  ca 
reer,  but  very  far  from  being  its  end. 

When  the  automobile  bid  for  popular  favor  the 


COLONIAL  HOTEL  AND  DOUGLASS  THEATRE 

bicycle  had  to  take  a  back  seat  so  he  took  time  by 
the  forelock  and  disposed  of  his  repair  shop  and 
entered  another  line  of  endeavor. 

He  next  entered  the  Real  Estate  business  which 
he  conducted  with  marked  success. 

Ne  never  shirked  the  responsibility  which  his 
father's  death  placed  upon  him,  but  cared  for  his 
mother  and  sisters  with  devotion  and  loyalty  which 
made  their  paths  smooth  and  pleasant. 

When  his  mother  died  he  remained  the  devoted 
brother  and  supported  and  looked  after  the  inter 
ests  of  his  two  sisters  until  they  married  and  made 
homes  for  themselves.  He  not  only  supported 
them  but  gave  them  the  advantages  of  education 
which  contributed  to  their  pleasure  and  usefulness 
in  life. 

When  he  worked  at  the  saw  mill  he  often  saw 
the  porters  and  waiters  in  the  Pullman  car  ser 
vice  and  was  -deeply  impressed  at  the  smug  and 
satisfied  air  they  exhibited,  and  the  spirit  of  con 
tentment  that  seemed  to  possess  them.  He  also 
noted  that  they  were  well  dressed.  Thus  uncon 
sciously  they  inspired  in  him  the  desire  to  have 
good  clothes  and  to  enjoy  their  seemingly  spirit 
of  contentment. 

This  desire  he  has  realized  far  beyond  his  fond 
est  hopes  and  aspirations.  With  him  to  desire  is 
the  determination  to  attain  and  determination  and 
energy  usually  brought -him  the  coveted  reward. 

His  personal  appearance  while  not  gaudy  was 
always  attractive  and  he  is  what  may  be  termed  a 
well  dressed  man.  Mr.  Douglass  has  always  de 
pended  upon  himself  and  all  his  moves  originated 
with  himself  and  he  paid  for  any  and  all  assistance 
he  received.  He  never  put  himself  in  the  attitude 
of  a  beggar.  When  he  secured  the  position  in  the 
box  factory  he  paid  one  of  the  laborers  therein  to 
recommend  him  and  he  has  followed  that  policy 


through  all  his  business  career.     He  attributes  his 
success  in  a  large  measure  to  this  principle. 

Another  element  in  his  character  which  helped 
in  his  successful  career  was  his  power  to  discern 
a  need  and  the  grit  to  venture.  If  he  saw  a  need  it 
was  to  him  an  opportunity  and  opportunity  found 
in  him  a  willing  follower. 

Air.  Douglass  has  acquired  considerable  proper 
ty.  In  addition  to  his  hotel  and  theatre  he  owns 
thirty  tenement  houses,  which  contain  from  three 
to  eight  rooms,  two  pressed  brick  stores  with  flats 
in  second  story ;  these  are  in  the  Broadway  block 
and  the  flats  rent  for  $140  per  month.  He  has  a 
thirty  acre  farm  just  outside  of  Macon  where  he 
raises  Duroc  and  Berkshire  hogs  , truck,  fruit  and 
game  chickens. 

Mr.  Douglass  was  married  in  1902  to  Miss  Fan 
nie  Appling  of  Macon,  Georgia.  Six  children  make 
up  the  Douglass  family,  Winna,  Marsenia,  Charles 
Henry,  Jr.,  Peter,  Carro  and  Lilly.  His  close  atten 
tion  to  business  matters  did  not  lessen  his  interest 
in  his  family  life  and  he  endeavored  to  make  his 
home  attractive  and  comfortable.  Recently  he 
built  an  attractive  bungalow  for  his  family.  Here 
he  finds  his  greatest  relaxation  from  business  cares. 
It  is  not  surprising  that  a  man  who  was  such  a 
good  son  and  brother  should  make  an  ideal  hus 
band  and  father.  The  importance  he  felt  for  the 
education  of  his  sisters,  which  he  accomplished, 
under  the  stress  of  poverty,  he  now  feels  for  his 
children  and  being  in  a  financial  condition  to  give 
them  a  good  education  he  plans  to  fit  them  for  use 
ful  and  honorable  positions  in  life.  He  is  a  living 
illustration  of  what  a  man  with  a  vision  and  a 
strong  will  can  do  in  brushing  aside  difficulties  to 
reach  his  goal. 


RESIDENCE  OF  C.  H.  DOUGLASS. 


119 


IUSHOP  JOSEPH  SIMEON  FLIPPER,  D.  D.,  LL.  D. 


Bishop  Joseph  Simeon  Flipper 


OR  nearly  forty  years  Bishop  Jo 
seph  Simeon  Flipper,  of  the  A.  M. 
E.  Church,  has  been  a  leader  in 
the  South ;  a  leader  in  education, 
in  religion,  and  in  organizations 
ot  uplift  for  the  American  Negro. 
Born  Feb.  22,  1859,  in  the  days 
of  slavery,  and  educated  amidst 
the  confusion  of  reconstruction,  he  has  risen  from 
school  teacher  to  pastor,  from  pastor  to  dean,  then 
college  president,  and  finally  to  Bishop. 

In  1867,  when  the  Northern  Missionaries  came 
South,  he  attended  school  in  Bethel  A.  M.  E. 
Church.  From  here  he  went  to  the  Storrs  School 
on  Houston  street.  In  October,  1869,  he  enrolled 
among  the  first  students  to  enter  the  Atlanta  Uni 
versity,  where  he  remained  until  1876.  In  the  sum 
mer  of  this  year  he  began  teaching  school  at 
Thomaston,  Georgia.  He  was  converted  in  March 
1877,  and  joined  St.  Thomas,  A.  M.  E.  Church.  In 
1877  and  1878  he  taught  school  in  Thomas  County 
In  1879  he  was  commissioned  by  his  Excellency, 
Governor  Alford  H.  Colquitt,  Captain  of  the  Thom- 
asville  Independants,  a  colored  company  forming 
a  part  of  the  State  Militia.  In  the  same  year  he 
taught  school  at  Groverville,  now  Key,  Brooks 
County,  Georgia.  Here  he  was  licensed  both  as 
an  exhorter  and  local  preacher,  and  recommended 
by  the  local  church  for  admission  into  the  Georgia 
Annual  Conference  of  the  African  Methodist  Epis 
copal  Church.  In  January,  1880,  he  was  received 
into  the  itinerant  ministry  of  the  Georgia  Confer 
ence  at  Americus,  Georgia,  by  Bishop  J.  P.  Camp 
bell,  and  assigned  to  the  Groverville  Circuit.  He 
was  ordained  Deacon  in  January,  1882,  in  St.  Tho 
mas  A.  .M  E.  Church,  Thomasville,  the  same 
church  in  which  he  was  converted  and  which  he 
joined  in  1877.  Here  he  was  elected  Secretary  of 
the  Georgia  Conference,  and  a  Trustee  of  Morris 
Brown  College.  He  was  appointed  to  Darien, 
Georgia,  in  1882.  The  next  year  he  taught  school 
at  Cairo  and  Whigham,  Georgia.  In  1884,  he  was 
ordained  Elder  at  Valdosta,  and  appointed  to  Quit- 
man.  Remaining  here  until  January,  1886,  he  was 
transferred  from  the  Georgia  Conference  to  the 
North  Georgia  Conference,  and  appointed  to  Be 
thel  A.  M.  E.  Church,  on  Wheat  Street,  Atlanta. 
This  was  the  largest  church  in  the  State  and  he 
was  the  youngest  man  that  had  ever  been  appoint 
ed  to  such  an  important  charge  in  the  State.  His 
mother  had  been  a  member  of  this  church,  he  had 
attended  its  Sunday  School  when  a  boy,  and  had 
first  learned  his  alphabet  here.  He  remained  here 
four  years,  the  full  limit  of  the  law,  and  raised 
more  Dollar  Money  than  had  ever  been  raised,  not 
only  in  the  history  of  this  church,  but  of  the  entire 
State.  It  was  here  in  1886,  he  became  one  of  the 
Dollar  Money  Kings  of  the  entire  connection,  for 
which  he  was  honored  with  a  gold  badge,  making 
a  record  which  stood  for  a  quarter  of  a  century  be 
fore  any  other  pastor  exceeded  it.  From  Bethel  he 
was  appointed  pastor  of  Pierce  Chapel  A.  M.  E. 
Church,  Athens. 

In  1891,  he  was  elected  delegate  to  the  Gen 
eral  Conference  which  met  in  Philadelphia  ,Pa., 
in  May,  1892.  It  was  in  this  same  year  that  he 

121 


was  appointed  by  Bishop  A.  Grant,  Presiding  El 
der  of  the  Athens  district.  Two  years  later  Allen 
University,  Columbia,  S.  C.  conferred  upon  him  the 
title  of  Doctor  of  Divinity.  Remaining  in  the  Ath 
ens  District  three  years,  he  was  appointed  pastor 
of  Allen  Temple,  Atlanta.  This  was  in  1895,  the 
same  year  he  was  elected  delegate  to  the  General 
Conference,  which  met  in  Wilmington,  N.  C.,  May 
1896.  In  1899  he  was  elected  leader  of  the  delega 
tion  of  the  North  Georgia  Conference,  to  the  Gen 
eral  Conference  which  met  in  Columbus,  Ohio,  May 
1900.  It  was  at  this  conference  that  he  was  elec 
ted  Chairman  of  the  Episcopal  Committee,  the 
most  important  committee  of  the  General  Confer 
ence.  At  this  General  Conference,  also,  he  was 
appointed  a  member  of  the  Financial  Board,  which 
has  the  oversight  of  all  money  raised  by  the  church. 
In  1899  he  was  appointed  pastor  of  St.  Paul,  A.  M. 
E.  Church,  Atlanta,  serving  four  years.  In  1903 
he  was  elected  by  the  Trustee  Board  of  Morris 
Brown  College,  Dean  of  the  Theological  Depart 
ment,  where  he  served  one  year.  The  year,  1903. 
saw  him  elected  leader  of  the  delegation  of  the  At 
lanta,  Georgia  Conference  to  the  General  Confer 
ence,  which  met  at  Chicago,  111.,  May  1904.  Here 
again  he  was  elected  Chairman  of  the  Episcopal 
Committee,  which  committee  for  his  faithful  ser 
vice,  presented  him  with  a  large  silver  loving  cup. 
He  was  again  appointed  a  member  of  the  Financial 
Board.  Upon  his  return  home  he  was  elected  by 
the  Trustee  Board,  President  of  Morris  Brown  Col 
lege,  and  enrolled  the  largest  number  of  students 
in  the  school's  history.  This  position  he  held  for 
four  years.  In  1906,  Wilberforce  University,  Ohio, 
conferred  on  him  the  title  of  Doctor  of  Laws. 

In  1908,  at  the  General  Conference  held  in  Nor 
folk,  Virginia,  he  was  elected  one  of  the  Bishops 
of  the  African  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  and 
assigned  to  the  Ninth  Episcopal  District,  consisting 
of  Arkansas  and  Oklahoma.  In  1912,  when  the 
General  Conference  met  in  Kansas  City,  Missouri, 
the  delegation  from  Georgia,  his  native  state,  re 
quested  that  he  be  sent  to  preside  over  Georgia, 
which  request  was  granted.  On  coming  to  Geor 
gia,  he  erected  the  Flipper  Hall,  the  boys  dormitory 
at  Morris  Brown  College,  the  Central  Normal  and 
Industrial  Institute,  at  Savannah,  bought  ten  acres 
of  land  for  Payne  College,  at  Cuthbert,  Georgia, 
and  united  all  the  schools  into  one  system,  known 
as  Morris  Brown  University. 

Bishop  Flipper  owns  his  home  and  three  rent 
houses,  in  Atlanta,  two  vacant  lots  in  Waycross, 
five  in  Savannah,  and  one  in  Lincoln,  Md.  He  is  a 
stockholder  of  the  Standard  Life  Insurance  Com 
pany.  He  is  a  stockholder  and  Director  of  the 
Atlanta  State  Savings  Bank,  and  a  stockholder 
in  the  Independant,  of  New  York  City.  He  is 
a  member  of  the  Southern  Sociological  Congress ; 
of  the  National  Geographic  Society,  Washington, 
D.  C.,  a  Trustee  of  the  World's  Christian  Endeavor 
— president  of  the  Sunday  School  Union  Board  of 
the  A.  M.  E.  Church. 

Bishop  Flipper  was  married  in  Thomasville,  Geor 
gia,  in  1880,  to  Miss  Amanda  Isabella  Slater.  There 
are  three  children  in  the  Flipper  family:  Josephine 
G.,  Nathan  and  Carl. 


WILLIAM  ALFRED  FOUNTAIN,  A.  B  ,  M.  A.. 
S.  T.  B.,  B.  D.,  Ph.  D. 

R.  William  A.  Fountain,  now  Pres 
ident  of  Morris  Brown  Univer 
sity,  is  the  son  of  Reverend  Rich 
ard  and  Virginia  Fountain,  both 
of  whom  were  devoted  members 
of  the  African  Methodist  Episco 
pal  Church. 

He  was  born  October  29,  1870,  at  Elberton,  Geor 
gia,  and  was  one  of  seventeen  children.  He  en 
tered  school  at  the  age  of  six  and  attended  about 
sixteen  years.  Passing  through  the  public  school 
at  Elberton,  he  graduated  successively  from  Morris 
Brown  University,  Allen  University,  Turner  Theo 
logical  Seminary,  and  took  a  post-graduate  course 
at  Chicago  University,  and  non-resident  courses  in 
Central  University.  He  has  the  following  degrees : 
Bachelor  of  Arts,  from  Morris  Brown  University, 
in  1901  ;  Master  of  Arts  from  Allen  University ;  S. 
T.  B.,  from  Turner  Seminary;  B.  D.  and  Ph.  D., 
from  Central  University.  He  was  also  a  student 
at  Garrett  Biblical  Institute,  Evanston,  111.,  in  1916. 
He  was  converted  April  1888,  at  the  age  of  eigh 
teen  and  joined  Allen  Temple  A.  M.  E.  Church,  At 
lanta,  Georgia,  the  same  year.  He  became  very 


active  in  the  church  work  and  has  held  almost  ev 
ery  office  in  the  body. 

He  was  licensed  to  preach  at  Elberton,  Georgia, 
in  1893,  by  Rev.  (now  Bishop,)  J.  S.  Flipper.  He 
joined  the  annual  conference  at  Marietta,  Georgia, 
under  Bishop  Grant;  was  ordained  deacon  at  Ath 
ens,  Georgia,  by  Bishop  A.  Grant;  ordained  elder 
at  Cedartown,  Georgia,  by  Bishop  Turner.  He  has 
held  the  following  appointments:  Pendergrass 
Mission;  Athens-Bethel;  Washington-Jackson  Cha 
pel  and  Pope's  Chapel,  Marietta,  Georgia;  Turner 
Chapel,  Atlanta,  Georgia;  Allen  Temple,  Wilming 
ton,  North  Carolina ;  St.  Stephens,  Macon  Georgia  ; 
Steward  Chapel;  Presiding  Elder  of  Athens  dis 
trict.  Each  change  carried  him  to  an  enlarged 
field  of  work. 

His  accomplishment's  as  a  church  builder  and 
debt  liquidator  show  a  decided  ability  in  those  lines. 
He  built  Pope's  Chapel,  at  Washington,  Georgia, 
at  a  cost  of  $20,000;  repaired  the  Parsonage  at  Ma 
rietta,  Georgia,  at  a  cost  of  $2,000;  bought  lot  and 
beautified  church,  paid  church  out  of  debt,  at  Atlan 
ta,  at  cost  of  $5,000;  left  $500  to  build  a  Sunday 
School  room  for  St.  Stephens  at  Wilmington,  N.  C. ; 
established  an  Old  Folk's  Home  and  built  a  Par 
sonage  at  a  cost  of  $4,000,  for  Steward  Chapel,  Ma- 
con,  Georgia.  He  has  lifted  mortgages  at  Athens, 
Marietta,  Allen  Temple  and  Steward  Chapel. 

Dr.  Fountain  has  been  a  delegate  to  the  follow 
ing  General  Conferences :  Columbus,  Ohio,  in 
1900;  Chicago,  in  1904;  Norfolk,  in  1908;  Kansas 
City,  in  1912,  and  the  Centennial  General  Confer 
ence  at  Philadelphia,  in  1916. 

Before  becoming  active  as  a  minister,  Dr.  Foun 
tain  gave  part  of  his  time  to  the  school  room,  so 
when  he  was  called  to  succeed  the  lamented  Dr. 
E.  W.  Lee,  as  president  of  Morris  Brown  University 
he  was  not  without  experience  as  a  teacher. 

Dr.  Fountain  holds  membership  in  many  organi 
zations  and  has  an  active  interest  in  them.  He  is 
an  Odd  Fellow,  a  Mason,  and  a  Knight  of  Pythias. 
He  has  been  twice  married.  He  was  first  married 
to  Miss  Jessie  M.  Williams,  of  Sumter,  S.  C,  in 
1893.  She  died  in  1898.  In  1899  he  married  Miss 
Julia  T.  Allen.  His  first  wife  gave  him  two  chil 
dren,  W.  A.  Fountain,  Jr.,  and  Jessie  Mamie  and 
his  second  wife  gave  him  four  children,  Louise 
Virginia,  Sue  Jette,  Julia  Bell  and  Allen  McNeal, 
deceased.  Dr.  Fountain  has  a  high  ambition  for 
his  children  which  he  is  trying  to  realize  by  train 
ing  their  heart  and  mind  as  he  was  himself  trained. 
He  finds  great  satisfaction  and  pleasure  in  his  home 
life.  He  has  another  great  ambition  also — to 
make  the  Morris  Brown  University  a  great  Insti 
tution,  taking  high  rank  among  the  Negro  schools 
of  the  land.  He  is  fast  advancing  it  towards  his 
goal  and  has  received  much  encouragement  to  per 
severe  in  his  efforts. 


122 


JOHN   WESLEY   GILBERT,   Ph.   D. 

OME  years  ago  the  public  was 
startled  to  know  that  Brown  Uni 
versity  had  sent  a  Negro  scholar 
to  Athens,  Greece.  There  were 
many  causes  for  this  surprise.  In 
the  first  place  it  had  been  wide 
ly  exploited  that  the  Negro  could  not  learn  Greek. 
In  the  second  place  the  Negro  had  been  chosen 
as  a  representative  of  a  New  England  college.  This 
was  how  it  all  came  about.  Brown  University,  at 
Providence,  Rhode  Island,  holds  what  is  known  as 
an  Athens  scholarship.  This  scholarship  is  award 
ed  to  the  best  Greek  scholar  in  the  University. 
John  Wesley  Gilbert  won  this  scholarship  over  the 
sons  of  Anne  Hutchinson,  of  Roger  Williams,  and 
over  many  other  lads  of  distinguished  ancestry. 
Thus  it  came  about  that  the  American  Negro  in  a 
quarter  of  a  century  after  slavery  had  sent  a 
scholar  abroad. 

John  Wesley  Gilbert  was  born  in  Hepsibah, 
Georgia,  July  6,  1865.  His  first  years  of  training 
were  spent  in  the  public  schools  of  Augusta.  Geor 
gia.  From  the  public  schools  of  Augusta,  he  reg 
istered  in  the  Atlanta  Baptist  Seminary,  now  the 
theological  department  of  Morehouse  College,  At 
lanta,  Georgia.  Going  up  from  the  South.  Mr. 

123 


Gilbert  made  his  way  into  Brown  University,  and 
soon  made  his  mark  as  a  scholar  of  the  classics. 
He  especially  excelled  in  Greek;  so  that  when  the 
award  was  made  for  the  representative  from  Brown 
University,  the  Negro  scholar  was  chosen  to  go  to 
the  American  school  of  classics  in  the  city  of  So 
crates  and  Plato,  of  Pericles  and  Demosthenes.  It 
was  here  he  won  his  Master's  degree. 

However,  one  must  live  in  Athens,  and  scholar 
ships  do  not  always  defray  all  expenses.  To  pay 
h'.s  way  the  Greek  scholar  served  as  a  guide  to 
American  tourists,  who  came  to  visit  this  ancient 
citadel  of  culture  and  war.  In  those  days  exca 
vations  in  Greece  were  exceedingly  popular.  Be 
fore  long,  Mr.  Gilbert  was  numbered  among  those 
who  sought  to  exhume  the  old  walls,  pillars  and 
gates,  made  famous  in  ancient  Greek  stories.  He 
conducted  excavations  not  only  in  Greece,  but  on 
the  Mediterranean  Islands.  Few  men  have  been 
thus  favored  to  use  their  classical  scholarship. 

Mr.  Gilbert  has  been  an  extensive  traveler.  He 
has  traveled  practically  over  the  whole  of  the 
United  States  and  visited  most  places  of  note  and 
interest  and  has  visited  many  countries  in  Europe. 

The  trip  to  Athens  only  whetted  the  young  scho 
lar's  taste  for  more  travel.  He  made  two  more 
trips  abroad,  when  he  visited  many  countries  in 
Africa  and  most  of  the  countries  in  Europe.  He 
was  not  only  traveling,  he  was  working.  While 
in  the  Belgian  Congo,  he,  with  Bishop  W.  R.  Lam- 
buth,  founded  the  mission  at  Wimbo,  Miami,  a 
mission  which  is  still  in  full  operation.  His  work 
of  investigation  and  research  won  him  a  member 
ship  in  the  Archaeological  Institute  and  in  the 
Philological  Association  of  America. 

Mr.  Gilbert  has  been  engaged  for  years  in  teach 
ing  and  preaching.  He  began  his  course  as  a 
teacher  in  Paine  Coollege,  Augusta,  Georgia,  in 
1889.  He  was  Dean  of  Theology  in  Paine  for  three 
years.  Mr.  Gilbert  entered  the  ministry  in  1895,  in 
the  C.  M.  E.  'Church.  In  1901  he  was  a  member  of 
the  Ecumenical  Congress,  which  assembled  in  Lon 
don,  England.  He  is  at  present  commissioner  for 
and  professor  of  Greek,  in  Paine  College. 

He  has  kept  his  membership  alive  in  many  of  the 
organizations  at  home.  His  membership  in  the  A. 
M.  E.  Church  has  been  one  of  much  activity.  He 
has  held  the  office  of  superintendent  of  African 
missions  for  many  years.  He  is  a  Mason,  a  Knight 
of  Pythias  and  an  Odd  Fellow.  In  the  Knight  of 
Pythias  he  is  Grand  Auditor. 

He  was  married  in  1889  to  Miss  Oceola  Pleasant, 
a  native  of  Augusta,  Georgia.  Four  children  have 
been  born  to  them,  of  whom  three  are  living. 

His  real  estate  holdings  are  valued  at  $15,000  and 
he  is  a  holder  of  several  shares  in  a  realty  company 
of  Augusta. 


KEMPER   HARRELD. 

EM  PER  Harreld,  known  the  coun 
try  over  as  a  concert  violinist, 
popular  also  as  a  teacher  of  violin 
and  as  a  chorus  director,  was  born 
and  reared  in  Muncie,  Indiana. 
From  his  youth  he  was  a  musical 
prodigy.  His  special  talent  first 
manifested  itself  in  song ;  so  much  so  that  under 
the  tutelage  of  Miss  Nannie  C.  Love,  who  was  in 
charge  of  the  public  school  music,  he  soon  became 
known  as  the  boy  singer.  However,  the  violin  had 
early  fallen  into  his  hands,  and  while  singing,  he 
was  also  after  his  boy  fashion  making  rich  tones  on 
the  violin,  becoming  in  a  short  time,  at  least  a 
fiddler. 

Following  his  bent  Mr.  Harreld  took  special  stu 
dies  in  his  home  town  and  then  in  Indianapolis. 
From  Indianapolis  he  entered  the  Chicago  Musical 
College  and  studied  violin  under  Chiheiser,  theory 
under  Maryott  and  Falk,  and  composition  under 
Borowski.  Mr.  Harreld's  next  studies  were  pur 
sued  under  Frederick  Frederiksen,  a  celebrated 
violinist  from  the  Royal  College  of  Music  in  Lon 
don.  Three  years  of  hard  work  with  Frederiksen 
gave  Mr.  Harreld  a  much  finer  touch,  higher  tech 
nique  and  greater  confidence  in  himself. 

Meantime  he  had  become  well  known  in  Amer 
ica  as  one  of  the  leading  violinists.  To  the  laity 
he  was  already  perfect  in  technique,  harmony,  and 
those  points  of  excellence  for  which  musicians  so 
eagerly  and  so  sedulously  strive. 


Morehouse  College  in  Atlanta,  Georgia,  was 
among  the  institutions  to  invite  Mr.  Harreld  to  be 
come  a  member  of  their  teaching  staff.  Atlanta 
being  a  field  of  rare  possibility,  due  to  the  high  in 
tellectual  standard,  Mr.  Harreld  became  a  teacher 
of  music  at  Morehouse,  and  established  a  studio 
on  Chestnut  Street  in  the  city. 

Here  in  Atlanta  Mr.  Harreld  lives  an  exceeding 
ly  busy  life.  As  a  teacher  of  private  pupils  he  takes 
every  minute  of  his  spare  time.  As  a  chorus  direc 
tor  he  with  his  chorus  is  constantly  in  demand.  He 
has  developed  an  orchestra  for  Morehouse,  an  or 
chestra  of  from  eighteen  to  twenty-three  members, 
picked  from  a  student  body  of  not  more  than  four 
hundred  and  fifty  students.  Biggest  of  all,  Mr. 
Harreld  has  a  choir  chorus  of  three  hundred  voices, 
a  chorus  which  is  made  up  of  choirs  from  twenty- 
eight  churches.  When  Billy  Sunday  preached  in 
Atlanta  his  chorus  was  increased  to  fifteen  hun 
dred  voices,  who  sang  to  an  audience  of  seventeen 
thousand. 

Dear  as  these  honors  are,  Mr.  Harreld  has  not 
decided  to  rest  on  what  he  already  knows  and  can 
do.  Busy  as  he  is  with  his  regular  music  at  More- 
house,  with  private  pupils,  chorus  work  and  violin 
recital,  he  nevertheless  steals  time  here  and  there 
for  intense  study  and  observation.  The  year  1914, 
for  example,  found  him  stealing  away  to  spend  his 
vacation  to  study  in  Berlin.  Unhappily,  the  war 
broke  forth  during  his  stay  in  Berlin,  and  he  and 
Mrs.  Harreld  were  held  by  the  German  Govern 
ment  for  twenty-five  days,  before  they  were  al 
lowed  to  leave  for  America. 

Since  that  time  owing  to  disturbances  every 
where  Mr.  Harreld  has  not  returned  to  Europe  to 
study.  He  has  traveled,  however,  in  England,  Hol 
land  and  Germany  in  recital  engagements,  and  in 
nearly  every  part  of  the  United  States.  His  studies 
have  during  his  work  at  Morehouse  taken  a  prac 
tical  turn,  going  into  Negro  music  and  its  possi 
bilities. 

It  is  difficult  to  determine  what  branch  of  music 
Mr.  Harreld  excels  in,  as  a  music  master,  a  chorus 
director,  or  as  a  concert  violinist.  In  the  first  two — 
Atlanta  gives  him  the  leading  place.  In  the  last 
named  the  papers  of  various  cities  in  which  he  has 
appeared  vie  with  one  another  in  singing  his  praise. 
This  from  the  College  Bulletin  of  Birmingham  is 
typical,  and  at  the  same  time  expresses  the  great 
esteem  in  which  he  is  held. 

"Plays  in  most  finished  and  artistic  style  with 
brilliancy  and  very  beautiful  tone.  Has  no  equal  in 
temperament  and  expression." 

What  Mr.  Harreld  himself  considers  his  best  ef 
fort  was  a  benefit  concert  given  in  the  Auditorium- 
Armory  in  Atlanta.  For  this  he  organized  the  cho 
ral  and  orchestral  forces  of  the  six  higher  institu 
tions  for  Negro  education  in  Atlanta — Atlanta  Uni 
versity,  Morris  Brown  University,  Clark  Univer 
sity,  Morehouse  College,  Spelman  Seminary  and 
Gammon  Theological  Seminary.  There  were  five 
hundred  in  the  chorus  and  a  large  orchestra.  This 
program  was  rendered  before  5000  persons. 

Mr.  Harreld  was  married  on  June  11,  1913,  to 
Miss  Claudia  White,  daughter  of  the  famous  Dr. 
W.  J.  White,  of  Augusta.  They  have  one  child,  a 
daughter,  Josephine  Eleanor,  who  is  three  years 
of  age. 


124 


JOHN  HOPE,  A.  B.,  A.  M. 

OHN  Hope,  President  of  More- 
house  College,  was  born  in  Au 
gusta,  Georgia,  June,  1868,  the 
son  of  James  and  Mary  Francis 
Hope.  After  some  years  of  ele 
mentary  education,  secured  large 
ly  by  his  own  efforts,  he  entered  Worcester 
Academy,  (Mass.,)  in  the  fall  of  1886.  He  was 
prominent  in  the  activities  of  the  school,  becoming 
editor-in-chief  of  the  Academy,  the  Student  Month 
ly  ;  and  at  graduation  he  was  class  historian  and 
a  commencement  speaker.  Entering  Brown  Uni 
versity  in  1890,  he  received  the  A.  B.  Degree  in 
1894,  with  the  distinction  of  being  class  orator.  In 
1907  his  Alma  Mater  conferred  on  him  the  A.  M. 
degree.  In  October  1894,  Mr.  Hope  entered  the 
service  of  the  American  Baptist  Home  Mission 
Society  as  a  teacher  in  Roger  Williams  University, 
Nashville,  Tenn.  In  1898  he  was  transferred  to  At 
lanta  Baptist  College.  On  the  resignation  of  pres 
ident  Sale  he  was  promoted  to  the  presidency,  ser 
ving  for  the  first  year  as  Acting  President.  In 
1897  he  was  married  to  Miss  Lugenia  D.  Burns,  of 
Chicago,  111.,  He  is  the  father  of  two  boys,  Ed 
ward  Swain  and  John,  Jr.  President  Hope  is  one 


of  the  leading  figures  in  the  education  of  the  negro 
in  the  South,  and  his  time  is  largely  drawn  upon 
by  many  activities  for  social  or  educational  service. 
In  1915-16  he  was  President  of  the  National  Asso 
ciation  of  Teachers  in  Colored  Schools ;  he  is  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Managers  of  the  Y.  M.  C. 
A.,  of  Atlanta,  of  the  Advisory  Board  of  the  Na 
tional  Association  for  the  advancement  of  the  Col 
ored  People,  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the 
Urban  League  of  New  York,  of  the  committees  on 
the  Spingarn  Medal,  of  the  Anti-Tuberculosis 
Association,  of  Atlanta,  and  of  various  boards  of 
the  State  Baptist  Convention.  President  Hope's 
chief  interest,  however,  remains,  the  education  of 
men  and  boys ;  and  the  fact  that  he  has  given  him 
self  to  his  work  in  such  wholehearted  fashion  lar 
gely  accounts  for  the  rapid  advancement  that 
Morehouse  College  has  made  within  the  last  ten 
years. 

In  the  summer  of  1918,  President  Hope  was  giv 
en  a  leave  of  absence  by  the  American  Baptist 
Home  Mission  Society  and  was  appointed  by  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association  as  a  Special 
Secretary  for  the  oversight  of  the  Negro  soldiers 
of  America  in  France.  In  this  capacity  he  has  ren 
dered  such  distinguished  service  for  the  improve 
ment  of  the  morale  of  the  army  that  he  has  been 
requested  to  continue  in  this  work  until  the  sum 
mer  of  1919.  He  has  complied  with  this  request, 
and  is  still  at  his  work  that  covers  over  fifty  cities. 

The  following  estimate  of  the  administration  of 
President  Hope  has  been  taken  from  the  "History 
of  Morehouse  College,"  written  by  the  Dean. 
"One  of  the  outstanding  features  of  the  adminis-- 
tration  of  President  Hope  has  been  the  excellent 
understanding  between  the  head  of  the  college  and 
the  student  body.  In  the  era  of  "Atlanta  Baptist 
College"  the  aggressive  spirit  that  caused  the  in 
stitution  to  be  widely  known  first  received  real 
impetus.  In  more  recent  years  it  has  developed 
into  a  devotion  with  which  the  youngest  student 
becomes  acquainted  as  soon  as  he  is  enrolled. 
Whatever  question  may  arise,  the  students  know 
that  presiding  over  the  college  is  one  looking  out 
for  their  best  interests,  in  vacation  as  well  as  term 
time,  and  one  with  whom  there  may  be  the  frank 
est  conference.  The  response  comes  in  a  loyalty 
that  has  never  failed  when  anything  involving  the 
highest  welfare  of  the  college  was  at  stake." 

President  Hope  lived  the  life  he  endeavored  to 
impress  upon  the  young  men  coming  under  his 
influence  and  stands  out  before  them  as  an  example 
worthy  of  their  imitation. 

To  impress  oneself  upon  the  rising  generation 
in  such  a  way  as  to  incite  them  to  a  high  ideal  of 
life  is  worthy  the  effort  of  any  man.  This  pleas 
ure  and  satisfaction  is  President  Hope's. 


125 


GRAVES    HALL,    MOREHOUS  E   COLLEGE,  ATLANTA,   GA. 


hlE  Morehouse  College  in  the  city 
of  Atlanta,  Georgia,  is  operated 
by  the  American  Baptist  Home 
Mission  Society,  of  New  York, 
for  the  education  of  Negro  young 
men,  with  special  reference  to  the 
preparation  of  ministers  and  teachers. 

HISTORY 

The  College  was  organized  in  the  year  1867,  in 
the  city  of  Augusta,  Georgia,  under  the  name  of 
"The  Augusta  Institute."  In  1879,  under  the  pres 
idency  of  Rev.  Joseph  T.  Robert,  LL.  D.  (1871- 
1884),  it  was  removed  to  Atlanta  and  incorporated 
under  the  name  "Atlanta  Baptist  Seminary."  At 
this  stage  of  its  growth  the  institution  owned  only 
one  building,  that  a  comparatively  small  three- 
story  structure,  located  near  what  is  now  the  Ter 
minal  Station.  President  Robert  was  succeeded 
by  President  Samuel  Graves,  D.  D.,  in  1885.  Dr. 
Graves  served  as  president  until  1890.  continuing 
as  Professor  of  Theology  for  four  years  longer. 
In  1889,  as  the  surroundings  of  the  old  location  in 
Atlanta  had  become  unfavorable,  a  new  site  was 
secured,  and  in  the  spring  of  1890  the  school 
was  removed  to  its  present  location.  In  the  au 
tumn  of  this  year  President  George  Sale,  (1890- 
1906-  entered  upon  his  duties.  In  1897  amend 
ments  to  the  charter  were  secured,  granting  full 
college  powers  and  changing  the  name  of  the  in 
stitution  to  "Atlanta  Baptist  College."  In  1906 
President  Sale  resigned  to  become  Superintendent 
of  Education  of  the  American  Baptist  Home  Mis 


sion  Society,  and  was  succeeded  by  President 
John  Hope,  who  had  been  a  professor  on  the 
faculty  since  1898.  By  a  vote  in  1912  of  the  Board 
of  Trustees,  concurred  in  by  the  American  Bap 
tist  Home  Mission  Society,  and  by  a  change  in 
1913,  of  the  charter  granted  by  the  State  of  Geor 
gia,  the  name  of  the  institution  became  "More- 
house  College,"  in  honor  of  Rev.  Henry  L.  More- 
house,  D.  D.,  Corresponding  Secretary  of  the  Am 
erican  Baptist  Home  Mission  Society  and  the  con 
stant  friend  and  benefactor  of  the  Negro  race. 
CAMPUS 

The  campus  is  thirteen  acres  in  extent.  It  oc 
cupies  one  of  the  highest  points  of  land  in  the  city, 
1,100  feet  above  sea-level,  and  commands  a  fine 
view  of  the  city  and  surrounding  country.  For 
beauty  and  healthfulness,  the  situation  could  not 
be  surpassed.  The  property  is  on  West  Fair 
Street,  at  the  junction  of  Chestnut  Street,  with 
in  half  an  hour's  walk  from  the  post-office  and 
railroad  stations. 

The  following  is  taken  from  the  Department  of 
Interior  bureau  of  education  Bulletin,  1916,  No. 
39: 

"It  is  a  young  men's  school  of  secondary  and  col 
lege  grade  with  classes  in  theology  and  an  ele 
mentary  department.  It  is  the  leading  Baptist 
school  of  Georgia,  and  holds  high  rank  among  the 
schools  of  the  South. 

The  institution  is  owned  by  the  American  Bap 
tist  Home  Mission  Society.  A  self-perpetuating 
board  of  trustees  acts  in  an  advisory  capacity. 


126 


t 

*  -. 


MOREHOUSE  REPRESENTATIVES  AT  CAMP  DODGE,  DES  MOINES,  IOWA. 


It  has  an  attendance  of  277,  of  which  number  150 
are  boarders ;  the  teaching  force  consists  of  14 
males  and  five  females,  two  of  which  are  white  and 
the  remainder  colored.  The  teachers  are  devoted 
to  the  welfare  of  thir  pupils  and  command  the  con 
fidence  of  the  student  body.  Besides  the  element 
ary  and  secondary  grades  ,there  is  a  short  course 
in  music,  Bible  and  manual  training.  This  prepara 
tory  course  is  required  of  all  students.  There  are 
no  elective  courses.  All  pupils  entering  the  col 
lege  are  required  to  complete  the  foreign  lan 
guages  of  the  secondary  course. 

The  simple  theological  courses  offered  serve  a 
useful  end,  in  training  ministerial  students. 

Graves  Hall,  erected  in  1889,  at  a  cost  of  twenty 
eight  thousand  dollars,  and  named  in  honor  of 
President  Graves  is  the  chief  college  dormitory. 
Quarles  Hall,  erected  in  1898,  at  a  cost  of  Fourteen 
thousand  dollars,  and  named  in  honor  of  Reverend 
Frank  Quarles,  for  many  years  pastor  of  Friend 
ship  Baptist  Church,  Atlanta,  Georgia,  and  presi 
dent  of  the  Georgia  State  Baptist  Convention,  con 
tains  the  class  rooms  in  which  the  work  of  the 
English  Preparatory  Department  is  done  with  a 
floor  for  science  work  in  Chemistry  and  Physics. 
Sale  Hall,  erected  at  a  cost  of  forty  thousand  dol 
lars,  in  1910,  and  named  in  honor  of  President  Sale, 
has  recitation  rooms  and  a  chapel  with  seating  ca 
pacity  of  seven  hundred.  Robert  Hall,  erected  in 
1917,  at  a  total  cost  of  thirty  thousand  dollars,  has 
a  basement  that  is  used  as  a  dining  room  and  three 
floors  devoted  to  dormitory  purposes. 


This  is  emphatically  a  Christian  school.  The 
faculty  keeps  constantly  in  mind  the  fact  that 
it  was  founded  by  a  missionary  organization,  and 
is  sustained  by  the  contributions  of  Christian  peo 
ple  for  the  Christian  education  of  young  men.  The 
Bible  has  a  place  in  the  regular  course  of  study. 
Generally,  Morehouse  College  encourages  all  acti 
vities — religious,  literary,  athletic — which  make 
for  the  development  of  Christian  Ideals  and  for 
the  culture  of  a  sound  mind,  in  a  sound  body. 

The  College  has  taken  a  prominent  part  in  the 
war.  Already  recently  from  the  student  body  two 
hundred  men  have  be'en  furnished  for  active  ser 
vice.  As  many  as  fourteen  were  commissioned  at 
the  Officers'  Training  Camp,  at  Camp  Dodge,  Iowa. 
Twenty-four  volunteered  for  service  in  the  Signal 
Corps  at  Camp  Sherman,  Ohio.  In  the  fall  of 
known  to  be  either  preaching  or  teaching,  while 
Government  for  the  formation  of  a  unit  of  the 
Student  Army  Training  Corps,  and  a  broad  plan 
was  launched  whereby  the  total  resources  of  the 
institution  were  made  available  for  war  uses. 

In  the  summer  of  1918  President  Hope,  was 
summoned  to  France  for  special  Y.  M.  C.  A.  work 
among  Negro  soldiers. 

The  large  idea  of  the  alumni  of  the  college  is  that 
of  service.  No  less  than  three  fifths  of  the  living 
graduates  of  Morehouse  College  are  definitely 
known  to  be  either  preaching  or  teaching,  while 
at  least  another  fifth  are  engaged  in  the  work  of 
the  medical  profession,  the  Y  .M.  C.  A.  or  other 
lines  of  definite  service. 


127 


ALEXANDER   D.   HAMILTON. 

R.  Alexander  D.  Hamilton  of  At 
lanta,  Georgia,  is  the  father  of  a 
large  family,  the  owner  of  a  sub 
stantial  business,  and  of  consid 
erable  property  and  has  invest 
ments  in  many  Negro  enterprises 
in  and  around  Atlanta. 

Mr.  Hamilton  was  born  in  Eufaula,  Alabama,  in 
the  year  1870.  When  but  six  years  of  age,  his  fa 
ther  moved  to  Atlanta,  Georgia,  where  he  was  im 
mediately  enrolled  as  a  pupil  in  the  public  school, 
thus  beginning  his  preparation  for  life  at  an  early 
age.  His  parents  were  not  only  concerned  about 
his  mental  developement,  but  had  regard  for  his 
spiritual  training  and  saw  that  he  was  placed  under 
the  uplifting  influence  of  the  church.  These  two 
agencies,  the  church  and  the  school,  developed  him 
rapidly.  He  completed  his  course  in  the  public 
school  when  only  thirteen  years  old  and  was  re 
ceived  into  the  membership  of  the  church  at  the 
age  of  eleven. 

After  passing  through    the    public    schools    Mr. 

Hamilton  entered  the  Atlanta  University,  where  he 

remained  until  he  had  completed  the  preparatory 

course. 

Atlanta  University  has  long  been  noted  for  its 


thorough  course  in  manual  training.  It  was  at 
Atlanta  University  in  this  course  that  Mr.  Ham 
ilton  learned  the  further  use  of  the  carpenters' 
tools,  for  which  he  cultivated  so  great  a  liking. 

This  disposition  to  the  carpenter  trade  was 
instilled  in  him  from  childhood.  His  father  pur 
sued  this  trade  and  had  become  a  contractor  of 
some  note.  The  youthful  Hamilton,  quick  to  learn 
and  of  an  observant  tendency,  soon  learned  the 
use  of  the  tools,  which  greatly  aided  him  in  his 
studies  in  the  industrial  department  of  the  Atlanta 
University.  Now  ready  for  his  life  work  he  en 
tered  the  employment  of  his  father  and  applied 
himself  energetically  to  his  task.  Fidelity  to  the 
interest  of  his  fathers'  business  brought  its  reward 
and  after  five  years  of  service  he  was  admitted  to 
the  membership  of  the  firm.  From  that  date  until 
the  death  of  his  father  the  name  of  the  firm  was 
A.  Hamilton  and  Son.  His  father  died  in  1911, 
since  which  time  the  son  has  continued  the  business 
alone.  His  conduct  of  the  business  keeps  it  up  to 
the  high  standard  for  which  the  firm  is  noted. 

As  a  young  man,  Mr.  Hamilton  worked  hard  to 
gain  a  footing.  The  fact  that  he  was  in  the  em 
ploy  of  his  father  seemed  to  spur  him  on  rather 
than  to  make  him  take  his  ease.  Struggling  hard 
to  make  his  place  as  a  carpenter,  he  wished  also  to 
establish  a  certain  financial  competence.  To  this 
end  he  saved  as  regularly  and  as  systematically  as 
he  worked.  Thirty  years  of  working  and  saving 
have  brought  encouraging  returns.  He  owns  a 
$7,000  home,  has  pieces  of  rent  property  valued  at 
$5,500,  carries  $17,000  Life  insurance,  the  payment 
of  whose  policies  requires  a  pretty  large  income, 
and  has  some  $3,000  invested  in  various  Negro  en 
terprises. 

He  appraised  money,  however,  not  as  a  means 
of  luxury,  and  show,  but  as  a  means  of  usefulness, 
an  avenue  to  larger  service.  This  too,  has  come 
to  him.  He  is  a  member  of  the  board  of  directors 
of  the  Standard  Life  Insurance  Company,  of  Atlan 
ta,  and  secretary  and  treasurer  of  Georgia  Real 
Estate  and  Loan  Company.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
First  Congregational  Church,  of  St.  James  Mason 
ic  Lodge,  and  of  the  Century  Odd  Fellows.  He 
has  been  able  to  travel  and  to  make  friends  in  the 
East,  in  the  West  and  in  the  South. 

With  his  savings  and  investments  and  with  his 
other  responsibilities.  Mr.  Hamilton  has  been  rear 
ing  a  big  family.  He  was  married  in  1892,  to  Miss 
Nellie  M.  Cooke,  of  Atlanta.  Seven  children  grace 
the  Hamilton  home.  The  oldest,  Alexander  D.  Jr., 
is  23  years  of  age,  is  associated  with  his  father  in 
the  business  of  contracting  and  building.  The  sec 
ond  oldest  child.  Miss  Eunice  Evlyn.  is  a  teacher  in 
the  Atlanta  Public  Schools.  T.  Bertram,  Henry 
Cooke,  Marion  Murphy,  Nellie  Marie,  and  Joseph 
Thomas,  who  is  only  seven  are  all  students  in  the 
^chool. 


128 


THE   HALE   INFIRMARY,    MONTGOMERY,  ALA. 


HIS  Institution  was  born  in  the 
mind  of  one  of  Montgomery's 
most  respected  colored  citizens, 
the  late  James  Hale,  who  for 
many  years  was  one  of  the  city's 
leading  contractors.  He  was 
known  for  the  high  character  of  his  work  and  his 
reliability  as  a  man.  As  he  drew  near  the  sun-set 
of  life  his  mind  centered  upon  his  people  and  upon 
his  two  children  who  had  passed  into  the  great 
beyond. 

The  Hale  Infirmary  is  the  outcome  of  his  med 
itations  and  is  an  expression  of  his  deep  interest 
in  the  welfare  of  his  people  and  at  the  same  time 
a  memorial  to  his  children.  It  was  incorporated 
as  the  James  Hale  Infirmary  Society,  Montgom 
ery,  Alabama,  in  1889. 

The  original  plant  cost  about  seven  thousand, 
($7,000).  It  consisted  of  a  two  story  frame  struc 
ture  with  capacity  to  care  for  sixty  patients. 

It  is  modern  in  its  equipment,  having  sanitary 
plumbing  throughout  and  with  bath  rooms  for  both 
male  and  females.  It  is  supplied  with  hot  and 
cold  water,  and  has  modern  operating  room  with 
the  necessary  modern  equipments.  In  addition  to 
the  main  building  there  is  a  laundry,  and  small 
buildings  for  isolating  patients  who  could  not  be 
admitted  to  the  main  building.  The  maintenance 


of  the  Institution  is  dependant  upon  a  nominal 
charge  for  services  and  revenue  derived  from  the 
nurses.  It  has  no  endowment.  The  nurses  are 
trained  in  a  three  year  course  and  during  their 
training  are  frequently  called  upon  to  render  ser 
vice  outside  of  the  infirmary  and  the  revenue  de 
rived  from  their  services  is  a  valuable  asset  to  the 
Institution.  The  experience  gained  by  the  nurses 
in  the  operating  room  becomes  invaluable  to  them 
in  their  course  of  training.  The  head  nurse  of  the 
Infirmary  is  the  superintendent  of  the  training 
school  and  she  has  the  assistance  of  two  graduate 
nurses  who  teach  them  the  theory  of  nursing  with 
practical  illustrations.  Lectures  are  also  given  be 
fore  the  class  by  the  large  corps  of  physicians  who 
daily  visit  the  infirmary  and  contribute  to  its  up 
build.  Dr.  David  Henry  Scott  is  the  head  of  the 
Institution  and  is  keenly  alive  to  its  interests  and 
never  tires  in  his  efforts  in  its  behalf. 

The  control  and  government  of  the  infirmary  is 
vested  in  a  Board  of  Trustees,  composed  of  nine 
members. 

The  Board  of  Trustees  is  as  follows : 
Bishop  J.  W.  Alstork,  Chairman ;  J.  M.  C.  Logan, 
Geo.  W.  Doak,  H.  A.  Loveless,   Belton  Murphree, 
Dr.  D.  H.  C.  Scott,  V.  H.  Tulane,  Jas.  H.  Fagain, 
and  Jas.  Alexander. 


129 


BISHOP  LUCIUS   H.   HOLSEY. 

ISHOP  L.  H.  Holsey  was  born 
near  Columbus,  Georgia,  in  1845, 
and  therefore  saw  more  slavery 
than  most  men  now  living.  He 
was  even  traded  in.  having  had 
three  masters  before  the  Emanci 
pation  Proclamation  set  him  free. 

Educational  facilities  for  the  colored  race  at  the 
date  of  his  birth  were  very  meager  in  the  place 
where  he  was  born,  so  he  had  but  little  opporun- 
ity  to  learn  but  he  was  a  man  to  make  the  most 
of  his  opportunities  and  ride  them  to  a  successful 
career. 

When  but  seven  years  of  age  he  was  deprived 
of  a  mother's  loving  and  tender  care,  which  added 
to  the  struggle  of  his  early  days. 

Bishop  Holsey  is  a  man  of  strong  initia 
tive  ability  and  when  emancipation  gave  him 
the  opportunity  to  exercise  his  gift  he  immediately 
brought  it  into  active  play. 

Coming  in  a  period  when  men  of  initiative  were 
in  crying  need  he  helped  meet  the  demands  of  the 
day  and  the  wonderful  manner  in  which  he  filled 
his  place  is  shown  in  the  many  honors  and  distinc 
tions  carried  by  him  in  his  old  age. 

He  is  the  oldest  ordained  Bishop  of  his  church, 


and  one  of  the  oldest  men  to  be  in  active  service 
of  any  kind.  He  is  the  first  Negro  to  petition  for 
a  C.  M.  E.  Church,  and  first  to  establish  a  church 
after  the  civil  war.  He  was  delegate  to  the  first 
general  conference  of  his  church  and  first  delegate 
to  the  Ecumenical  church  Conference  and  the  first 
delegate  to  the  conference  of  the  Methodist  Epis 
copal  Church  South. 

His  initiative  first  manifesting  itself  in  church 
work  has  by  no  means  been  confined  to  that  branch 
of  activities,  but  has  been  almost  eclipsed  by  his 
labors  for  education.  He  is  an  ardent  avocate  of 
education  and  was  quick  to  realize  that  next  to  re 
ligion  education  would  be  the  great  uplifting  pow 
er  to  help  elevate  his  people. 

He  founded  the  Paine  College,  in  Augusta, 
Georgia,  took  steps  for  the  founding  of  Lane  Col 
lege,  in  Jackson,  Tenn. ;  founded  Holsey  Industrial 
Institute  at  Cordell,  Georgia ;  Helen  B.  Cobb  In 
stitute  for  girls  at  Barnesville,  Georgia.  He  still 
is  a  trustee  and  patron  of  all  of  these  institutions. 
He  was  agent  of  the  Paine  College  for  25  years. 

With  these  honors  from  his  labors  and  many  oth 
er  good  judgment,  he  served  as  the  Secretary  for 
the  College  of  Bishops  for  quarter  of  a  century, 
and  was  for  many  years,  General  Corresponding 
Secretary  for  the  connection.  He  has  compiled 
for  his  church,  a  Hymnal  and  a  Manual  for  disci 
pline.  He  once  edited  a  church  paper,  the  "Gospel 
Trumpet,"  and  held  the  post  as  church  Commis 
sioner  of  education.  Surely  if  one  were  bedecked 
for  uplift  deeds  of  this  sort  Bishop  Holsey  would 
be  literally  covered. 

All  through  his  youth  and  early  manhood,  Bishop 
Holsey  felt  the  call  for  a  larger  service.  Picking 
up  knowledge  when  and  where  he  could  he  secured 
his  first  church  as  pastor  in  1868.  on  the  Hancock 
Circuit  in  Georgia.  Five  years  later  at  the  close 
of  a  two  years  pastorate  in  Savannah,  he  was  or 
dained  Bishop  of  his  church.  This  makes  him  push 
close  to  a  half  century  of  service  as  Bishop  of  his 
church. 

Bishop  Holsey  was  married  at  Sunshine,  near 
Sparta,  Georgia.,  in  1862,  to  Miss  Harriet  Turner. 
Nine  children  have  been  born  to  the  Holsey  family  ; 
of  these,  three  are  deceased — among  those  deceas 
ed  was  Miss  Ruth  M.  Holsey,  whose  talent  as  a 
musician  was  already  becoming  widely  known. 
She  had  won  distinction  in  this  country  and  had 
studied  two  years  in  Paris.  Of  the  children  living; 
James  Henry  is  a  graduate  of  Howard  University 
and  a  Dentist  in  Atlanta,  Georgia.;  Miss  Katie  M., 
a  graduate  of  Paine  College,  lives  with  her  father  ; 
Miss  Ella  B.  and  Claud  Lucia  are  living  in  Boston. 
The  former  is  a  matron,  the  latter  married  and  re 
sides  there.  Sumner  L.,  who  is  a  printer,  also 
lives  in  Boston.  Rev.  C.  Wesley  is  a  Presiding  El 
der  and  Missionary  in  and  around  Atlanta. 


130 


MISS  CLARA  A.  HOWARD. 

1SS  Clara  A.  Howard  was  born 
in  Greenville,  Merriwether  Coun 
ty,  Georgia.  It  has  been  in 
Georgia  that  she  has  spent  the 
greatest  number  of  years  in  ser 
vice.  She  was  one  of  the  first 
students  to  enter  Spelman  Seminary,  when  it  was 
founded  in  1881.  Miss  Howard  says  of  this  fact 
that  she  feels  almost  as  though  she  was  one  of  the 
founders.  From  Spelman  she  was  graduated  in 
1887.  After  her  graduation,  Miss  Howard  taught 
in  the  public  schools  of  Atlanta.  But  she  did  not 
feel  that  this  was  her  place  for  life  work.  Always 
before  her  were  the  needs  of  the  people  of  Africa  : 
and  so  May  3,  1890,  she  sailed  for  Africa.  For  five 
years  Miss  Howard  remained  in  Africa.  She  was 
stationed  at  Lukungu,  Congo,  South  West  Africa. 
Here  she  tried  in  her  very  effective  manner  to 
reach  the  people  and  to  teach  them  how  to  live,  as 
well  as  how  to  be  Christians.  At  the  same  time, 
Miss  Howard  had  to  fight  the  African  fever.  Af 
ter  five  years  of  work  she  had  to  come  back  to 
America  to  rest.  Her  health  was  very  slow  in 
returning,  and  after  a  time  she  had  to  give  up  all 
hope  of  ever  returning  to  Africa. 
In  1899,  Miss  Howard  became  a  member  of  the 


faculty  of  Spelman  Seminary.  At  first  she  served  as 
assistant  matron  in  the  Student  Boarding  Depart 
ment,  but  in  1909  she  became  the  only  matron  in 
that  department.  Of  her  work  here,  Miss  Howard 
says,  "As  Matron  in  the  Student  Boarding  Depart 
ment,  I  come  to  know  every  boarding  student  each 
year,  and  I  assure  you  the  field  for  usefulness  is 
about  as  wide  as  the  one  in  Africa."  Any  one 
hearing  a  group  of  Spelman  girls  discussing  their 
teachers  either  before  or  after  graduation  will  soon 
hear  them  come  to  Miss  Howard.  By  her  quiet, 
kindly  treatment,  she  has  won  all  of  them  and,  in 
winning  them  as  friends,  she  has  helped  each  one 
to  a  higher  plane  of  thinking  and  living. 

Of  the  work  that  Miss  Howard  is  doing  in  Spel 
man,  Miss  Tapley,  the  president  of  the  Institution 
says,  "She  is  invaluable  to  us.  She  fills  a  large  place 
and  fills  it  as  well  as  any  person  we  ever  had  or  can 
ever  expect  to  have.  Very  few  women  could  carry 
her  work  so  well  as  she  does.  No  matter  what 
our  difficulties,  we  can  count  on  Miss  Howard  be 
ing  brave,  co-operative  and  helpful." 

Besides  the  oversight  in  a  general  way  of  all  the 
girls  and  in  particular  in  the  Dining  room.  Miss 
Howard  has  had  direct  charge  of  a  number  of  small 
children,  who  have  entered  Spelman.  Among  these 
was  one  little  African  girl,  Flora  Zeto,  whom  she 
brought  with  her  from  Africa.  To  Flora,  Miss 
Howard  was  everything  that  a  mother  could  be. 
No  one  talking  with  Flora  after  a  few  years  under 
the  direct  influence  of  this  good  woman,  would 
have  imagined  her  origin.  Her  voice  and  manner 
took  on  the  culture  of  her  friend.  Miss  Howard 
has  played  the  part  of  mother  to  a  number  of  other 
small  girls.  During  all  the  years  she  has  been 
working  in  this  Institution  she  has  been  able  to 
keep  up  the  habit  of  treating  girls  as  individuals. 
She  never  thinks  of  them  in  mass.  All  over  the 
South  there  are  girls  and  women  who  remember 
the  times  when  Miss  Howard  stood  for  them  as  a 
guardian  angel.  As  a  part  of  her  work  in  the 
school,  Miss  Howard  has  monthly  meeting  with 
the  girls  in  which  various  subjects  of  a  very  per 
sonal  nature  are  discussed.  Miss  Howard  handles 
these  as  only  a  few  persons  know  how  to  handle 
delicate  subjects.  From  her  the  girls  will  take  any 
suggestions  for  their  betterment.  Surely  her's 
has  been  a  life  of  usefulness.  Her  five  years  in 
Africa,  in  Lukungu,  alone,  represents  great  good 
done,  but  back  in  her  native  country,  her  native 
state  and  her  Alma  Mata,  she  has  done  a  work  that 
few  are  permitted  to  accomplish  in  a  lifetime. 

The  influence  of  her  useful  and  consecrated  life 
will  make  itself  felt  throughout  the  land,  as  the 
girls  go  forth  from  this  institution,  and  will  re 
main  to  bless  her  people  long  after  she  has  gone 
to  her  reward. 


131 


David  Tobias  Howard 


R.  David  Howard  of  Atlanta,  Geor 
gia,  is  one  of  the  pioneers  among 
Negro  undertakers.  Born  in 
Crawford  County,  Ga.,  in  1849,  he 
saw  much  of  slavery,  of  the  Civil 
War  and  of  the  reconstruction  pe 
riod.  A  lad  of  15  years  when  the  Civil  War  came, 
he  was  placed  in  charge  of  a  train  load  of  colored 
people,  who  were  being  shipped  from  Atlanta  to 
Barnesville.  Like  most  of  the  ex-slaves  he  found 
himself  poor,  uneducated,  deserted  when  freedom 
was  declared. 

His  first  steady  job  was  that  of  a  porter  in  a  rail 
road  office.  Here  in  1869,  he  began  work  for  $5.00 
per  month,  boarding  and  lodging  himself  out  of  this 
sum.  Here  he  worked  for  fourteen  years.  Dur 
ing  this  period,  his  salary,  rather  his  wages,  had 
risen  from  $5.00  to  $45.00  per  month.  By  this  time 
he  had  managed  to  save  a  pretty  snug  sum  of 
money  and  had  made  up  his  mind  to  venture  into 
business  for  himself. 

He  was  led  to  his  business  venture  through  ob 
serving  the  business  of  a  firm  to  whom  he  had 
loaned  money  from  time  to  time.  It  was  an  un 
dertaking  firm  and  he  observed  that  they  could 
afford  to  pay  interest  on  money  borrowed  and 
make  a  good  profit  out  of  it. 

He  had  no  knowledge  of  the  business  further 
than  his  visit  to  the  establishment  in  collecting  his 
interest,  but  he  had  the  good  sense  to  see  the  pos 
sibilities  in  it,  so  when  he  decided  to  enter  a  busi 
ness  career  for  himself  he  had  also  decided  the 
character  of  business  he  would  pursue.  In  those 
days  very  few  of  the  colored  race,  whether  teach 
ers,  preachers  or  even  physicians  had  specialized 
very  highly  in  their  chosen  occupations. 

Mr.  Howard  saw  an  opening  for  the  business 
and  an  inviting  field  and  he  trusted  to  his  own 
energy  and  business  ability  to  win  success. 

Like  many  a  man  who  started  out  with  bright 
hopes  he  soon  learned  that  the  path  to  success  is 
not  a  rosy  path  but  rather  a  rugged  way. 

He  invested  his  earnings  in  the  Undertaking 
business  after  he  had  married  and  had  begun  to 
raise  a  family,  hoping  and  expecting  large  profits, 
but  the  profits  fell  below  his  expectation  and  he 
realized  that  the  business  must  be  of  slow  and 
gradual  growth. 

This  made  it  necessary  for  him  to  supplement 
the  business  with  some  other  line  of  work  in  or 
der  to  support  his  family  while  his  business  grew. 
He  drove  a  hack  which  was  really  in  line  with  the 
undertaking  business  so  that  he  could  give  atten 
tion  to  both  without  neglecting  either. 


Mr.  Howard  is  not  easily  discouraged  and  is  a 
man  of  great  determination  so  the  difficulties  in 
his  way  did  not  deter  him  but  rather  acted  as  a 
spur  to  awaken  his  energy.  He  went  forward  and 
in  the  course  of  time  won  his  fight  and  established 
the  large  undertaking  establishment  over  which 
he  now  presides. 

He  not  only  established  a  large  business,  but 
also  a  reputation  as  a  business  man  who  commands 
the  respect  of  the  citizens  of  Atlanta,  Georgia,  and 
of  the  entire  state. 

Mr.  Howard  has  not  confined  his  business  ope 
rations  to  the  city.  As  his  undertaking  business 
developed  and  he  made  a  surplus  money  for  in 
vestment  he  turned  his  attention  to  the  country 
and  invested  in  farm  lands  and  the  raising  of  cat 
tle.  He  has  several  farms  outside  of  Atlanta 
where  he  cultivated  gardens,  planted  orchards  and 
raised  cattle.  His  country  places  serve  to  rest  his 
mind  from  the  exactions  of  his  undertaking  busi 
ness  and  the  stress  of  city  life.  The  country  air 
and  diversions  of  the  farm  no  doubt  account  for 
his  own  fine  health  and  that  of  his  family  and  con 
tributes  to  the  optimistic  spirit  which  character 
izes  him. 

Incidentally  this  ex-slave  who  started  working 
for  $5.00  a  month  nearly  half  a  century  ago  is  now 
worth  $175,000.  Most  of  this  he  has  invested  in 
real  estate  and  farms,  the  way  he  thinks  most  col 
ored  people  should  invest  their  money,  especially  in 
farm  lands.  Though  he  has  amassed  so  large  a  sum 
Mr.  Howard  is  by  no  means  a  stingy  man.  Indeed, 
he  is  quite  the  opposite,  having  an  open  purse  for 
any  uplift  work  of  his  city.  A  recent  instance  of 
this  kind  is  his  being  the  first  among  the  few  to 
subscribe  $1000  for  the  Negro  Y.  M.  C.  A.  building 
of  Atlanta. 

Much  of  his  income,  too,  he  has  spent  in  educat 
ing  his  children.  Mr.  Howard  was  married  in  1870 
to  Miss  Ella  Buanner  of  Summerville,  Georgia. 
Nine  children  have  been  born  into  the  Howard  fam 
ily.  These  Mr.  Howard  has  given  the  best  educa 
tion  available.  Some  have  been  graduated  from 
Atlanta  University,  some  from  the  Oberlin  Conse- 
vatory  of  Music,  some  have  attended  Morehouse 
and  other  colleges.  The  children  are  Frank  David, 
Willie  Gladstone,  Paul,  Thomas  Edward,  Misses 
Eleanor  B.,  Lottie  Lee,  Julia  and  Henry  Gladstone. 
His  son,  Henry  Gladstone  is  associated  with  his 
father  in  business. 

Mr.  Howard  is  a  member  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Church. 
He  is  also  a  member  of  fraternal  organizations,  be 
longing  to  the  St.  John's  Masonic  Lodge,  to  the 
Good  Samaritan,  to  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  and  to 
the  Knights  of  Tabor. 


132 


GEORGE  RUBIN  HUTTO. 

LL  who  read  the  history  of  the 
steady  advance  that  has  been  made 
by  the  colored  Knights-  of  Py 
thias,  of  Georgia  will  know  that 
back  of  the  organization  is  a 
strong  man.  A  man  who  is  fear 
less  in  his  endeavor  to  do  the  right 
things  for  his  people,  a  man  who 
has  the  courage,  of  his  convictions,  a  man  who  is 
a  born  leader  of  men  is  the  only  sort  of  man  who 
could  get  in  behind  an  order  and  see  it  develop  so 
steadily.  The  Colored  Knights  of  Pythias  of  Geor 
gia  are  fortunate  indeed  to  have  at  its  head  such 
a  man  in  the  person  of  George  R.  Hutto. 

Mr.  Hutto  was  born  n  Barnelwell,  South  Caro 
lina  in  1870.  His  training  in  the  school  room  be 
gan  at  an  early  age  and  so  at  the  age  of  twenty  we 
find  him  graduating  from  Claflin  University, 
Orangeburg,  South  Carolina.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  class  of  1890.  The  following  year  he  was 
married  to  Miss  Addie  E.  Dillard.  Miss  Dillard 
was  a  graduate  of  Benedict  College  which  is  loca 
ted  at  Columbia,  South  Carolina.  To  the  Hutto's, 
two  children  were  born.  One,  Marcus  Hutto,  is 
a  senior  in  the  Meharry  Medical  school.  The  oth 
er  is  a  daughter,  Miss  Callie  Hutto. 

In  church  affiliation,  Mr.  Hutto  is  a  Baptist. 
This  is  another  point  on  which  Mr.  Hutto,  early 
made  his  decision.  In  fact  Mr.  Hutto  is  a  man 
of  prompt  action.  He  was  early  at  school,  early 
out  of  school,  early  married  and  early  settled  down 

133 


to  the  development  of  his  life  along  the  line  he  had 
chosen.  In  the  year  1895  Mr.  Hutto  was  elected 
Principal  of  the  Public  School,  at  Bainbridge,  Geor 
gia.  The  same  year  he  joined  the  Masonic  order. 
Thus  at  an  early  age  we  find  Mr.  Hutto  starting 
out  in  fraternal  orders.  In  1897  there  was  organi 
zed  in  Bainbridge,  Georgia,  a  court  of  the  Order 
of  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  known  as  the  Lucullus 
Lodge,  No  45.  Mr.  Hutto  joined  the  order  at  the 
organization  of  this  new  lodge.  From  the  first, 
his  great  interest  and  ability  as  a  leader,  won  for 
Mr.  Hutto  distinction  in  the  ranks  of  Pythians.  In 
1900  in  the  City  of  Valdosta,  he  was  elected  Grand 
Lecturer  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias  of  Georgia.  For 
four  consecutive  times  he  was  re-elected  to  this 
position.  In  1905  he  was  elected  Vice-Chancellor 
of  the  organization  for  his  State.  At  that  time  ser 
ving  as  Chancellor  was  Mr.  C.  D.  Creswell.  At  the 
death  of  the  Chancellor  in  1910,  Mr.  Hutto  filled  out 
the  unexpired  term  and  at  the  next  session,  which 
was  held  in  the  city  of  Macon,  he  was  elected  to 
the  position  of  Grand  Chancellor.  To  this  position 
he  has  been  re-elected  each  year  since.  The  figur 
es  of  the  order  show  the  marvelous  growth  of 
the  organization,  Mr.  Hutto's  influence  in  the  de 
velopment  of  the  body  did  not  begin  with  his  elec 
tion  to  the  position  of  Grand  Chancellor.  It  be 
gan  rather  witTi  his  admission  as  a  member  when 
the  court  was  formed  in  Bainbridge.  Through  all 
the  following  years  his  influence  for  the  develop 
ment  of  the  Knights  of  the  State  of  Georgia  was 
secured.  As  a  lecturer  he  served  and  served  well. 
In  this  position  he  had  ample  opportunity  to  bring 
before  the  people  the  merits  of  the  order  and  the 
benefits  to  be  derived  therefrom.  His  next  step 
upward  in  this  body  was  that  position  of  Vice- 
Chancellor.  Here  he  learned  all  the  workings  and 
rulings  of  the  order  and  when  the  death  of  Mr. 
Creswell  put  upon  Mr.  Hutto  the  work  of  head 
man  for  the  State  of  Georgia,  he  was  ready.  The 
order  has  developed  steadily  under  his  leadership. 
Of  the  State  of  Georgia  has  been  said,  "This  is  our 
Banner  State."  For  the  truth  of  this  statement 
much  of  the  credit  is  due  Mr.  Hutto. 

The  first  Court  organized  in  this  State  was  the 
Opal  Court,  No.  41,  by  Sir  J.  C.  Ross,  at  Savannah, 
1889,  with  Sir  J.  C.  Ross,  W.  C. 

The  Grand  Court  was  organized  at  Atlanta,  Ga., 
July,  1892,  by  Rev  Israel  Derricks,  Supreme  Wor 
thy  Counsellor,  with  the  following  Grand  Officers : 
Mrs.  W.  L.  Catledge  (Hill,)  G.  W.  C;  Mrs.  R.  L. 
Barnes,  G.  W.  Ix. ;  Sir  C.  A.  Catledge,  G.  R..  of 
Deeds ;  Sir  F.  M.  Cohen,  G.  R.,  of  Deps. ;  with  Sir 
J.  C.  Ross  and  Dr.  T.  James  Davis,  P.  G.  W.  C, 
Mrs.  Catledge  (Hill,)  served  one  year,  1902-3,  as 
G.  W.  C.  Mrs.  R.  L.  Barnes  was  elected  1893.  and 
has  served  continuously  until  1917. 

In  1900  there  were  21  Courts,  450  members,  with 
$92.75  Endowment  on  hand. 

1910,  218  Courts,  8,000  members,  94  deaths,  $11,- 
318.60  collected  for  Endowment,  $10,140.00  paid  on 
claims,  $20,353.73  balance  on  hand,  36  Juvenile 
Courts,  1150  members. 

1915,  350  Courts,  12,500  members,  268  deaths, 
$26,408.10  Endowment  collected,  $24,380.00  paid  on 
claims,  $29,450.80  balance  on  hand.  Grand  Court 
fund  balance  on  hand,  $2,250.  Georgia  is  the 
Banner  Grand  Court  of  the  order. 


REVEREND  EDWIN  POSEY  JOHNSON,  A.  B. 


HE  subject  of  this  sketch  was 
born  Feb.  22,  1849,  in  Columbus, 
Georgia.  His  father,  William 
Warren  Johnson,  was  brought  to 
Georgia  from  Maryland,  where  he 
received  considerable  education 
and  was  taught  the  Stage-build 
ing  trade.  His  mother,  Caroline 
Posey  came  from  Virginia  to  Georgia,  with  her 
owners,  in  whose  family  her  people  had  been  rear 
ed  for  generations.  Her  master,  Major  Nelson,  be 
lieved  that  colored  people,  as  well  as  white  should 
be  taught  to  read  so  as  to  study  the  Bible  for  them 
selves.  Hence  his  mother  was  a  constant  reader 
of  the  Bible  and  other  good  books. 

Freedom  came  to  him  when  at  the  age  of  sixteen. 
The  first  opportunity  for  learning  to  read  and 
write  was  in  a  little  dirt-floor  school  house  in  an 
alley.  Here  with  many  others  he  tackled  a  Blue 
Back  Spelling  Book.  The  next  year  he  hired  him 
self  to  work  on  a  farm  and  walked  a  mile  and  a 
half  to  a  night  school,  taught  by  Mrs.  Lucy  E.  Case 
and  others.  When  Mrs.  Case  became  matron  at 
Atlanta  University,  she  persuaded  him  to  attend 
school  there.  In  the  fall  of  1873,  having  saved  up 
$150,  he  matriculated  at  Atlanta  University.  By 
working  as  an  engineer  at  school  and  teaching 
during  the  summers,  he  was  enabled  to  remain  in 
school.  In  1874  he  was  converted  under  the  min 
istry  of  Rev.  Geo.  W.  Walker,  one  of  the  instruc 


tors..  With  an  unfailing  courage  he  continued  his 
studies  until  he  graduated  in  1879,  with  the  degree 
of  A.  B.  On  July  of  that  year  he  was  ordained  as 
a  minister  of  the  Gospel  by  his  pastor,  Rev.  Frank 
Quarles,  and  others  in  Friendship  Baptist  Church, 
Atlanta,  Georgia.  He  served  his  denomination  one 
year  as  a  missionary,  then  taught  six  years  in  Haw- 
kinsville,  during  which  time  he  built  the  two-story 
school  house  at  the  cost  of  $1,600.00.  From  his 
arduous  labors  at  Hawkinsville,  he  has  had  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  many  of  his  pupils  occupying 
places  of  usefulness.  Leaving  Hawkinsville,  he 
served  as  principal  of  the  Mitchell  Street  School, 
Atlanta,  Georgia,  for  two  terms. 

On  December  26,  1882,  he  was  married  by  Rev. 
Henry  Way,  to  Miss  E.  S.  Key.  In  1888  he  was 
called  to  the  pastorate  of  Calvary  Baptist  Church, 
Madison,  Georgia.  During  the  eleven  years  of  his 
stay  there,  he  made  many  improvements  on  the 
church  property  and  added  to  the  church  more  than 
five  hundred  precious  souls.  While  at  Madison, 
he  was  elected  by  the  board  of  Education  as  the 
first  principal  of  the  city  school  for  colored  people, 
which  he  organized  and  directed  till  a  suitable  man 
could  be  found. 

In  1899  he  was  elected  as  general  manager  of  the 
New  Era  Institute  Work,  under  the  joint  auspices 
of  the  Home  Mission  Society  of  New  York,  The 
Southern  Baptist  Convention  and  the  General  Mis 
sionary  and  Educational  Convention  of  Georgia. 
This  position,  for  three  years  took  him  to  all  parts 
of  the  state. 

For  several  years  he  was  instructor  at  Phelps 
Hall  Bible  Training  School,  vTuskegee  Institute, 
Alabama.  Here  he  filled  the  position  with  satis 
faction  to  all  concerned. 

In  1901  Rev.  Johnson  was  called  to  pastor  the 
Reed  Street  Baptist  Church,  Atlanta,  Georgia. 
Here  he  has  been,  laboring  for  sixteen  years,  or 
ganizing,  building,  giving  to  the  church  the  ripe 
fruits  of  all  his  experiences  in  the  school  room  and 
country  and  town  churches.  As  a  result,  the 
church  is  now  organized  into  practical  and  useful 
committees  and  anxiliaries.  Also  a  new  stone 
church  edifice,  situated  on  the  corner  of  Frasier 
and  Crumley  Streets,  which  when  finished  will  cost 
$25,000,  is  now  almost  completed  and  more  than 
400  members  have  been  added.  When  the  new 
building  was  begun,  the  pastor  reduced  his  own 
salary  $15  per  month,  thereby  setting  an  example 
of  economy.  He  sets  a  further  example  by  living 
in  his  own  home,  keeping  his  credit  up  to  such  a 
high  standard  that  he  and  the  church  of  which  he 
is  pastor  can  secure  money  and  commodities  on 
his  name. 

Rev.  Johnson  is  treasurer  of  the  Atlanta  Baptist 
Minister's  Union;  Secretary  of  the  Board  of  Trus 
tees  of  Spelman  Seminary;  Secretary  of  the  Refor 
matory  Board ;  Treasurer  of  the  General  Mission 
ary  Educational  Board ;  Treasurer  of  the  State  B. 
Y.  P.  U.  Convention  ;  Chairman  of  the  Reid  Orphan 
Home,  at  Covington,  Georgia;  Member  of  the  Exe 
cutive  Board  of  the  Madison  Association ;  Geor 
gia's  Foreign  representative  of  the  National  Bap 
tist  Convention  and  Instructor  in  the  Divinity  De 
partment  of  Morehouse  College. 


ROBERT   EDWARD   PHARROW. 


LT HOUGH  there  are  a  great  num 
ber  of  Negro  carpenters  and 
builders  tbere  are  comparatively 
few  who  might  be  termed  con 
tractors,  taking  that  term  in  its 
larger  sense  of  erecting  large 
buildings,  dormitories,  school  houses,  temples  for 
the  fraternities,  hotels  and  office  buildings.  This 
is  due  in  a  large  measure  to  the  fact  that  such 
contracts  call  for  a  large  outlay  of  money  and  very 
few  Negroes  have  the  capital  to  back  up  such  con 
tracts  nor  the  influence  and  ability  to  secure  it. 
Another  reason  why  so  few  Negroes  undertake 
the  erection  of  large  buildings  is  that  it  requires 
a  special  training  and  equipment  for  such  work.  It 
involves  confidence,  bookkeeping,  managing  big 
squads  of  men,  time-keeping,  dealing  in  large 
freight  orders,  running  engines  and  so  marshalling 
it  all  that  the  structure  will  be  reliable  and  satis 
factory  and  the  profits  ample. 

Mr.  Pharrow  is  among  the  few  Negro  contrac 
tors  who  have  risen  to  prominence  in  the  con 
tracting  business.  He  did  not  rise  to  this  distinc 
tion  at  a  bound,  but  reached  it  after  years  of  pa 
tient  toil  and  strict  application  to  his  work. 

He  began   his  career  as  a  brick  mason,  when  a 


lad  of  only  sixteen  years  of  age,  working  under 
the  old  system  of  apprenticeship.  He  was  quick 
to  learn  and  made  the  best  of  the  opportunity 
offered  him  while  serving  his  apprenticeship  and 
in  seventeen  years'  time  had  not  only  learned  the 
trade  of  Masonry,  but  all  that  one  could  learn  of 
the  intricacies  of  the  business  without  being  in  it. 

At  the  age  of  thirty-three  he  began  the  con 
tracting  business  upon  his  own  account. 

Mr.  Pharrow  exhibited  the  virtue  of  patience 
during  his  long  apprenticeship  and  was  so  well 
fitted  for  his  work  when  he  started  business  on  his 
own  account  that  he  rose  rapidly  in  the  confidence 
of  the  public  and  received  a  goodly  share  of  its 
patronage. 

His  reputation  as  a  builder  was  not  confined  to 
his  home  town  of  Macon,  Georgia,  but  he  entered 
and  won,  in  competing  for  contracts  throughout 
the  States  of  Georgia  and  Alabama.  He  erected 
the  new  Recitation  Hall  at  Morehouse  College,  At 
lanta,  and  has  built  structures  in  most  of  the  large 
cities  of  Alabama  and  Georgia. 

Mr.  Pharrow  figures  close  and  does  good  work 
and  consequently  has  made  money  out  of  his  con 
tracts. 

Besides  the  capital  invested  in  a  well  establish 
ed  business  he  owns  a  good  home  and  twelve  addi 
tional  houses  which  brings  him  in  a  monthly  rental 
of  pleasing  amount. 

Mr.  Pharrow  has  sought  health  and  pleasure  in 
travel,  his  travels  having  carried  him  over  the 
greater  part  of  United  States,  Canada  and  Cuba. 

Mr.  Pharrow  was  born  in  Washington,  Georgia, 
in  1868.  As  he  went  to  work  at  his  trade  when 
very  young  the  amount  of  his  schooling  was  real 
ly  very  small.  But  he  has  always  made  haste  slowly 
and  has  thereby  atoned  for  much  that  he  might 
possibly  have  gained  from  further  schooling. 

He  has,  further,  kept  himself  intellectually  and 
socially  fit  by  membership  in  the  church  and  in 
many  of  the  leading  organizations  of  his  State. 
Mr.  Pharrow  is  a  member  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Church 
—of  the  Masons,  of  the  Odd  Fellows,  of  the  Elks, 
of  the  Knights  of  Pythias.  He  is  Past  Grand 
Master  of  the  Patriarchs,  Past  Chancellor  of  the 
Pythians  and  Senior  Warden  of  the  Masons,  An 
cient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons. 

Mr.  Pharrow  bases  much  of  his  success  upon  the 
sympathy,  advice  and  cooperation  of  his  helpmates 
at  home.  He  has  been  twice  married.  He  was 
married  to  Miss  Martha  L.  Harris,  of  Atlanta,  in 
1892.  She  it  was  who  stood  by  him  so  faithfully 
in  his  first  ventures  as  a  contractor.  Mrs.  Phar 
row  died  in  1911.  The  present  Mrs.  Pharrow  was 
Miss  R.  V.  Garly,  of  Savannah,  Georgia.  Mr. 
Pharrow  has  one  child,  Miss  Estelle,  who  is  a 
graduate  of  Atlanta  University,  and  who  teaches 
in  the  Atlanta  public  schools. 


135 


HENRY   HUGH    PROCTOR,   A.    B.,   D.   D. 

NE  of  the  best  known  Congrega 
tional  ministers  of  the  Colored 
Race  is  Dr.  Henry  Hugh  Proctor 
born  in  Fayetteville,  Tennessee, 
December  8,  1868,  and  it  was  a. 
very  fortunate  date,  because  he 
was  among  the  first  to  enjoy  the 
fruits  of  freedom. 

As  a  boy  he  attended  the  public  school  of  his 
town.  This  school  was  not  among  the  best,  judg 
ed  even  by  the  standard  of  that  time,  but  the 
young  man  applied  himself  most  diligently  and  ac 
quired  at  least  the  habit  of  organized  studying 
aside  from  some  real  knowledge.  He  worked  hard 
here  and  when  he  had  gotten  all  that  he  could  from 
his  town  school,  he  entered  Fisk  University.  Here, 
where  the  standard  was  high  and  the  method  of 
instruction  good,  the  young  student  developed 
very  rapidly,  distinguishing  himself  both  by  con 
duct  and  scholarship.  Before  finishing  his  college 
course  one  ideal  so  took  possession  of  him  as  to 
dominate  his  being — service  through  the  Christian 
Ministry.  Thus  when  he  graduated  from  the  Col 
lege  Department  of  Fisk,  he  went  to  New  Eng 
land,  the  cradle  of  American  culture,  and  entered 
Yale  Divinity  School  in  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 
Here  he  lived  and  worked,  studying  hard  while  he 
laid  the  foundation  for  his  great  life  work.  His 
scholarship  rewarded  his  efforts  and  when  he  com 
pleted  the  prescribed  course,  his  was  truly  a  com- 


mencement — a   commencement  of  work   in  a  field 
toward  which  he  had  so  eagerly  looked. 

His  first  regular  charge  was  Pastor  of  the  First 
Congregational  Church  at  Atlanta,  Georgia.  Of 
this  church  Dr.  Proctor  is  still  the  beloved  pas 
tor.  To  the  year  of  his  taking  charge  of  the  work, 
1894,  Dr.  Proctor  looks  back  as  the  beginning  of 
his  vital  career.  One  would  be  justified  in  saying 
that  the  church  was  really  established  by  Rev. 
Proctor. 

Here  in  Atlanta,  for  twenty-four  years  Dr. 
Proctor  has  labored,  developing  his  church  and  of 
necessity  growing  himself.  With  wonderful  fore 
sight  as  to  the  needs  of  our  people — not  necessar 
ily  the  needs  of  the  people  of  his  congregation,  but 
the  needs  of  the  Colored  people  of  Atlanta — Dr. 
Proctor  developed  his  church,  adding  to  it  one  line 
of  work  after  another  until  today  it  is  one  of  our 
foremost  institutional  churches. 

Aside  from  the  regular  church  with  its  Services, 
Bible  School,  Y.  P.  S.  C.  E.  and  Prayer  Meetings, 
there  are  the  Employment  Bureau,  Free  Public 
Library,  consisting  of  3000  volumes  and  the  only 
Public  Library  accessible  to  Negroes  in  Atlanta ;  a 
gymnasium  open  afternoons  and  evenings ;  the 
Avery  Congregational  Home  for  Working  Girls ; 
the  Conally  Water  Fountain,  whereby  through  a 
unique  device  ice  water  is  furnished  the  passerby 
in  summer;  the  Prison  Mission,  whose  object  is  to 
help  those  held  in  prison  through  religious  ser 
vices,  literature  distribution,  and  visits  giving  pas 
toral  comfort :  a  Trouble  Department  whose  ob 
ject  is  to  render  any  service  possible  to  those  in 
trouble ;  an  Auditorium  with  a  seating  capacity  of 
1000,  provided  with  grand  pipe  organ,  heated  by 
steam,  lighted  by  electricity  and  opened  for  any 
beneficial  gathering  for  the  community ;  and  the 
Georgia  Music  Association,  which  gives  the  city 
an  opportunity  to  hear  the  best  musical  talent  of 
the  race.  The  Annual  Musical  Festival  held  by  the 
colored  people  in  the  Auditorium  Armory  is  due 
largely  to  the  Musical  Association. 

For  all  this  Dr.  Proctor  is  directly  responsible. 
He  has  been  able  to  obtain  aid  for  his  work  from 
both  the  white  and  the  colored  people  of  Atlanta 
because  they  could  see  the  benefit  of  the  organiza 
tion. 

Though  the  Institution  and  his  church  demand  a 
large  share  of  his  time.  Dr.  Proctor  has  still  found 
time  to  serve  in  other  ways.  He  is  President  of 
the  Carrie  Steel  Orphanage  in  Atlanta ;  Assistant 
Moderator  of  the  National  Council  of  the  Congre 
gational  Church ;  Vice-President  of  the  American 
Missionary  Association  of  New  York ;  and  Secre 
tary  of  the  Congregational  Workers  among  Col 
ored  People. 

One  year  before  he  came  to  Atlanta,  Rev.  Proc 
tor  married  Miss  Adeline  Davis  of  Nashville,  Ten 
nessee.  Their  home  has  been  blessed  by  the  com 
ing  of  six  children,  Henry  Hugh,  Jr.,  a  graduate 
of  Fisk  University,  and  at  present  serving  as  a 
First  Lieutenant  in  France :  Richard  Davis,  deceas 
ed  ;  Muriel  Morgan  and  Lillian  Steele,  students  at 
Atlanta  University;  Roy  and  Vashti,  public  school 
children. 

Dr.  Proctor  is  beloved  by  all.  He  is  acknowl 
edged  a  Reformer  and  an  Educator.  He  is  doing 
much  good  in  bringing  about  a  better  understand 
ing  between  the  races. 


136 


Thomas  Heath  Slater,  A.  B.,  M.  D. 


N  the  South  there  are  at  least  two 
cities  in  which  there  is  a  splendid 
galaxy  of  educated,  prosperous, 
refined  Negroes.  These  are  Nash 
ville,  Tennessee,  and  Atlanta, 
Georgia,  which  could  claim  super 
iority  is  a  grave  question.  Both  have  a  Negro  Col 
lege  or  University  on  nearly  every  hill  in  the  city. 
Both  are  full  of  business  men,  professional  men  and 
tradesmen.  Competition  among  the  colored  men  in 
nearly  all  pursuits  is  close.  Therefore,  he  who 
gains  his  place  and  holds  it,  does  so  largely  by  dint 
of  excellence. 

In  Atlanta  one  could  count  on  all  the  fingers  of 
his  hands  physicians  with  conspicious  careers, 
with  reputations  and  practices  well  established. 
Very  prominent  among  these  is  Dr.  Thomas  H. 
Slater.  Dr.  Slater  is  a  North  Carolinian  by  birth, 
having  been  born  in  Salisbury,  December  25,  1865. 
He  attended  the  schools  of  Salisbury,  his  birth 
place,  and  then  went  to  college  at  Lincoln  Univer 
sity,  Pennslyvania,  where  he  received  his  Bachel 
or's  Degree  in  1887,  and  was  graduated  with  first 
honors.  He  then  entered  Meharry  Medical  College 
in  Nashville,  Tennessee,  completing  his  course  early 
in  1890,  here  he  also  won  first  honors. 

In  March  of  the  same  year,  Dr.  Slater  went  to 
Atlanta,  Georgia  and  began  the  practice  of  his  pro 
fession.  Here  in  the  same  city  in  nearly  the  same 
spot,  he  has  continued  for  this  quarter  of  a  century. 
Dr.  Slater,  (with  Dr.  H.  R.  Butler)  was  the  real 
pioneer  of  the  Negro  Medical  profession  in  Atlanta. 

Up  to  this  period  the  Negroes  were  attended  al 
most  exclusively  by  the  white  physicians,  in  whom 
they  had  the  utmost  confidence,  and  it  was  not  an 
easy  matter  to  turn  them  to  the  colored  physicians 
who  were  then  beginning  to  establish  themselves 
in  the  South. 

It  was  Dr.  Slaters  mission  to  win  the  confidence 
of  his  people  and  turn  them  to  the  physicians  of 
their  own  race,  and  it  was  largely  due  to  the  fact 
that  Dr.  Slater's  unusual  ability  and  qualifications 
as  a  diagnostician  and  practitioneer  were  recognized 
by  Dr.  J.  S.  Todd,  at  that  time  Atlanta's  leading 
practitioner  of  internal  medicine,  enabled  him  to  so 
rapidly  gain  this  confidence.  Dr.  Slater  has  always 
been  grateful  to  Dr.  J.  S.  Todd  for  his  recommend 
ations  and  kind  assistance  in  those  early  days. 

In  the  midst  of  sharp  competition,  the  constant 
injection  of  new  blood  and  the  rapid  advancement 
of  the  profession,  he  has  held  his  place  both  in  At 
lanta  and  in  the  state  of  Georgia  as  one  of  the 
leading  and  best  equipped  physicians. 

This  has  not  been  done  through  idleness  or  a  sat 
isfied  state  of  mind.  He  has  studied  continually, 

137 


both  in  theory  and  in  practice.  His  eye  is  ever  alert 
for  the  latest  and  best  in  medicine  and  in  the  equip 
ment  of  service.  His  office  equipment  is  among 
the  best  and  most  modern  in  the  city.  It  has  every 
modern  convenience  and  appliance,  including  an 
equipment  for  Chemical  and  Blood  tests.  There  is 
possibly  no  physician  who  realized  more  forcibly 
the  importance  of  hard,  continuous  study  in  keep- 
ng  up  with  the  latest  and  most  successful  methods 
of  diagnosis  and  treatment  of  all  internal  diseases. 
He  has  viewed  with  keen  interest  the  rapid  yet  pos 
itive  changes  in  the  therapy  of  his  profession. 
From  the  excessive  use  of  drugs  in  the  general 
treatment  of  diseases  he  has  watched  and  followed 
the  successful  advancement  of  the  practice  to  spe 
cific  treatment  through  the  use  of  specific  agents, 
vaccines,  bacterins,  phylacogens  and  organic  ex 
tracts.  His  work  as  a  physician  early  won  for  him 
distinction,  both  among  the  men  of  his  profession 
and  in  other  bodies.  He  is  President  of  the  Atlanta 
Meharry  Alumni  Association  and  has  served  among 
the  doctors  of  the  state  as  President  and  as  Sec 
retary  of  the  Georgia  State  Medical  Association  of 
Negro  Physicians,  Dentists  and  Pharmacists. 

Dr.  Slater  was  reared  and  educated  a  Presbyter 
ian,  and  has  always  found  time  to  faithfully  dis 
charge  has  religious  duties  toward  his  church.  He 
has  learned  that  the  opportunities  for  service 
comes  to  the  Christian  physician  in  a  larger  meas 
ure  than  from  any  other  line  of  endeavor  outside 
of  the  Christian  ministry.  He  believes  that  a  strong 
moral  and  religious  character  is  the  best  asset  that 
any  physician  can  have,  and  at  this  period  of  racial 
development  and  progress  he  deems  it  absolutely 
essential. 

Dr.  Slater  is  interested  in  the  various  orders  of 
the  Colored  race,  and  takes  an  active  part  in  them. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  Fraternity,  the  Odd 
Fellows  and  is  a  Knight  of  Pythias.  He  is  a  Mas 
ter  of  the  Local  Lodge  of  Masons. 

Dr.  Slater  has  been  twice  married.  His-  first 
wife,  Mrs.  Marie  A.  Taylor,  of  Austin,  Texas,  and 
a  graduate  of  Wilberforce  University,  he  married 
in  June,  1903,  but  lost  her  by  death  in  February, 
1905.  In  July,  1907  he  married  Mrs.  Celestine 
Bass  Phillips,  of  Michigan,  a  graduate  of  Bay  City 
High  School.  He  had  only  one  child,  a  son,  Thomas 
Heathe,  Jr.,  who  was  born  February  21st,  1905,  and 
died  November  5th,  1906. 

Dr.  Slater's  home  on  Piedmont  Avenue  is  among 
the  colored  residences  that  Atlantans  point  to  for 
proofs  of  their  prosperity  and  good  taste.  His 
home  life  is  a  source  of  pride,  pleasure  and  comfort, 
and  he  attributes  his  success  to  domestic  peace  and 
happiness. 


PANORAMIC  VIEW  OF  SPELMAN  SEMINARY. 


PKLMAN  Seminary,  of  Atlanta, 
Georgia,  the  largest  school  in  the 
world  for  Negro  girls,  carries  in 
the  story  of  its  growth  many  a 
thrilling  romance — the  romance 
of  faith,  of  prayer,  of  struggle,  of 
successful  rendering  of  service.  For  fifteen  years 
Father  Quarles,  ex-slave  and  pastor  of  the  Friend 
ship  Baptist  Church,  laid  the  Spelman  foundation 
in  prayer,  beseeching  that  God  would  send  some 
means  of  elevatiing  the  Negro  women  of  Georgia. 
In  the  fifteenth  year  while  he  tarried  in  supplica 
tion,  the  answer  came.  Two  ladies,  Miss  Sophie 
Packard  and  Miss  Harriet  F.  Giles,  of  Massachu 
setts,  were  the  evangels.  They  came  to  seek  out 
Faather  Quarles  and  actually  knocked  on  his  study 
door  while  the  good  man  still  lingered  in  prayer. 
With  the  coming  of  the  two  ladies  began  the  ro 
mance  of  struggle.  Here  were  the  workers,  the 
pupils  were  legion  ;  but  there  was  no  school  room. 
Combining  faith  and  work  as  best  he  could.  Father 
Quarles  surrendered  to  the  workers  the  basement 
of  his  church.  This  was  the  setting  for  the  strug 
gle.  To  begin  with  the  school  was  sneered  at  by 
white  and  black,  being  stigmatized  as  the  "Out 
Hill."  The  basement  was  cold  and  damp,  admit 
ting  water  when  it  would  rain.  There  were  no 
desks,  no  seats.  The  flooring  was  rotting  away. 
A  rickety,  smoking  flue,  held  up  by  wire  ;  darkness, 
approaching  gloom !  the  increase  of  enrollment 
causing  them  even  to  hold  a  class  in  the  coal  bin  ; 
no  salary,  no  definite  assurance  of  support — all  this 
confronted  two  women  far  from  home,  on  soil  still 
hostile ;  women  who  had  taught  in  buildings  com 
fortably  heated  and  properly  ventilated,  who  had 
drawn  their  salary  regularly  and  lived  amidst  hap 
py  relatives  and  cordial  friends.  However,  prayer 


again  entered  the  struggle.  The  school  had  for 
mally  opened  its  doors,  April  11,  1881.  It  had  elev 
en  pupils,  some  old  and  some  young;  some  were 
single,  some  married.  Among  the  older  students 
was  a  grown  woman,  who  day  by  day  looked  up 
the  hill  which  was  then  occupied  by  the  Barracks, 
and  prayed  that  one  day  Spelman,  (then  Atlanta 
Baptist  Female  Seminary,)  might  occupy  this  spot. 
Each  day  they  gathered,  prayed,  toiled  in  the  base 
ment.  The  enrollment  increased  from  eleven  to 
eighty  in  three  months  and  to  one  hundred  seventy 
five  by  the  end  of  the  year.  The  next  year.  1882,  saw 
the  prayers  answered.  The  American  Baptist 
Home  Missionary  Society  bought  a  part  of  the 
Barracks,  nine  acres,  which  had  on  the  grounds, 
five  frame  buildings.  Here  Spelman  has  remained 
expanding  in  territory,  in  number  of  buildings  and 
in  useful  service  to  the  people. 

Grappling  every  day  with  want  of  buildings,  of 
equipment,  of  food,  clothes  and  comforts  for  their 
students,  the  founders  nevertheless  began  early  to 
shape  the  courses  of  study  to  suit  the  need  of  the 
people  among  whom  their  students  had  to  labor. 
To  this  end  they  started  the  Spelman  Nurse  Train 
ing  Course  in  1886,  the  Missionary  Department  in 

1891,  the    Teachers'     Professional    Department    in 

1892,  the  College    Department    in    1897.     In    doing 
this   Spelman   was   not  only   serving  its   graduates 
and  those  among  whom  they  would  work,  but  was 
serving  as  pioneer  to  a  host  of  Negro  schools    in 
the  South,  which  only  in  recent  years  have  adop 
ted    similar   courses    in    their   curriculums.      Later, 
Spelman   further  expanded  its  courses.     To  Nurse 
Training,     Teaching,     Missionary     Courses,     have 
been  added   courses    in  music,  in  Domestic  Science, 
in    Laundering,    Sewing,    Dressmaking,     Millinery, 
Basketry,    Gardening,    Printing.     There    are,    too, 
courses  in  High  School  and  College  Departments, 
which  comprehend  the  study  of  Latin  and  German. 
Higher  Mathematics  and    the    Sciences,  looking  to 
careers  of  thought  and  scholarship. 


138 


PANORAMIC  VIEW  OF  SPELMAN  SEMINARY. 


The  school  is  under  the  direct  control  of  a  strong 
hoard  of  trustees  and  affiliated  with  the  American 
Baptist  Home  Mission  Society.  It  has  had 
three  presidents,  its  two  founders,  Miss  Sophia 
Packard  and  Miss  Harriet  E.  Giles,  Miss  Giles  suc 
ceeding  Miss  Packard  in  1891.  The  present  en- 
cumbent  is  Miss  Lucy  Hale  Tapley,  who  came  all 
the  way  from  the  ranks  of  the  teachers  and  who 
has  grown  with  the  school.  Spelman  has  a  faculty 
of  fifty  teachers.  Each  teacher  receives  her  com 
mission  direct  from  the  Women's  Baptist  Home 
Mission  Board.  It  registers  an  average  attend 
ance  of  750  students  a  year.  In  all  the  departments 
the  school  is  thoroughly  and  intensely  religions. 
Whatever  courses  a  student  may  pursue,  prayer 
and  Bible  study,  required  and  volunteer,  and  the 
doctrine  of  service  play  a  major  part  in  shaping 
the  lives  of  those  who  come  within  her  walls. 

The  usefulness  of  an  institution  is  judged  by  the 
amount  of  good  work  done  by  the  graduates  and 
former  students  turned  out.  Judged  from  this 
point  of  view,  Spelman  ranks  among  the  highest 
institutions  in  the  country.  Teaching  has  been  and 
continues  to  be  the  leading  occupation  of  Spelman 
graduates.  They  are  found  to  be  in  nearly  every 
State  of  the  South — in  city  graded  schools,  in  in 
dustrial  schools  and  in  ungraded  schools  in  rural 
districts,  and  a  number  have  served  on  the  faculty 
of  their  Alma  Mater,  Morehouse  College,  Selma 
University,  and  Similar  schools.  One  tribute  to 
the  ability  of  these  Spelman  girls  as  teachers  came 
from  a  former  State  School  Commissioner  of  Geor 
gia.  He  said  that  if  he  had  fifty  teachers  from 
Spelman's  Normal  department,  he  would  revolu 
tionize  teaching  in  Georgia. 

A  large  and  important  class  of  the  graduates  are 
bright  examples  of  Christian  wives  and  mothers. 
Of  these  many  are  helpful  wives  of  ministers-;  oth 
ers  are  assisting  their  husbands  in  their  work  as 
teachers;  all  are  exerting  a  helpful  influence  on 
the  lives  of  the  next  generation.  Then  there  are 
graduates  in  a  number  of  other  callings — there  is 
an  editor,  bookkeepers,  stenographers,  several 
doctors.  There  are  workers  in  Orphan  Homes, 


kindergartens,  charity  work,  Y.  W.  C.  A.  work, 
home  and  foreign  mission  work.  All  of  these  young 
women  go  out  as  representatives  of  the  school  that 
has  done  so  much  for  them  and  they  are  proud  to 
hold  up  her  banner. 

Spelman  graduates  do  not  confine  their  teaching 
to  books.  They  undertake  to  teach  their  pupils 
both  old  and  young,  how  to  live.  One  encouraging 
thing  about  the  work  of  these  young  women  is  the 
fact  that,  as  a  rule,  women  and  girls,  living  in  com 
munities  where  Spelman  students  have  labored, 
have  a  higher  ideal  of  life,  which  manifests  itself 
in  the  care  and  the  training  of  the  children. 

The  grounds  of  Spelman  are  an  expression  of 
well-organized  orderly  life  within.  Th  campus  it 
self  has  a  good  effect  on  the  pupils  who  attend  the 
school.  Going  out  from  Spelman,  each  girl  is  op 
posed  to  dirt  and  trash.  Each  girl  feels  that  she 
must  make  her  surroundings  attractive.  Then 
there  is  about  Spelman  an  air  of  having  time  to 
think,  to  feel,  to  commune  with  one's  self  and  with 
ones  God.  The  value  of  this  time  cannot  be  over 
estimated. 

Another  feature  of  the  life  of  the  students  at 
Spelman  Seminary  is  the  manner  in  which  they 
are  cared  for  while  students  there.  The  system 
is  unique.  The  boarders  are  divided  into  groups  of 
about  fifty,  and  placed  in  the  care — not  of  a  ma 
tron,  not  in  the  care  of  a  preceptress,  but  in  the 
care  of  a  "Hall  Mother."  Each  girl  is  at  home  with 
the  "Hall  Mother,"  and  a  "Hall  Mother"  feels 
just  as  responsible  for  the  girls  in  her  care  as 
though  they  were  really  her  own.  Here  in  the  pri 
vacy  of  their  own  halls  the  girls  of  any  given 
group,  have  their  prayers,  their  study  hours,  their 
little  concerts  and  Christmas  entertainments,  etc. ; 
and  then  go  out  and  enjoy  the  more  public  ones 
which  take  in  the  whole  school.  In  this  manner, 
the  atmosphere  of  home  is  thrown  around  the  girls 
and  they  have  the  feeling  of  being  really  loved 
and  protected. 

Spelman  Seminary  is  one  of  the  best,  if  not  the 
best,  organized  institution  among  our  people.  Its 
training  is  thorough. 


139 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON  HILL,  PRESIDENT 
WALKER   BAPTIST   INSTITUTE. 


HE  Walker  Baptist  Institute  is  lo 
cated  in  Augusta,  Georgia,  where 
it  was  moved  eleven  years  after 
it  was  founded,  from  Waynes- 
boro,  Ga.  It  was  founded  in  the 
year  1881  by  Father  Nathan  Wal 
ker.  Since  its  removal  it  has  grown  in  popularity 
and  efficiency  until  it  has  become  known  as  one 
of  the  most  substantial  secondary  schools  in  the 
State  of  Georgia. 

It  is  owned  and  partly  supported  by  a  board  of 
seventy-eight  trustees  selected  by  the  Walker  Bap 
tist  Association. 

While  the  property  of  the  Institute  belongs  to 
the  Walker  Baptist  Association  it  has  been  foster 
ed  by  the  Negro  Baptists  of  the  entire  state  of 
Georgia,  and  in  a  considerable  measure  of  late 
years,  by  the  General  Education  Board  of  New 
York. 

In  recent  years  the  general  public  has  also  con 
tributed  to  its  support.  In  addition  to  this  it  has 
had  many  srong  Baptists  as  sponsors. 

The  founder,  Nathan  Walker,  was  followed  by 
T.  J.  Hornsby  who  in  turn  was  succeeded  by  the 
Reverand  C.  T.  Walker. 


Under  the  care  of  C.  T.  Walker,  popularly  known 
as  the  "Black  Spurgeon",  Walker  Baptist  Institute 
has  gained  its  widest  publicity,  expanded  most,  and 
done  its  best  service. 

The  Walker  Baptist  Institute  is  a  secondary 
school  with  large  elementary  enrollment.  It  has 
three  departments :  Grammar  School,  a  College 
Course,  and  a  Department  of  Theology. 

The  Grammar  School  covers  a  course  of  eight 
years.  This  department  is  under  the  direction  of 
Professor  G.  W.  Hill,  who  is  the  principle  and  who 
is  assisted  by  Dr.  James  M.  Mabritt,  Dr.  L.  C.  Wal 
ker,  Mrs.  Rubena  Newson,  Mrs.  U.  L.  Golden, 
Misses  Labara  Kech,  Naomi  Wright,  and  Mrs.An- 
nie  E.  Wheelston. 

This  organization  under  the  management  of 
Professor  Hill,  has  done  much  for  the  young  Bap 
tist  pupils  for  whom  it  was  especially  organized. 

While  it  is  a  denominational  school  no  student  is 
kept  from  receiving  its  instruction  because  of  his 
religious  beliefs. 

After  passing  through  this  departmer.t  the 
scholars  are  prepared  for  their  college  course  and 
for  the  study  of  Theology. 

The  aim  of  the  school  is  to  prepare  its  students 
for  entrance  into  life  where  they  must  further  ad 
vance  through  the  school  of  experience. 

The  foundation  laid  for  them  here  will  enable 
them  to  gain  from  the  school  of  experience  addi 
tional  knowledge  and  strength  to  ensure  a  noble 
and  useful  life. 

The  courses  in  the  college  and  theological  de 
partments  cover  Latin,  Greek,  Mathematics,  The 
ology,  Psychology,  English,  Pedagogy,  Domestic 
Science,  and  where  there  are  young  lady  students, 
music  and  studies  relating  to  the  Bible  as  well  as 
the  Bible  itself. 

The  Institution  is  now  nearly  forty  years  old.  It 
has  grown  slowly  but  steadily,  both  in  size  and 
efficiency.  It  has  rendered  a  large  service  to  the 
students  coming  under  its  influence  and  to  the  de 
nomination  which  brought  it  into  existence. 

Its  property  valuation  is  thirty-five  thousand 
dollars  and  includes  three  large  buildings,  one  of 
which  is  a  four  story  brick  building  containing 
thirty-two  rooms,  used  for  a  girl's  dormitory, 
chapel  and  dining  room. 

The  Institution  has  never  been  satisfied  with  its 
attainment,  though  pleasing,  but  is  continuously 
striving  to  advance.  Its  president  has  caught  a 
vision  of  a  great  and  influential  school  and  he  is 
bending  his  energies  to  translate  his  vision  into  an 
accomplished  fact.  The  Institution  has  a  bright 
outlook  for  an  enlarged  and  more  efficient  service. 

In  this  effort  he  is  ably  assisted  by  the  Baptists 
of  the  Walker  Baptist  Association,  and  especially 
by  the  Reverend  C.  T.  Walker  and  the  members  of 
his  congregation. 


140 


CHARLES  T.  WALKER,  D.  D.,  LL.  D. 

R.  Charles  T.  Walker  is  among  the 
leading  colored  men  of  the  world 
today.  Few  are  better  known. 
By  common  consent ,  he  is  the 
ablest  Negro  preacher  in  the 
world  without  regard  to  denomi 
nation.  He  is  pastor  of  the  Ta 
bernacle  Baptist  Institutional 
Church  of  Augusta,  Georgia,  where  he  has  been 
laboring  for  nearly  thirty-five  years  continuously, 
excepting  two  or  three  years  when  he  was  pastor 
of  the  Mount  Olivet  Baptist  Church,  in  New  York 
City. 

His  church  in  Augusta  is  frequented  on  each  Sun 
day  morning  during  the  winter  or  tourist  season  by 
scores  and  scores  of  the  wealthiest  and  most  in 
fluential  American  people,  both  men  and  women. 
John  D.  Rockfellow  was  for  years  among  his  re 
gular  attendants.  The  same  is  true  of  former 
President,  William  Howard  Taft,  who  declares  that 
Dr.  Walker  is  the  most  eloquent  man  he  ever 
heard.  The  late  Booker  T.  Washington  said:  "I 
do  not  know  of  any  man,  white  or  black,  who  is  a 
more  fascinating  speaker  either  in  private  conver 
sation  or  on  the  public  platform." 

Dr.  Walker  was  born  in  the  little  town  of  Hep- 
zibah,  Georgia,  a  few  miles  South  of  Augusta,  in 
the  county  of  Richmond,  on  February  5,  1858.  His 
father  was  a  deacon  of  the  Baptist  church  and  was 
also  the  coachman  of  the  family  that  owned  him. 
Dr.  Walker  comes  of  a  race  of  preachers.  One  of  his 


uncles  was  pastor  of  the  little  church  which  was 
organized  in  1848,  and  of  which  Dr.  Walker's  father 
was  a  deacon.  The  freedom  of  this  uncle — Rev. 
Joseph  T.  Walker,  was  purchased  by  the  slaves  in 
order  that  he  might  devote  his  entire  time  to 
preaching  the  gospel.  It  is  after  this  same  uncle 
that  the  Walker  Baptist  Association  is  named. 
This  association  founded  and  maintains  the  Wal 
ker  Baptist  Institute  at  Augusta. 

The  Johnson's  the  Hornsby's  the  Youngs,  the 
Whitehead's  and,  of  course,  the  Walker's  are  all 
related  to  the  family  of  the  older  Walker's. 
These  men  are  the  foremost  ministers,  and  have 
been  for  many  years  the  leading  ministers  and 
pastors  in  Eastern  Georgia.  Quite  recently  the 
Walker  Baptist  Association,  of  which  Dr.  Walker 
has  been  the  moderator  for  the  past  eighteen  years, 
raised  for  educational  purposes,  $22,000  in  cash— 
the  largest  amount  ever  raised  by  any  Baptist  As 
sociation  or  State  or  national  convenion  in  the  his 
tory  of  the  United  States. 

Dr.  Walker's  work  has  not  been  confined  to  the 
]-astorate.  He  has  been  interested  in  the  puMica- 
t.'.m  of  two  weekly  newspapers — the  "Augusta 
Sentinel,"  of  which  he  was  business  manager  for 
several  years,  and  the  "Georgia  Baptist,"  founded 
at  Augusta,  by  Dr.  W.  J.  White,  and  at  whose 
death  Dr.  C.  T.  Walker  became  editor-in-chief  of 
the  paper  in  which  position  he  served  for  many 
successful  years.  His  accounts  of  travel  in  the 
Holy  Land,  originally  published  in  the  Sentinel, 
were  afterwards  published  in  book  form  and  receiv 
ed  a  very  wide  circulation.  He  was  founder  and 
for  many  years  president  of  the  Negro  Fair  Asso 
ciation,  at  Augusta.  He  founded  the  colored 
men's  branch  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  on  53rd  Street,  in 
New  York  City,  and  also  founded  the  colored  Y.  M. 
C.  A.,  at  Augusta. 

As  an  evangelist,  Dr.  Walker  has  no  superior 
among  the  colored  preachers  and  pastors  of  this 
country.  He  has  been  holding  meetings  in  all 
parts  of  this  country  from  Maine  to  California, 
for  the  past  thirty  years,  and  always  with  success. 
No  colored  preacher  in  this  country  draws  larger 
crowds  anywhere  . 

He  has  also  taken  a  prominent  and  active  part 
in  the  business  and  political  developement  of  his 
race.  He  is  a  director  in  the  Penny  Bank,  Augus 
ta's  only  colored  savings  bank ;  he  is  director  in 
the  Pilgrim  Health  and  Life  Insurance  Company, 
the  biggest  corporation  of  any  kind  in  the  city  of 
Augusta,  owned  and  operated  by  colored  people ; 
he  is  a  member  of  the  Augusta  Realty  Corpora 
tion — a  band  of  seven  men  owning  and  controlling 
some  of  the  best  city  property ;  and  he  has  long 
been  a  member  of  the  Republican  State  Central 
Committee  and  he  has  twice  been  elected  by  the. 
people  of  his  district  to  represent  them  in  Repub 
lican  National  Conventions. 

In  all  this  work,  and  in  all  his  many  activities, 
Dr.  Walker  has  not  been  an  agitator.  He  has  done 
more  than  any  other  colored  citizen  of  his  home 
town  to  bring  about  pleasant  relations  between  the 
two  races,  and  Booker  T.  Washington  says  that  he 
did  more  than  any  man  he  knew  to  bring  about 
peace  and  good  will  between  the  two  sections  of 
our  country  and  the  white  and  colored  races. 

It  is  a  benediction  to  have  lived  in  the  same  age 
and  in  the  same  country  with  Dr.  C.  T.  Walker. 


141 


JAMES  RUFUS  WEBB. 


OR  some  years  the  city  of  Macon, 
Georgia,  has  been  making  bids  to 
have  the  state  headquarters  re 
moved  from  Atlanta  to  her  soil. 
Macon's  arguments  have  not  al 
ways  been  convincing,  but  some 
how  they  have  more  than  worried  the  thinkers  and 
writers  of  Atlanta.  If  wide  awake  progress  of  the 
Negro  means  anything  Macon  certainly  cannot  be 
dismissed  with  a  wave  of  the  hand.  Atlanta  has 
her  Odd  Fellows  building,  but  Macon  has  her  Pyth 
ian  Temple,  not  so  pretentious,  but  very  useful  nev 
ertheless.  Her  Negroes  have  not  the  complicated 
interests,  due  to  the  multiplicity  of  big  schools  and 
strong  religious  denominations,  that  Atlanta  has. 
Her  black  people  move  more  in  unison. 

Conspicuous  among  the  big  Negro  business  men 
who  would  aid  in  weighing  down  the  scales  for 
Macon,  is  James  Rufus  Webb,  grocer,  real  estate 
dealer,  farmer,  barber  shop  proprietor,  holder  of 
big  shares  in  and  promoter  of  undertaking  and 
broom  manufacturing  establishments.  Indeed  they 
look  upon  him  in  Macon,  as  a  sort  of  Cotton  Ave 
nue  King. 

Mr.  Webb  was  born  in  1863,  in  Crawford  county, 
Ga.  He  got  his  education  in  Bibb  County,  in  the 

142 


city  schools  and  in  Ballard  High  School.  Much  of 
his  way  he  earned,  the  other  his  father  paid.  Fin 
ishing  his  school  career,  Mr.  Webb  was  none  too 
certain  just  what  he  was  to  do  to  earn  a  livelihood 
and  to  make  his  place  in  the  world.  However  he 
thought  he  saw  an  opening. 

The  Negro  business  man  was  making  his  way, 
but  feebly,  with  a  rare  exception,  in  Macon  in  those 
days.  There  was  no  Douglass  Hotel  on  Broad 
Street,  ITO  Pythian  building,  little  Negro  real  estate. 
However,  in  1889  Mr.  Webb  courageously  set  forth 
as  a  grocer  on  Cotton  Avenue.  Prosperity  came 
quicker  and  more  abundantly  than  he  had  dared 
hope.  His  business  flourished  without  a  failure  for 
thirteen  years,  when  he  thought  he  would  change. 

Selling  out  the  grocery  business  he  took  up  that 
of  dealing  in  Realty.  He  had  some  money  and  had 
learned  some  of  the  tricks  of  business  and  of  invest 
ments.  Situated  in  his  office  in  the  Pythian  build 
ing  where  he  could  think  and  plan,  he  not  only  made 
profitable  investments  for  himself  but  became  a 
thinker,  a  planner,  and  a  promoter  for  Negro  bus 
iness  in  general.  He  saw  that  there  was  a  big  op 
portunity  as  well  as  a  chance  to  render  improved 
service  in  the  business  of  undertaking.  Hence  two 
undertaking  establishments  were  soon  under  way, 
backed  by  his  name,  influence  and  capital.  The 
Central  City  Undertaking  Company  of  Macon  is  his 
own  business  and  he  carries  a  controlling  interest 
in  the  Webb  and  Hartley  Undertaking  establish 
ment. 

Just  as  he  saw  the  chance  for  the  Negro  under 
taker  to  render  bigger  and  better  service,  so  he 
saw  it  in  several  other  callings.  He  thought  there 
was  much  room  for  the  improved  barber  shop  in  his 
town,  and  he  started  the  Union  Barber  shop.  He 
thought  there  was  a  chance  for  the  Negro  to  suc 
ceed  as  a  broom  maker  and  he  established  the  O.  R. 
Broom  factory. 

Planning  and  working  incessantly,  working  not 
only  to  succeed  himself,  but  also  to  give  the  colored 
people  employment,  it  is  no  wonder  that  Mr.  Webb 
has  prospered.  He  does  not  hoard  money,  rather  he 
keeps  money  moving,  investing  it,  making  it  in 
crease  itself.  He  owns  thirty  houses,  three  stores, 
and  a  165  acre  farm  in  addition  to  his  other  busi 
ness  interests.  The  farm  which  has  its  houses, 
barns  and  the  like,  he  takes  pride  in  looking  after 
himself. 

Thus  engrossed  in  business  Mr.  Webb  has  devot 
ed  but  little  time  to  organizations  of  any  other  kind. 
He  and  his  wife,  Mrs.  Clara  B.  Webb,  are  members 
of  the  A.  M.  E.  Church.  He  is  a  Mason,  a  St.  Lukes 
Knight  of  Pythias.  He  has  been  treasurer  of  the 
Macon  Lodge  of  Masons  and  past  Chancellor  of  the 
Knights  of  Pythias. 

All  his  business  career,  running  over  a  quarter 
of  a  century,  Mr.  Webb  has  spent  on  Cotton  Ave 
nue.  Here  are  the  scenes  of  most  of  his  invest 
ments.  Here  are  all  the  business  establishments 
of  the  King  of  Cotton  Avenue.  Thus  it  is  that 
through  Webb,  through  Douglass  and  others,  that 
if  Macon  were  bidding  for  the  capital  on  the  basis 
of  Negro  business,  she  could  not  be  dismissed  with 
a  mere  gesture. 


MADAM  MARTHA  BROADUS  ANDERSON  B.  M. 


HICHEVER  city  of  America  may 
claim  to  be  the  Negro  money  cen 
ter,  social  and  intellectual  center 
and  the  like,  it  is  certain  that  Chi 
cago  alone  carries  the  palm  as  the 
center  of  Negro  music.  There  are 

but  a   few  of  our  best   musicians 

before  the  public  today,  whatev 
er  be  their  specialty,  but  have  come  by  the  way  of 
Chicago.  Their  talent  may  have  been  discovered 
elsewhere,  but  the  finish  and  the  courage  to 
mount  stages  of  the  country  and  sometimes  of  the 
entire  globe,  come  from  Chicago.  Such  among  the 
many  are  the  Williams',  Singers,  Kemper  Harreld, 
Morehouse  and  Madame  Martha  Broadus — An 
derson.  Mrs.  Anderson  is  among  those  whose  talent 
was  discovered  and  in  goodly  measure  developed 
elsewhere.  Born  in  Richmond,  Virginia,  she  gained 
her  early  literary  education  in  the  public  schools 
of  Washington,  D.  C.  It  was  in  the  public  schools 
of  the  District  of  Columbia  that  she  first  discover 
ed  her  talent  on  the  one  hand,  and  learned  the  ele 
mentary  technique  on  the  other,  under  the  tutelage 
of  the  late  Professor  John  T.  Layton.  She  soon  be 
came  the  leading  singer  in  all  public  school  sing 
ing. 

At  the  age  of  fifteen  she  was  chosen  official  cho 
rus  director  of  the  Second  Baptist  Lyceum,  a  ly- 
ceum  which  at  that  time  was  regarded  as  one  of 
the  best  literary  societies  in  the  country. 

On  finishing  her  studies  in  the  public  schools  of 


Washington,  Mrs.  Anderson  took  the  civil  service 
examination  and  was  appointed  to  a  position  in  the 
Government  Printing  service,  where  she  worked 
for  many  years.  In  the  meantime,  however;  she 
did  not  wholly  neglect  her  talent.  She  studied  and 
practiced  regularly,  and  appeared  in  public  when 
ever  time  and  opportunity  permitted. 

In  1898  Mrs.  Anderson  was  married  to  Mr.  Henry 
S.  Anderson  and  took  up  residence  in  Chicago. 
Here  she  made  her  home,  launched  out  into  musi 
cal  studies  and  into  the  musical  life  of  Chicago.  To 
quote  George  L.  Williams  of  the  Williams  Jubilee 
Singers— "Madam  Anderson  is  in  the  first  division 
of  the  men  and  women  of  the  race  who  are  doing 
things  musical.  For  ten  years  she  has  been  active 
in  the  musical  life  of  Chicago,  having  built  up  and 
directed  a  great  choir  at  Quinn  Chapel,  A.  M.  E. 
Church,  which,  during  the  time  of  her  direction, 
was  acknowledged  to  be  the  best  organization  of 
its  kind  in  the  great  city  of  Chicago.  She  is  now  a 
director  of  an  excellent  choir  at  Bethesda  Baptist 
Church  and  maintains  a  beautiful  and  well  appoint 
ed  studio  at  3518-22  South  State  Street,  Chicago, 
to  which  a  large  number  of  students  go  to  study 
vocal  and  instrumental  music." 

She  was  graduated  from  the  Chicago  Musical 
College  in  1908,  with  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Music.  This  is  one  of  the  oldest  colleges  of  music 
in  the  West,  and  Mrs.  Anderson  is  one  of  the  few 
colored  people  to  have  studied  there  and  the  only 
Negro  to  obtain  a  degree  there.  Her  voice 
is  described  as  lyric  soprano,  very  flexible, 
tapable  of  wonderful  range.  ~  She  numbers 
among  teachers,  in  addition  to  those  at  the  Chi 
cago  Musical  College,  Herbert  Miller, Pedro  T.  Tin- 
sley,  both  well  known  in  the  musical  world,  Her 
bert  Miller  says  of  her: 

"She  has  had  a  protracted  course  of  study  with 
me,  covering  a  period  of  years  and  understands  the 
principles  which  underly  and  govern  the  art  of 
singing.  I  also  know  her  to  be  an  accomplished 
musician,  her  studies  of  composition,  history,  sight- 
reading  and  piano  giving  her  education  a  breadth 
unusual  among  vocalists." 

Mrs.  Anderson  spends  her  time  teaching  pri 
vate  pupils,  directing  chorusus  and  appearing  in 
recitals.  She  appears  before  the  public  not  only 
in  lighter  solo  singing  but  in  prolonged  and  heroic 
roles.  For  example,  some  of  the  best  work  on  the 
stage,  that  by  which  audiences  best  remember  her 
are  the  "Rose  Maidens."  "Esther  the  Beautiful 
Queen,"  and  "The  Messiah."  In  these  she  is  a  great 
favorite  before  the  general  public  and  before  audi 
ences  of  college  students.  She  has  sung,  among 
many  institutions,  at  Howard  and  at  Fisk.  At  Fisk, 
where  music  is  in  the  foundation  stones  of  the  Uni 
versity  and  throbs  in  everybody's  pulse,  she  won 
words  like  this  from  the  Nashville  Globe : 

"The  entirely  new  feature  on  the  program  was 
the  appearance  of  the  soprano  soloist,  Mrs.  Martha 
Broadus — Anderson,  of  Chicago,  Illinois.  To  say 
that  she  won  a  place  in  the  hearts  of  her  audience 
is  to  state  it  mildly.  Her  stage  manners  were  sim 
ply  perfect,  and  her  perfection  lay  in  her  simplicity. 
To  be  received  as  she  was  by  such  a  gathering  as 
greeted  her  was  an  enviable  compliment.  She  was 
to  sing  four  solos,  but  the  audience  compelled  her 
to  sing  seven,  and  clamored  for  more,  but  the 
length  of  the  program  forbade  her  singing  longer." 


143 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON  ELLIS, 


George  Washington  Ellis,  K.  C,  F.  R.  G.  S.,  LL.  D. 


HOSE  who  marvel  at  the  versatil 
ity  of  Mr.  George  W.  Ellis,  of 
Chicago,  will  be  even  more  amaz 
ed  to  know  of  the  wide  range  of 
his  education.  Mr.  Ellis  was 
born  in  Platte  County,  at  Wes 
ton,  Missouri,  May  4th,  1876.  His  parents  were 
also  Missourians,  his  father  being  of  Lexington, 
Missouri.  His  mother  was  Miss  Amanda  Drace 
of  Clinton,  County,  Missouri.  Mr.  Ellis  began 
his  education  in  his  native  city,  of  Weston,  where 
he  attended  public  schools.  From  Weston  he  en 
tered  Atchison  High  School,  Atchison,  Kansas. 
Graduating  from  here,  he  spent  the  next  two 
years  in  the  Law  Department  of  the  University  of 
Kansas.  Then  he  began  the  practice  of  law  to  as 
sist  in  paying  his  way  for  four  years  in  the  College 
of  Arts  in  the  University  of  Kansas.  Next  he 
spent  two  years  in  the  Gunton's  Institute  of  Econ 
omics  and  Sociology,  in  New  York.  From  New 
York  he  enrolled  in  the  Department  of  Philosophy, 
and  Psychology,  in  Howard  University,  Washing 
ton,  D.  C.  He  has  a  diploma  from  Gunton's  Insti 
tute  (of  Economics  and  Sociology),  a  diploma  from 
Gray's  School  of  Stenography  and  Typewriting, 
and  the  degree  of  LL.  B.,  from  the  University  of 
Kansas.  In  1918  Wilberforce  conferred  upon  him 
the  degree  of  LL.  D.,  in  appreciation  of  his  exten 
sive  work. 

Set  "over  against  this  long  list  of  achievements 
in  education  are  his  many  successes  in  life.  Mr. 
Ellis  began  the  practice  of  law  in  Lawrence,  Kan 
sas,  in  1893.  In  1899  he  passed  the  Census  Board 
of  Examiners,  and  was  appointed  a  clerk  in  the  In 
terior  Department  at  Washington.  Transferred 
in  1902,  he  was  appointed  by  President  Roosevelt 
and  confirmed  by  the  Senate  as  Secretary  of  the 
Legation  to  the  Republic  of  Liberia.  The  next  eight 
years,  Mr.  Ellis  spent  in  Africa.  He  made  no  end  of 
excursions  into  the  hinterland,  studying  the  lives 
and  manners  of  the  African  people.  Retiring  in  1910 
Mr.  Ellis  began  the  practice  of  law  in  Chicago,  un 
der  the  firm  name  of  Ellis  and  Ward.  This  name 
was  changed  in  1912  to  Ellis  and  Westbrooks,  as 
it  now  stands.  In  addition  to  a  large  general  prac 
tice,  Mr.  Ellis  was  elected  in  1917  as  assistant  Cor 
poration  Counsel,  a  position  which  he  still  holds. 
Throughout  his  career,  Mr.  Ellis  has  been  a 
strong  and  active  Republican.  He  has  been  much 
in  demand  as  a  campaign  speaker  and  advisor.  He 
is  very  active  in  all  political  movements  in  Chicago, 
taking  a  conspicious  part  in  their  direction  and 
giving  voice  to  their  outcome  in  various  magazines 
and  newspapers.  Active  and  useful  as  he  is 


in  National  and  city  politics,  Mr.  Ellis  will 
no  doubt  be  the  longest  remembered,  as  he  is  pro 
bably  best  known  by  his  writings.  A  mere  list  of 
his  writings  will  illustrate  how  very  prolific  he  has 
been  with  his  pen  and  what  service  he  has  been 
able  to  render  all  black  peoples  through  the  press. 
His  three  books  are  "Negro  Culture  in  West  Af 
rica,"  "The  Leopard's  Claw,"  and  "Negro  Achieve 
ments  in  Social  Progress."  Among  his  contribu 
tions  to  various  publications  are  "Education  in 
Liberia,"  (National  Bureau  of  Education ;)  "Justice 
in  the  West  African  Jungle,"  (New  York  Indepen 
dent  ;)  "Liberia  in  the  Political  Psycology  of  West 
Africa,"  (African  Journal ;)  "The  Mission  of  Dun- 
bar,"  (The  Champion;)  "Negro  Morality  in  West 
Africa,"  (The  Light ;)  "Negro  Morality  in  the  Af 
rican  Black  Belt,"  (The  Light;)  "The  Outlook  of 
the  Negro  in  Literature,"  (The  Champion;)  "The 
Chicago  Negro  in  Law  and  Politics,"  (The  Cham 
pion  ;)  "Dynamic  Factors  in  the  Liberian  Situa 
tion  ;"  "Islam  as  a  Factor  in  West  African  Culture ;" 

To  enter  into  the  merits  of  these  publications  is 
far  beyond  the  limits  of  space  alloted  here.  Suffice 
it  to  say  that  most  of  the  leading  daily  papers  of 
the  country  along  with  many  of  the  best  magazines 
have  given  most  wholesome  praise  to  both  his 
books  and  articles.  Fully  as  substantial,  if  not 
more  so,  is  the  endorsement  given  him  by  many 
of  the  leading  intellectual  societies  of  the  world. 
In  recognition  of  his  contributions  in  ethnoligical 
studies,  Mr.  Ellis  upon  the  recommendation  of  Sir 
Harry  Johnston,  and  Dr.  J.  Scott  Keltic,  has  been 
elected  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society 
of  Great  Britian.  Upon  the  merits  of  the  same 
writings  he  has  been  made  a  member  of  the  Af 
rican  Society,  London,  of  the  American  Sociologi 
cal  Society,  of  the  American  Political  Association, 
of  the  American  Society  of  International  Law.  He 
has  been  decorated  a  Knight  Commander  of  the 
Order  of  African  Redemption,  and  has  been  chosen 
an  honorary  member  of  the  Luther  Burbank  So 
ciety. 

Mr.Ellis  was  married  to  Miss  Clavender  Sher 
man,  in  1906.  Mrs.  Ellis  died  in  1916. 

He  is  as  has  been  indicated  a  strong  Re 
publican,  a  Methodist  in  his  religious  belief, 
and  was  last  delegate  to  the  General  Con 
ference,  1912-1916.  He  was  given  a  place  in  Who's 
Who  in  America,  in  1912,  and  in  The  Book  of  Chi- 
cagoans,  in  1917.  He  has  just  been  selected  for  a 
place  in  the  National  Encyclopedia,  of  American 
Biography,  volume  XVIII,  now  in  the  press. 

July  1,  1918,  at  the  Coliseum,  in  a  convention  of 
15,000  people,  Mr.  Ellis  was  nominated  for  judge  of 
the  Municipal  Court,  of  Chicago,  for  the  Repub 
lican  primaries,  September  11,  1918, 


145 


RICHARD    EDWARD    MOORE. 

EBRUARY  7,  1850,  Richard  Ed 
ward  Moore  was  born  in  Browns 
ville,  Pennsylvania  He  moved 
with  his  parents  to  Chicago  in 
1858 

In  1871  when  he  was  thirty-one 
years  old  ,he  joined  Bethel  A.  M. 
E.  Church,  where  he  has  labored 
for  the  past  forty-six  years,  filling  almost  every 
position  a  layman  can  fill  in  a  church. 

He  is  Superintendent  of  the  Sunday  School 
which  is  now  a  splendid  working  force.  Having 
all  the  advanced  ideas  of  Sunday  School  work, 
taught.  At  the  present  time  the  membership  is 
740  pupils. 

In  1868,  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  Mr.  Moore  organ 
ized  a  military  company  of  boys,  ranging  from 
fourteen  to  twenty  years.  They  were  called  the 
"Hannibal  Zouaves,"  fashioned  in  dress  after  the 
famous  French  Zouaves,  of  France.  The  com 
pany  adopted  the  lightning  quick  Zouave  tactcis 
and  soon  became  the  pride  of  Chicago,  and  when 
ever  they  appeared  in  public  parades,  they  were 
given  rousing  applause  by  the  citizens,  white  and 
colored,  who  saw  them. 

And  a  few  years  later  this  company  entered  the 
State  Militia  of  Illinois  and  was  enrolled  in  com 
pany  "A,"  16th  Battalion,  Illinois  State  Guards 
under  Governor  Tanner.  Mr.  Moore  received  the 
first  Captain's  commission  ever  issued  to  a  colored 
man  in  the  State  of  Illinois.  It  was  the  military 
spirit  of  Captain  Moore  and  good  service  rendered 
by  the  "Hannibal  Guards,"  in  the  railroad  riots  and 
the  16th  Battalion  in  the  services  of  the  State,  that 
paved  the  way  for  the  admission  into  the  State  of 
the  now  famous  8th.  regiment,  Illinois  Infantry, 
now  doing  service  in  the  regular  army  of  the  Un 
ited  States,  This  company  is  now  in  France, 
known  as  the  370  Regt.,  U.  S.  Infantry,  and  which 


is  the  only  regiment  of  Colored  men  in  military 
service  in  the  world  that  is  commanded  by  Negro 
officers  from  corporal  to  colonel. 

When  a  boy  sixteen  years  of  age,  Mr.  Moore's 
mother  had  Richard  to  join,  with  his  mother,  the 
Good  Samaritans.  With  the  coming  years  he 
became  a  member  of  the  Odd  Fellows,  Masons, 
Knights  of  Pythias,  True  Reformers,  and  several 
Social  and  Business  organizations.  Finding  it  im 
possible  to  render  his  full  duty  to  all  of  these  fra 
ternal  organizations,  he  confined  his  efforts  to  the 
Masonic  Order.  From  October  1878,  to  October, 
1913,  he  served  as  R.  W.  Grand  Secretary  of  the 
Most  Worshipful  Grand  Lodge  of  the  State  of  Ill 
inois,  for  35  years.  During  the  same  time  for  5  years 
he  filled  with  credit  to  himself  and  the  Masonic 
Order,  the  offices  of  Secretary  of  the  Grand 
Chapter  of  the  Royal  Arch  Masons,  Grand  Recor 
der  of  the  Grand  Commandery  Knights  Templar, 
and  later  on,  the  Supreme  Council  Scottish  Rite 
Masons  33,  of  the  Northwestern  jurisdiction  ;  and 
Imperial  Recorder  of  the  Imperial  Council  of  No 
bles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine  of  the  United  States. 

In  1890  he  organized  the  Grand  Chapter  of  the 
Eastern  Star,  and  served  as  Grand  Patron  for  four 
years.  In  1892,  he  began  a  three  year's  term  in  the 
office  of  Grand  Joshua  Heroines  of  Jericho.  In 
1913,  he  organized  the  Arabic  Court,  Daughters  of 
Isis,  auxiliary  to  the  Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine. 
In  1916  he  organized  the  Chicago  Assembly  Loyal 
Ladies  of  the  Golden  Circle,  auxiliary  to  the  Su 
preme  Council  Scottish  Rite  Masons.  At  the 
present  time  he  is  serving  in  the  office  of  Lieut 
enant  Commander  of  the  Supreme  Council  Scottish 
Rite,  of  the  Northern  jurisdiction  and  Chief  Rab- 
ban  of  the  Imperial  Council  A.  E.  A.  O.  Nobles  of 
the  Mystic  Shrine  of  the  United  States  and  Can 
ada. 

On  April  1,  1871,  Mr.  Moore  was  employed  as 
porter  in  the  office  of  the  American  Express  Com 
pany.  He  gradually  worked  his  way  up  to  pri 
vate  messenger  to  Mr.  Charles  Fargo,  Vice-Presi- 
dent  and  General  Manager  of  the  Company.  He 
remained  in  this  position  until  the  death  of  Mr. 
Fargo,  in  1902.  He  was  then  transferred  as  filing 
clerk  to  the  new  Foreign  Department  of  the  com 
pany,  and  had  charge  of  more  than  fifty  thousand 
files  which  covered  the  transactions  of  that  very 
important  branch  of  the  company's  business  from 
the  date  of  its  introduction,  1900  to  April  30,  1913. 

The  world's  war  caused  a  general  reduc 
tion  in  the  employee's  rank  of  all  express  compan 
ies  and  the  company  generously  placed  Mr.  Moore 
on  the  Pension  Roll,  after  having  served  for  forty- 
six  years  and  six  months  without  ever  losing  a 
day's  pay  or  causing  a  demerit  to  be  placed  against 
his  record. 

At  the  present  time  Mr.  Moore  is  actively  engag 
ed  in  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  Church,  Sunday  School,  and  So 
cial  uplift  work  . 

On  December  5,  1874,  Mr.  Moore  was  united  in 
marriage  to  Miss  Rosa  E.  Hawkins,  who  was  a 
charming  young  Chicago  belle,  of  that  period.  They 
lived  happily  together  until  the  time  of  her  death, 
April  15,  1912.  Mr.  Moore  is  now  pleasantly  loca 
ted  with  his  daughters,  Mrs.  Alberta  Moore-Smith, 
and  Mrs.  Etta  M.  Shoecraft,  and  their  husbands, 
and  his  son,  Richard  Moore,  Jr.,  all  forming  one 
happy  household  group. 


146 


High  Degree  Masonry  in  Illinois 


HE  three  high  branches  of  the 
Masonic  Order  of  the  State  of 
Illinois,  are  the  M.  E.  Grand 
Chapter  of  Royal  Arch  Masons, 
the  Occidental  Consistory,  A.  A. 
Scottish  Rite  Masons,  Valley  of 
Chicago,  and  Arabic  Temple  No. 
44,  Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine, 
of  Chicago. 

The  Grand  Chapter  of  the  Royal  Arch  Masons 
was  organized  in  the  city  of  Chicago,  October  9, 
1879,  with  four  chapters,  Saint  Mark's,  Chicago; 
Saint  John's,  Springfield;  Eureka,  Chicago,  and 
Mount  Moriah,  Cairo.  These  chapters  were  chart 
ed  by  the  most  excellent  Grand  Chapter  Royal 
Arch  Masons,  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  which 
was  organized  about  twenty-two  years,  prior  to 
the  organization  of  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Illinois, 
by  Royal  Masons,  who  were  regularly  made  Mas 
ons  in  lodges  established  by  Prince  Hall,  Grand 
Lodge  F.  and  A.  M.,  and  successors,  in  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania  and  Massachusetts,  the  members  of 
which  afterwards  received  the  Royal  Arch  degrees 
in  regular  constituted  chapters  in  Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania,  and  Boston,  Massachusetts,  said 
chapters  organized  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Pennsyl 
vania.  The  four  chapters,  composing  the  Grand 
Chapter  of  Illinois,  at  the  time  of  organization, 
numbered  only  one  hundred  and  sixty  companions 
Royal  Arch  Masons.  At  this  time  there  were 
thirty  subordinate  lodges  of  Master  Masons  with 
a  membership  of  eight  hundred  and  thirty.  The 
higher  one  goes  into  the  higher  degrees  of  the 
Masonic  fraternity,  the  number  of  eligibles  to  draw 
from  in  order  to  increase  the  membership  de 
creases  ;  this  accounts  for  the  small  membership 
composing  the  four  Chapters  which  formed  the 
Grand  Chapter. 

Joseph  Washington  Moore,  was  elected  the  first 
M.  E.  Grand  High  Priest.  He  was  a  Mason  of  ex 
ceptional  executive  ability  and  integrity. 

Companion,  William  D.  Berry,  was  elected  the 
first  M.  E.  Grand  Secretary.  At  the  present 
time,  there  are  fifty-four  subordinate  Chapters 
in  the  State,  with  the  membership  of  2370.  The 
present  M.  E.  Grand  High  Priest  Companion,  Al 
bert  R.  Lee,  of  Champaign,  a  man  of  extraor 
dinary  ability,  is  the  youngest  Companion  who  has 
occupied  the  exalted  position  of  Grand  High  Priest. 
Occidental  Consistory,  No.  28,  Valley  of  Chica 
go,  was  organized  in  the  year  1889,  by  the  conso 
lidation  of  Prince  Hall  Consistory,  holding  a  chap 
ter  issued  by  the  Supreme  Council  of  Illustrious 
Inspectors  Generals  of  the  thirty-third  and  last 
degree  of  the  Southern  jurisdiction ;  whose  Grand 
East  is  at  the  city  of  Washington,  D.  C..  Illus 
trious  Thornton  A.  Jackson,  is  Sov-Grand  Corn- 
mender,  and  Excelsior  Consistory,  holding  a  char 
ter  issued  by  the  Supreme  Council  of  Illustrious 
Inspectors  General  of  the  thirty-third  and  last  de 
gree  of  the  United  States,  whose  Grand  East  is  at 
the  City  of  New  York,  N.  Y.,  Illustrious  Brother, 
Peter  W.  Ray,  Sov-Grand  Commander.  The  illus 
trious  brethren  of  the  thirty-third  degree  of  the 
two  Consistories  were  consolidated  under  the  name 

147 


of  Occidental  Consistory,  which  was  granted  a 
patent  issued  by  the  Supreme  Council  of  Inspec 
tors  Generals  of  the  Northern  jurisdiction  in  the 
year  of  1913.  Their  Grand  East  is  at  the  city  of 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  Illustrious  Brother  J. 
Francis  Rickards  is  Sov-Grand  Commander.  The 
two  Consistories  held  concurrent  jurisdiction  in  the 
Valley  of  Chicago,  for  a  period  of  eighteen  years, 
before  a  consolidation  was  effected,  owing  to  the 
long  dispute,  as  to  the  legality  of  the  five  existing 
Supreme  Councils,  which  was  finally  settled  by  re 
cognizing  one  for  the  Southern  jurisdiction  and 
one  for  the  Northern  jurisdiction,  which  by  the 
two  Supreme  Councils  was  consummated  d'uring 
the  administration  of  Illustrious  Brother  James  E. 
Bish,  Commander-in-Chief  of  Occidental  Consis 
tory. 

Occidental  is  the  largest  consistory  among  Col 
ored  men  in  the  United  States,  having  a  member 
ship  of  three  hundred  and  five  Sublime  Princes. 
The  present  commander  of  Occidental  Consitory, 
Illustrious  Brother,  Charles  T.  Scott,  is  consider 
ed  to  be  one  of  the  best  ritualists  and  thorough 
Masonic  workers  in  the  Northern  Jurisdiction,  and 
to  him,  is  due  the  credit  of  having  brought  the 
Consistory  up  to  its  present  high  standard  among 
Scottish  Rite  Masons  in  America.. 

Arabic  Temple,  No.  44,  of  the  Oasis  of  Chicago, 
Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine,  was  organized  in 
the  month  of  June,  1893,  by  Noble  Milton  F.  Fields, 
a  duly  accredited  representative  of  the  Imperial 
Council  Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shriners  of  the  Unit 
ed  States  of  North  America.  There  existed  at  the 
time  of  organization,  another  Imperial  Council, 
called  "The  Ancient  Arabic  Order  Nobles  of  the 
Mystic  Shrine  of  the  United  States  and  Canada." 
The  right  to  the  supreme  control  of  work  of  the 
Order  was  a  serious  contention  between  the  two 
Imperial  Councils  for  twenty  years,  but  was  finally 
settled  by  all  the  Temples  of  the  two  factions  in 
1913,  by  agreeing  to  amalgamate.  In  order  to  pre 
vent  future  trouble  and  to  obtain  incorporation 
papers,  the  title  of  the  order  was  changed  to  be 
known  in  the  future  as  the  "Ancient  Egyptian  Ara 
bic  Order  of  Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine." 

When  Arabic  Temple  was  organized  in  1913,  No 
ble  Henry  Graham  was  elected  the  first  illustrious 
potentate  and  Noble  R.  E.  Moore,  the  first  illus 
trious  Recorder,  with  an  enrollment  membership 
of  twenty-six  Nobles.  By  careful  management,  by 
these  two  officers,  with  the  undivided  support  of 
the  charter  members,  the  Temple  was  built  upon 
a  strong  foundation  and  succeeded  in  increasing 
the  membership  until  1913.  when  the  Temple  took 
out  a  charter  under  the  amalgamated  Imperial 
Council,  Noble  Robert  I.  Hodge  being  the  Illus 
trious  Protentate,  and  Noble  Richard  E.  Moore, 
Illustrious  Recorder.  The  present  Illustrious  Po 
tentate  Noble  Marcellus  F.  Coley  has  no  equal  in 
the  country  as  a  live,  wide-awake,  soul-stirring, 
potenate,  always  presenting  something  new  for  the 
edification  of  the  members.  The  Temple  now  has 
a  membership  of  345,  which  makes  it  the  largest 
temple  of  Colored  Shriners  in  the  United  States. 


WILLIAMS  FAMOUS  SINGERS, 


Williams  Famous  Singers 


HICAGO  is  their  post  office  ad 
dress  :  the  world  is  their  home. 
From  Canada  to  Mexico,  from 
Maine  to  California,  from  London 
to  Berlin,  they  journey  with  all 
the  ease  of  the  cosmopolite.  The 
impassable  snow  banks  of  Montana,  the  washouts 
in  Florida,  the  heatless  theatres  in  Alabama,  none 
of  these  can  suppress  the  rich  melody,  the  good 
cheer,  the  masterly  rendition  of  these  singers 
gathered  and  blended  from  many  parts  of  America. 
For  fifteen  years  this  troup  of  William  Colored 
Singers  has  had  an  unparalleled  vogue  before  the 
international  public.  It  had  its  origin  back  in  1904, 
being  organized  by  Mr.  Charles  P.  Willams,  from 
whom  the  company  takes  its  name.  The  personnel 
of  the  troup  has  been  practically  the  same  from  the 
beginning;  no  wonder  they  can  blend  their  voices 
with  equal  fascination  in  "Who  Built  de  Ark?"  and 
in  the  sextet  by  Lucia 

These  are  no  picked-up  'harmonizers,"  but  edu 
cated,  refined  people,  to  begin  with ;  and  intense 
students  of  music  besides.  Mr.  Charles  P.  Wil 
liams,  the  organizer,  was  formerly  a  student  in 
Rust  University,  Holly  Springs,  Mississippi.  His 
father,  D.  A.  Williams,  Presiding  Elder  of  the  Me 
thodist  Episcopal  Church,  of  Mississippi,  was  one 
of  the  leading  men  of  his  race,  but  died  when 
Charles  was  eighteen  years  of  age.  When  his  fa 
ther  died  Charles  was  left  with  the  care  of  a  mo 
ther  and  five  sisters.  Prior  to  this  time  he  had 
been  a  student  of  Rust  University,  and  had  known 
no  responsibility  greater  than  that  of  study  and 
college  athletics.  However,  he  went  to  Chicago, 
and  working  in  various  capacities  managed  to  take 
care  of  the  family  and  home.  He  was  not  con 
tented  with  the  nature  of  his  occupation,  and  final 
ly  secured  a  position  with  a  traveling  Male  Quar 
tette,  which  in  time  was  abandoned  by  its  leader 
and  which  was  ultimately  taken  over  by  Mr.  Wil 
liams.  With  the  remaining  members  of  that  quar 
tette,  he,  with  the  assistance  of  Dr.  Frank  L.  Love- 
land,  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  of  Iowa,  organized 
the  Dixie  Singers.  In  the  Spring  of  1904,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Williams,  and  J.  H.  Johnson  resigned  from 
the  last  named  company  to  organize  what  is  at 
present  the  famous  "Williams'  Singers." 

Mr.  J.  H.  Johnson,  who  is  Mr.  Williams  business 
partner  and  Musical  Director  of  the  company,  was 
born  in  Coal  Creek,  Tennessee.  He  and  his  bro 
ther,  G.  L.  Johnson,  the  first  tenor  singer  of  the 
company,  are  sons  of  a  Methodist  minister,  but 
they  were  in  early  life  sent  to  Knoxville  College, 
a  United  Presbyterian  School,  Knoxville,  Tennes 
see,  where  they  each  received  their  literary  and 

149 


musical  education.  Each  of  them  afterwards  trav 
eled  with  the  Knoxville  College  Glee  Club,  until  J. 
H.  Johnson  located  in  Chicago,  and  G.  L.  Johnson 
accepted  a  call  to  one  of  the  mission  schools  of  the 
United  Presbyterian  Church.  Mr.  Williams  was 
attracted  to  J.  H.  Johnson  when  he  was  directing 
a  choir  in  one  of  the  large  Chicago  churches  and 
induced  him  to  fill  a  vacancy  with  the  Dixies,  and 
to  ultimately  join  Mr.  Williams  in  organizing  the 
present  "Williams'  Singers,"  G.  L.  Johnson  was 
then  called  to  this  new  company.  Mr.  J.  S.  Crabbe, 
the  basso,  was  formerly  manager  for  the  Mutual 
Lyceum  Bureau.  Mrs.  Chas.  P.  Williams  was  for 
merly  Miss  Clara  Kindle  of  Oberlin  College  and  of 
the  Maggie  Porter-Cole  Fisk  Singers.  The  prima 
donna,  Mrs.  Virginia  Greene,  studied  under  Profes 
sors  Perkins  and  Tinsley  of  Chicago.  Mrs.  Hattie 
Franklin  Johnson  was  trained  at  Fisk  University,  at 
Walden  and  in  Chicago  under  Professor  Tinsley. 
Mrs.  Marie  Peeke  Johnson  was  born  in  Madison, 
Wis.,  and  reared  in  the  city  of  Chicago.  She  was 
sent  at  early  age  to  Fisk  University  at  Nashville, 
Tennessee,  where  she  had  eight  years  in  literary 
branches  combined  with  piano  and  vocal  music  un 
der  Miss  Grass  and  Miss  Robinson,  respectively. 
Later  Mrs.  Johnson  studied  under  Mr.  Kurt  Don- 
ath  and  Mr.  A.  Ray  Carpenter,  Chicago,  and  in  the 
meantime  filled  professional  engagements  with 
Fisk  Jubilee  Singers. 

Miss  Inez  L.  McAllister  was  born  at  Pueblo, 
Colo.,  and  is  a  graduate  from  the  High  School  of 
that  city,  is  a  contralto  singer  and  is  Mr.  Williams' 
private  secretary.  She  substitutes  for  Mrs.  Wil 
liams  as  contralto  singer  of  the  company. 

To  years  of  constant  devotion  to  their  life's  work 
in  the  United  States  and  Canada,  they  have  added 
a  year  of  travel  and  study  in  England,  Scotland, 
Wales.  Holland,  Belgium,  Germany  and  France. 
They  were  eighteen  weeks  in  London,  where  they 
gave  130  performances,  singing  in  many  of  its  best 
known  theatres,  among  which  was  the  World-fam 
ous  Coliseum.  While  in  London  the  entire  company 
was  under  the  instruction  of  one  of  the  world's 
greatest  vocal  teachers — Miss  Ira  Aldridge,  who  is 
a  scholar  of  the  London  Royal  Conservatory  of 
Music,  and  whose  early  teacher  was  the  famous 
Jennie  Lind.  This  experience  added  to  natural  tal 
ent  and  former  years  of  faithful  application  en 
hances  the  ability  of  each  individual  singer,  and  has 
produced  in  their  case  a  remarkable  musical  com 
bination. 

The  V.orld  war  has  brought  changes  among  these 
singers,  as  it  has  among  all  kinds  of  groups  the 
world  over.  But  their  popularity  is  unchanged; 
their  enthusiasm  is  unabated,  their  talent  seems  to 
grow  richer  and  richer  as  the  days  pass  by. 


A.  WILBERFORCE  WILLIAMS,  M.  D. 

ANUARY,    1864,    Dr.    A.    Wilber- 
force    was    born    to    Baptice    and 
Flora     Williams.       For     thirteen 
years  young  Williams  lived  on  the 
plantation,    toiling    happily    with 
out   the    knowledge   of   his   A.    B. 
C's.     Then,   in    1876,   he   came   to 
Springfield,  Missouri,  and  for  the 
first  time  had  a  chance  to  attend  school.     In  1881, 
he  obtained  a   license  to  teach  common   school  in 
Mount  Vernon  County,  Mo. 

He  alternated  teaching  and  studying  until  he 
was  graduated  from  the  Normal  Department  at 
Lincoln  Institute,  Jefferson  City,  Mo.  He  then 
taught  in  the  summer  school,  Kansas  City,  Mo., 
and  at  the  same  time  continued  to  study.  He  pur 
sued  private  studies,  took  a  course  at  the  Y.  M.  C. 
A.,  attended  evening  school  and  the  Summer  Nor 
mal. 

Young  Williams  had  some  difficulty  in  choosing 
his  Mir  work.  He  was  a  most  excellent  teacher, 
but  he  felt  that  he  would  not  like  to  make  it  his 
life  work.  He  was  advised  to  become  a  minister. 
The  }  oung  man  decided  that  he  was  not  fitted  for 
such,  a  calling.  Then  for  a  time  he  felt  that  his 
future  happiness  depended  upon  his  becoming  a 
lawyer  and  a  member  of  the  bar.  There  had  been 
a  cyclone  and  young  Williams  had  watched  the 
skill  of  Dr.  Taft,  an  ex-army  surgeon  care  for 
the  wounded.  He  admired  that  skill  as  a  boy.  and 
he  could  not  forget  it  as  a  young  man.  And  so  in 


the  choice  of  his  profession,  Dr.  Williams,  one  of 
our  foremost  surgeons,  went  back  to  his  childhood 
for  the  inspiration  that  made  him  choose  the  pro 
fession  for  which  he  was  best  fitted.  And  having 
definitely  decided  on  his  profession,  Dr.  A.  Wilber- 
force  Williams  set  his  heart  on  becoming  one  of 
the  best,  with  the  ability  to  saw  bones  and  bind 
up  wounds  as  he  had  seen  Dr.  Taft  do. 

Thus  it  was  that  in  1890,  he  left  Kansas  City, 
Mo.,  and  went  to  New  York  to  attend  Bellevue 
College — but,  they  refused  him  admittance  and  he 
returned  to  his  school  room  for  another  year. 
When  next  he  started  out  to  get  admittance  in  a 
medical  school,  he  applied  for  the  place  before 
leaving  his  home.  And  so,  we  find  him  a  student 
of  medicine  in  Northwestern  University,  Chicago, 
111.,  where  he  received  the  same  credit  as  that  of 
any  other  student.  He  was  graduated  in  1894,  and 
then  served  for  two  years  as  resident  physician  in 
Provident  Hospital  in  Chicago. 

Dr.  A.  Wilberforce  Williams  is  Professor  of  In 
ternal  Medicine;  head  of  the  Medical  Department 
of  the  Post  Graduate  School  of  Provident  Hos 
pital  ;  Secretary  of  the  Medical  Staff  and  Attend 
ing  Physician  of  Provident  Hospital  and  lecturer 
on  Hygiene,  Sanitation  and  Medicine  in  its  Train 
ing  School  for  Nurses.  Attending  Physician  for 
six  years  at  the  South  Side  Municipal  Tuberculo 
sis  Dispensary  .Supervisor  of  the  Municipal  Tu 
berculosis  Sanitation  Survey;  he  is  an  authority  on 
all  forms  of  tuberculous  diseases,  a  well  recogniz 
ed  Heart  and  Lung  Specialist  and  Health  Editor  of 
the  Chicago  Defender.  He  is  an  active  member  of 
the  A.  M.  A.,  Illinois  State  and  Chicago  Medical 
Societies,  Mississippi  Valley  Tuberculosis  Confer 
ence,  Robert  Koch  Society  for  the  Prevention  and 
Study  of  Tuberculosis,  the  National  Society  for  the 
Study  and  Prevention  of  Tuberculosis  and  a  mem 
ber  of  the  Executive  Board  of  the  National  Med 
ical  Association  and  also  a  member  of  a  committee 
of  that  Association,  to  wait  on  Secretary  Baker 
for  the  purpose  of  having  colored  professional  men 
(physicians  and  dentists)  commissioned  in  the  U. 
S.  Army  or  to  give  them  deferred  classification  and 
not  be  forced  to  enlist  as  privates  on  account  of 
racial  relations.  He  is  President  of  the  Physicians, 
Dentists  and  Pharmacists  Association  of  Chicago. 

The  U  .S.  Government  selected  him  to  act  as  a 
member  of  the  Advisory  Board  in  the  supervision 
of  the  work  of  Local  Exemption  Boards  in  the  ex 
aminations  of  registrants.  He  was  Chairman  of  the 
Second  Ward  Committee  of  the  Fourth  Liberty 
Loan,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Physicians 
of  the  Red  Cross  Home  Service  Medical  Section  in 
the  medical  care  of  dependents  of  relatives  now 
fighting  at  the  front ;  and  aside  from  these  purely 
medical  organizations,  he  is  a  member  of  the 
Knights  of  Pythias,  Odd  Fellows,  Y.  M.  C.  A., 
Court  General  Robt.  Elliott,  A  .O.  F.,  Urban 
League  and  Social  Service  Club. 

In  connection  with  his  profession  he  has  traveled 
extensively  over  the  United  States,  Mexico  and 
Canada. 

He  was  married  June  1902,  to  Miss  Marry  Eliza 
beth  Tibbs,  of  Danville,  Ky.,  who  enjoys  with  him 
the  comforts  of  their  attractive  modern  home. 

Forty  years  ago  he  stood  before  his  cabin  door 
an  unlettered  boy  of  thirteen.  Now  he  has  found 
his  place  in  life  and  fills  it  with  credit  and  honor. 


150 


ed  States  Army  and  served  until  the  close  of  the 


war. 


WILLIAM  H.  ANDERSON,  D.  D. 

ORN  in  Vigo  County,  Indiana,  May 
8th,  1843,  the  Reverend  Wil 
liam  H.  Anderson  has  seen  innum 
erable  changes  in  the  history  of 
the  country,  has  been  party  to 
many  of  them,  and  has  enjoyed 
with  delight  approaching  ecstasy  the  strides  for 
ward  by  his  own  people. 

From  his  youth  until  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil 
War,  his  life  was  much  like  that  of  the  ordinary  boy 
of  the  northwest.  The  school  being  four  miles 
from  his  home,  he  got  his  first  teaching  from  an 
older  sister.  As  soon  as  he  was  large  enough  to 
walk  the  distance  to  school  in  Vigo  County,  he  be 
gan  to  attend  the  public  schools.  As  a  pupil  he  be 
came  very  brilliant,  usually  standing  at  the  head 
of  his  class. 

He  was  just  coming  into  young  manhood  when 
the  Civil  War  broke  forth.  His  first  appearance  as 
a  speaker  before  the  public  was  due  to  conditions 
surrounding  the  enlistment  of  Negroes.  As  is  com 
mon  knowledge  now  Massachusetts  was  forming 
two  Negro  regiments,  the  Fifty  Fourth  and  the 
Fifty  Fifth.  The  recruiting  officers  were  seek 
ing  to  draft  the  Negroes  of  Indiana  into  the  Massa 
chusetts  regiments.  This  Mr.  Anderson  opposed, 
taking  the  position  that  the  Indiana  Negroes  should 
be  enlisted  for  Indiana  and  not  for  another  state. 

That  he  was  sincere  in  his  protest  and  not  seek 
ing  to  evade,  was  made  clear  by  later  action.  When 
the  time  came  for  the  Indiana  Negro  to  take  up 
arms  and  bear  his  share  of  the  burden  of  war,  all 
four  of  the  Anderson  sons,  he  and  three  others, 
shouldered  arms  and  went  to  the  front  in  the  Unit- 


The  war  over,  he  began  immediately  on  his  life 
as  a  public  servant,  and  later  as  a  minister.  In  1865 
he  was  sent  by  his  regiment  as  a  delegate  to  the 
Negro  Convention,  which  met  in  Nashville  in  Au 
gust,  1865.  In  1870  he  began  his  pastorate.  His 
first  pastorial  work  was  in  Rockville,  Indiana, 
which  church  he  served  one  year.  From  Rock 
ville  he  went  to  Terre  Haute,  Indiana,  where  he 
was  pastor  of  the  Baptist  church  there  for  ten 
years.  From  Terre  Haute  he  went  to  the  Mc- 
Farland  Chapel,  in  Evansville,  Indiana,  where  for 
thirty-five  years  he  has  served  this  church  with 
untiring  zeal  and  fidelity.  This  long  pastorate 
places  Dr.  Anderson  at  the  head  of  the  Indiana  Col 
ored  pastors  in  point  of  continuous  service  to  one 
church,  and  but  very  few  if  any  can  claim  a  like 
distinction  in  the  United  States.  Another  mark  of 
distinction  in  his  long  life  of  service  as  a  pastor, 
(forty  seven  years)  is  that  he  has  only  served  three 
churches — the  one  at  Rockville,  one  at  Terre 
Haute  and  the  McFarland  Chapel  at  Evansville. 
The  fact  of  a  preacher  serving  a  church  as  pastor 
for  thirty  five  years  is  itself  evidence  of  wise  lead 
ership  but  to  cover  this  period  with  only  two  un 
pleasant  meetings  of  the  church,  is  a  remarkable 
showing.  Such  has  been  the  record  of  Dr.  Ander 
son. 

Dr.  Anderson  has  not  been  an  extensive  traveler, 
but  his  mind  has  visited  almost  the  entire  globe.  He 
spends  much  of  his  time  in  his  library  where  he  has 
access  to  books  of  travel  and  history.  He  can  con 
verse  intelligently  with  those  who  have  visited  this 
and  other  countries. 

He  has  held  many  posts  of  honor  in  the  In 
diana  Baptist  Association  and  in  secret  orders.  He 
has  been  a  Mason  for  forty  years,  and  is  at  present 
Grand  Chaplain  of  the  Masons  of  Indiana,  a  posi 
tion  which  he  hrs  held  continuously  for  twenty-sev 
en  years.  He  is  said  to  be  the  first  preacher  of  his 
denomination  in  Indiana  to  receive  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Divinity,  this  was  conferred  upon  him 
by  the  State  University  of  Kentucky,  in  1889.  The 
Kentucky  Colored  people  chose  him  to  fight  the  Jim 
Crow  Coach  Law  in  the  Blue  Grass  State.  This 
law  was  declared  unconstitutional  by  Judge  Barr 
of  Louisville. 

He  owns  his  home  in  Evansville  and  has  interest 
in  other  property.  He  is  the  author  of  a  booklet, 
"Negro  Criminality",  which  is  pronounced  one  of 
the  best  publications  on  that  subject,  Indiana 
knows  him  as  the  young  preacher's  friend. 

Reverend  Anderson  has  been  twice  married: 
He  was  married  to  Miss  Sarah  Jane  Stewart  of 
Terre  Haute,  May  31st,  1866.  He  was  married  to 
Mrs.  Mattie  D.  Griggsby  of  Indianapolis,  Novem 
ber  8th,  1017. 


151 


MOSES  A.  DAVIS. 

IRECTOR  of  Manual  Training  and 
of  Vocational  Education,  in  the 
colored  schools  of  Evansville,  In 
diana,  Moses  A.  Davis  was  born 
in  Savannah,  Georgia,  February 
3rd,  1870.  In  his  early  years  he 
attended  the  public  schools  and  then  Knox 
Institute  of  Athens,  Georgia.  His  study  in  Athens 
brought  to  the  surface  an  almost  insatiable  desire 
for  learning  of  all  kinds,  but  especially  of  the  me 
chanical  and  technical  branches. 

These  he  sought  as  the  old  scholars  pursued 
learning  in  the  various  centers  of  Europe.  He  en 
tered  Hampton  Institute,  was  graduated  there  in 
1891,  then  did  post  graduate  work  there.  During 
summer  sessions  he  went  to  the  Stout  Institute  at 
Menomine,  Wisconsin  ;  then  to  the  Massachusetts 
Institute  of  Technology  at  Boston  ;  then  to  Chicago 
University ;  and  Greer's  Automobile  College  of  Chi 
cago.  He  has  also  in  his  spare  time  pursued  tech 
nical  courses  in  the  International  Correspondence 
School  of  Scranton,  Pennsylvania. 

Mr.  Davis  was  among  the  last  to  receive  a  com 
mission  from  General  Armstrong.  One  of  his  first 
positions  as  a  teacher  was  given  him  through  Gen 
eral  Armstrong,  v/ho  sent  Mr.Davis  to  Frankfort. 


Kentucky,  to  take  charge  of  the  technical  course 
and  manual  training  work  in  the  Kentucky  State 
Normal  School  at  Frankfort.  Here,  being  among 
the  first  colored  men  to  teach  these  subjects  suc 
cessfully,  and  knowing  his  work  from  a  practical 
as  well  as  from  a  theoretical  angle,  Mr.  Davis  be 
came  very  popular  both  as  a  teacher  and  as  a  prac 
tical  builder.  Many  of  the  buildings  of  Frankfort 
were  both  designed  and  constructed  by  him  during 
his  thirteen  years  as  a  teacher  in  the  State  Normal 
School.  From  Frankfort  he  went  to  the  State  Col 
lege  in  Savannah,  his  native  city,  where  he  taught 
for  one  year. 

From  1905  to  1918  he  has  held  his  present  posi 
tion  as  director  of  Manual  and  Vocational  training 
in  Evansville.  All  along  the  line  Mr.  Davis  has 
been  a  pioneer  in  his  work,  as  a  manual  training 
teacher,  directing  knowledge  into  useful  channels 
and  convertng  prejudice  and  information  into  en 
thusiasm  and  devotion. 

Great  indeed  has  been  his  joy  in  his  work.  Dur 
ing  the  twenty-seven  years  of  his  teaching  he  has 
seen  his  favorite  subjects  shake  off  the  ashes  of  re 
jection  and  become  a  main  feature  in  nearly  every 
curriculum  in  the  country.  He  has  put  up  many 
buildings  along  with  giving  class  instruction.  He 
is  at  present  erecting  with  the  students  of  the 
Clark  High  School  of  Evansville  an  Industrial  Art 
Building,  which  is  to  be  the  largest  of  its  kind  north 
of  the  Ohio  River.  Most  agreeable  to  him  how 
ever,  of  all  his  constructive  endeavors,  is  the  fact 
that  while  he  was  a  post  graduate  at  Hampton, 
he  designed  the  school  residence  of  Dr.  Booker  T. 
Washington. 

As  busy  as  he  is  professionally,  Mr.  Davis  finds 
time  to  do  many  useful  things  as  a  citizen  and  as  an 
organization  worker.  Though  a  Christian  Scientist 
in  his  beliefs,  he  has  affiliated  himself  with  the  A. 
M.  E.  Church  as  a  Sunday  School  teacher  and 
worker  in  this  body  in  Evansville.  He  is  a  Mason 
and  a  Knight  Templar,  and  is  a  Past  Deputy  Grand 
Master  of  Masons  of  Kentucky.  He  organized  the 
present  Colored  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  of  Evansville,  and 
was  for  many  years  chairman  of  the  committee  of 
management. 

Mr.  Davis  is  very  fond  of  one  kind  of  travel,  he 
likes  to  attend  the  National  Exposition.  He  num 
bers  on  his  list  the  Atlanta  Exposition,  1895 ;  the 
St.  Louis  Exposition,  1904;  Jamestown  Exposition, 
1907;  and  the  Panama  Exposition,  1915. 

Mr.  Davis  was  married  in  1895  in  Atlanta,  Ga.,  to 
Miss  Beulah  Thompson,  Mrs.  Davis  is  a  graduate 
of  Hampton  Institute,  of  the  class  of  1889.  She 
was  trained  in  the  famous  Whittier  School  at 
Hampton,  and  was  later  a  teacher  at  Tuskegee 
Institute.  Mrs.  Davis  is,  like  her  husband,  devoted 
to  practical  arts.  She  is  director  of  the  Domestic 
Science  work  of  Evansville. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Davis  live  in  their  own  home,  a  very 
well  equipped  and  modern  residence  in  Evansville. 
They  own  property  valued  at  about  $10,000. 

On  March  13th,  1918,  Mr.  Davis  gave  up  his  work 
in  Evansville  with  an  indefinite  leave  of  absence 
from  the  Board  of  Education,  to  go  to  New  York 
City,  from  whence  he  sailed  March  30th,  for  Y.  M. 
C.  A.  War  work  with  the  men  in  France  under 
General  Pershing. 


152 


JOHN   WALTER  HODGE. 


for  themselves 
it     has     done. 


N  the  establishment  of  the  Nation 
al  Negro  Men's  Business  League, 
the  founder,  Booker  T.  Washing 
ton,  had  as  one  of  the  objects 
the  lending  of  inspiration  and  in 
centive  to  men  of  color  to  venture 
out  in  the  realm  of  business.  This 
It  has  been  the  cause  of  do- 


cause 

ing  more  and  better  business  among  those  who 
were  already  out  for  themselves,  and  it  has  caused 
many  who  were  timid  to  cut  loose  from  the  jobs 
that  held  them,  and  take  the  final  plunge  for 
themselves.  Mr.  John  Walter  Hodge  belongs  to 
this  latter  class.  When  this  organization  met  in 
Boston,  at  its  first  meeting  he  was  present.  He  was 
at  that  time  a  Pullman  Porter.  He  had  served  in 
this  work  for  six  years,  and  like  many  another 
young  man  was  content  with  the  easy  money  to  be 
made  in  this  work.  But  when  Mr.  Hodge  heard 
of  the  work  in  the  business  world,  done  by  other 
men  in  his  race,  when  he  heard  them  tell  of  how 
they  had  built  up  their  business  from  very  meager 
beginnings,  he  became  inspired  with  the  idea  of 
venturing  out  for  himself. 

Mr.  Hodge  was  born  in  Chattanooga,  Tennessee, 


September  29th,  1878.  Here  he  spent  his  child 
hood  and  young  manhood.  He  entered  the  Pub 
lic  Schools  of  his  native  city  and  remained  to  get 
all  that  was  offered  in  that  line.  As  a  boy  he 
worked  at  odd  jobs,  in  and  around  places  of  busi 
ness  in  Chattanooga.  In  1899  he  obtained  a  place 
in  the  Pullman  service  and  remained  in  this  until 
1905.  In  1905  he  left  the  service  of  the  Pullman 
Company  and  went  to  Indianapolis,  Indiana,  where 
he  opened  a  Real  Estate  office.  His  office  does 
General  Sales  business,  rental  and  Commission  bus 
iness.  Among  the  big  deals  that  have  been  made 
by  Mr.  Hodge  might  be  mentioned  the  sale  of  the 
present  site  for  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  Building,  and  the 
site  for  the  Knights  of  Pythias  Building. 

After  adopting  Indianapolis  for  his  home  town, 
Mr.  Hodge  decided  to  inclentify  himself  with  all 
the  worthy  institutions  there.  So  we  find  him  a 
very  active  member  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  of  this  city. 
This  branch  is  one  of  the  most  prosperous  and 
most  beautiful  among  colored  people.  Mr.  Hodge 
serves  the  organization  in  the  capacity  of  Secre 
tary  of  the  Board  of  Managers.  He  is  Past  Chan 
cellor  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias  and  Secretary  of 
the  Local  Negro  Business  League.  He  is  a  Mason 
and  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church.  In  fact, 
wherever  we  find  colored  men  gathered  together 
working  for  the  betterment  of  the  race  there  we 
will  find  J.  Walter  Hodge.  He  is  interested  in  all 
movements  for  the  advancement  of  the  race,  and 
is  one  of  the  most  popular  leaders  out  in  Indiana 
polis. 

In  the  interest  of  his  business  and  for  pleasure 
the  subject  of  this  sketch  has  traveled  all  over  the 
United  States.  This  has  served  to  broaden  him 
and  to  make  him  easy  of  approach  to  all  men.  Aug 
ust  15,  1910,  Mr.  Hodge  was  married  to  Miss  Janie 
Parrish,  of  Boston,  Massachusetts.  Mrs.  Hodge 
has  as  great  an  interest  in  the  uplift  of  the  race 
as  has  her  husband.  In  fact  they  are  one  in  their  ef 
forts  to  improve  the  people  around  them.  Mrs. 
Hodge  is  an  active  worker  in  the  Y.  W.  C.  A.,  of 
Indianapolis  and  stood  by  the  organization  through 
all  the  struggles  when  it  was  getting  its  footing. 
All  of  the  city  love  and  respect  this  very  unselfish 
couple.  They  live  in  their  own  home  at  924  Fa- 
yette  Street. 

This  is  a  record  of  a  man  who,  when  he  heard  the 
call  of  a  bigger  chance,  even  though  he  could  not 
see  his  way  to  the  end  of  it,  did  not  hesitate  to  ac 
cept  the  challenge.  And  having  accepted  the  chance 
offered  him,  be  has  used  every  opportunity  to  bet 
ter  others  while  he  was  helping  himself.  For  this 
unselfishness,  he  has  gotten  a  reward  in  the  esteem 
in  which  he  is  held.  All  of  Indianapolis  look  up 
on  him  as  one  of  her  most  useful  and  most  prospe 
rous  business  men. 


15,; 


F.   B.   RANSOM,   LL.   D. 

R.  F.  B.  Ransom  of  Indianapolis, 
Indiana,  is  a  southerner  by  birth, 
having  been  born  in  Grenada, 
Mississippi,  July  13,  1882.  He 
spent  his  early  days  in  Grenada, 
working  on  the  farm  and  attend 
ing  the  public  schools. 

Completing  his  course  in  the  public  schools  he 
went  to  Walden  University,  Nashville,  Tennessee, 
where  he  finished  his  literary  training,  and  where 
he  also  gained  the  degree  of  L.  L.  D.  His  L.  L.  D. 
he  won  in  1908.  He  studied  Theology  in  the  same 
university.  Later  he  read  law  in  Columbia  Univer 
sity  in  New  York.  In  1910  he  began  to  practice 
law  in  Indianapolis. 

In  Indianapolis  he  began  not  only  his  career  as  a 
lawyer,  but  a  career  of  usefulness.  Walden  had 
taught  him  that  no  matter  what  his  chosen  career, 
a  man  counted  in  a  community  or  state  only  in  so 
far  as  he  made  himself  a  genuine  asset  to  his  com 
munity.  This  general  teaching  had  been  very  large 
ly  supplemented  by  his  study  and  application  of 
Theology. 

Going  into  Indianapolis  he  immediately  allied 
himself  with  the  Bethel  A.  M  .E.  Church  and  began 


to  take  hold  and  give  practical  help  in  all  deliber 
ations  and  undertakings  of  the  church.  Here  again 
both  his  training  in  Theology  and  his  education  and 
practice  in  law  made  him  a  most  decided  asset  to 
the  Indianapolis  Church. 

He  joined  the  Masons  and  Knights  of  Pyhthias 
and,  once  more  put  his  shoulder  to  the  wheel  to 
make  those  organizations  greater  lights  to  their 
members  and  to  the  world. 

It  was  not  long  before  both  the  church  and  the 
city  saw  his  worth.  When  therefore  there  was  an 
honor  to  bestow  or  a  responsibility  to  be  assumed 
Mr.  Ransom  was  forthwith  thought  of.  Bethel 
Church  soon  elected  him  to  the  Board  of  Trustees. 
The  Good  Citizens'  League  made  him  president  of 
their  organization.  He  had  been  in  the  city  but  a 
few  years  when  Mr.  Julius  Rosenwald,  the  Chicago 
philanthropist,  sent  abroad  his  offer  to  give  twenty 
five  thousand  dollars  towards  building  Negro 
Young  Men's  Christian  Associations.  Indianapolis 
had  a  great  many  young  men.  She  had  been  strug 
gling  to  keep  their  feet  in  good  and  circumspect 
paths,  especially  during  evening  hours  of  leisure. 
The  colored  citizens  saw  here  the  opportunity  of  a 
life  time,  to  build  an  attractive  building,  to  equip 
it  with  such  appointments  as  the  young  men  would 
find  in  the  pool  rooms  and  in  the  parks  without 
the  liability  of  vice.  A  committee  was  formed  to 
devise  plans  for  raising  funds  to  put  up  and  equip 
such  a  building.  Who  but  F.  B.  Ransom,  skilled 
in  law,  in  theology,  in  the  affairs  of  life,  should  con 
stitute  the  bone  and  sinew  of  such  committee?  The 
Y.  M.  C.  A.  was  built  and  equipped.  It  was  one 
of  the  first  to  embrace  Mr.  Rosenwald's  offer  and 
one  of  the  best  Negro  Y.  M.  C.  A.  buildings  of  the 
country,  of  the  world.  Much  of  the  credit  of  all 
this  is  due  to  F.  B.  Ransom,  to  his  skill,  to  his  will 
ingness  to  serve. 

One  by  one  other  honors  came  to  him.  If  the 
church  and  Y.  M.  C.  A.  relied  upon  him,  why  not 
the  world?  The  Advisory  Committee  of  the  Col 
ored  Alpha  Home  for  the  aged  colored  people  need 
ed  an  attending  attorney,  who  was  concerned  not 
so  much  with  fees,  but  with  the  general  welfare  of 
the  Home  and  of  the  people.  Mr.  Ransom  was 
called  upon  to  fill  this  post.  The  Knights  of  Py 
thias  chose  him  to  serve  for  a  number  of  years  as 
its  Grand  Lecturer.  Thus  today  in  church,  in 
civic  work  as  well  as  in  the  courts  of  law,  Mr. 
Ransom  is  numbered  among  the  best  citizens  of 
Indianapolis.  For  the  last  seven  years  he  has  been 
acting  attorney  for  the  Mme.  C.  J.  Walker  Manu 
facturing  Company  and  for  the  last  year  he  has 
acted  solely  in  that  capacity,  having  had  to  give  up 
all  other  clients,  and  perhaps  Mr.  Ransom  receives 
the  highest  annual  retainer  of  any  colored  attor 
ney  practicing  law. 

Mr.  Ransom  has  traveled  much  both  on  business 
and  for  pleasure,  his  trips  having  taken  him  over 
the  whole  country.  He  was  married  on  July  31, 
1912,  to  Miss  Nettie  L.  Cox,  of  Jackson,  Mississippi. 
Three  little  lads  brighten  the  home  of  the  Ransom 
family ;  Frank,  Frederick,  and  Willard,  aged  four, 
three  and  two,  respectively. 


154 


REVEREND  DIXIE  CICERO  CARTER 


NVIABLE  indeed  is  the  attain- 
iiiL-nt  of  Reverend  D.  C.  Carter  of 
Frankfort,  Kentucky.  He  is  both 
a  minister  and  a  physician.  Stand 
ing  on  the  vantage  point  of  these 
two  professions,  he  commands 
the  secrets  of  the  body  and  of  the  spirit.  His  ap 
proach  must  be  one  of  large  sympathy ;  for  look 
ing  into  the  Mechanism  of  men's  bodies  he  can  un 
derstand  wherein  the  spjrit  has  free  play  in  some 
and  is  debarred  or  suppressed  in  others.  In  him 
science  and  religion  unite  and  clasp  hands  instead 
of  crossing  swords  as  they  often  do  in  other  in 
stances. 

Reverend  Carter,  who  follows  the  ministerial 
career,  was  born  in  Giles  County,  Tennessee,  Nov. 
25,  1866.  A  poor  lad,  he  garnered  bits  of  learning 
wherever  he  could,  laboring  in  the  meantime  for 
bread.  Having  accumulated  sufficient  knowledge 
he  finally  entered  Walden  University  in  Nashville, 
Tenn.  He  later  studied  medicine  in  the  Louisville 
National  College,  in  Louisville,  Kentucky.  Coin 
ing  in  a  time  when  education  for  his  people  was 
unpopular  and  when  the  few  who  wished  well  had 
only  wishes  to  offer,  he  had  to  labor  at  all  kinds 


of  tasks  to  pay  his  way.  Now  he  toiled  in  the 
bristling  August  sun,  picking  cotton,  now  on  the 
railroad,  in  the  hotels,  wherever  he  could  turn  an 
honest  and  honorable  penny,  here  he  was  found. 

He  entered  the  ministry  under  the  impulse  of  an 
inner  suggestion  or  as  it  is  often  called,  a  divine 
call  to  service,  but  the  inspiration  to  study  medi 
cine  came  from  quite  another  source — it  was  the 
suggestion  of  the  son  of  his  employer.  The  young 
man  had  just  graduated  in  medicine  and  was  at 
home  on  a  visit  before  beginning  his  practice. 
While  at  home  he  urged  the  young  colored  lad  to 
study  for  the  career  of  doctor  of  medicine.  So 
deeply  was  he  impressed  with  the  suggestion  that 
he  decided  to  act  upon  his  advice  and  in  due  time 
entered  the  Louisville  National  College  to  prepare 
for  this  line  of  work. 

However,  the  call  to  preach  took  a  much 
stronger  hold  upon  him  than  the  desire  to  enter 
the  medical  profession  and  to  the  service  of  the 
ministry  he  has  in  the  main  devoted  his  life.  His 
knowledge  of  medicine  gives  added  strength  to  his 
work  and  influence  as  a  minister. 

Reverend  Carter  is  blessed  with  a  good,  vigorous 
mind  which  he  is  using  to  the  best  advantage  and 
being  a  man  of  unusual  energy  it  is  not  surprising 
that  he  was  soon  equipped  mentally  for  his  profes 
sion  of  a  minister.  His  first  charge  as  a  minister 
was  at  Elkton  Tennessee  which  he  assumed  in  1885 
at  the  age  of  nineteen  years.  In  accordance  with 
the  policy  of  the  A.  M.  E.  church,  he  was  moved 
from  place  to  place  at  stated  intervals  but  always 
gave  up  a  charge  with  the  best  of  feeling  between 
him  and  his  people.  He  never  left  a  community 
without  leaving  some  imprint  of  his  work  for  the 
betterment  of  both  the  church  and  community, 
which  caused  him  to  be  held  in  grateful  remem 
brance  by  his  people  and  won  the  gratitude  of  his 
successor. 

When  he  was  pastor  in  Brandenburg,  Ky.  he  built 
a  church  there.  He  bought  a  parsonage  during  his 
sojourn  at  Elizabethtown,  Kentucky ;  another  dur 
ing  his  stay  at  Shelbyville  and  built  still  another 
church  at  Pleasureville,  Kentucky.  He  was  the 
pastor  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Church  in  Frankfort  for 
five  years,  but  is  now  pastor  of  the  A.  M.  E. 
Church  at  Ashland,  Kentucky. 

Reverend  Carter  has  four  times  been  represen 
tative  to  the  General  Conference  of  his  church ;  is 
a  life  Trustee  of  Wilberforce  Univrsity  and  a  Trus 
tee  of  Wayman  Institute  of  Kentucky. 

He  is  a  member  of  the  National  Medical  Asso 
ciation  and  a  member  of  the  Mosiac  Templars  of 
America. 

He  was  married  in  Jefferson,  Indiana,  in  Decem 
ber,  1902,  to  Miss  Jennie  Williams,  and  they  have 
one  child,  Geneva  Ossin,  six  years  of  age. 


155 


JAMES  NEWTON   SHELTON. 


HEN  you  go  to  Indianapolis,  In 
diana,  on  business,  and  wish  to 
talk  business  with  the  colored 
men  who  not  only  know  business, 
but  do  business,  it  will  not  be 
long  before  some  one  will  intro 
duce  you  to  James  Newton  Shelton.  Mr.  Shel- 
ton  is  working  in  his  native  state.  He  was  born 
in  Charlestown,  Indiana,  June  12,  1872.  He  had 
from  his  earliest  youth,  good  educational  advan 
tages.  His  mother  and  father  moved  to  Indiana 
polis  when  he  was  one  year  of  age.  He  attended 
the  public  schools  of  Indianapolis,  Marion  county, 
till  he  was  ready  for  the  High  school  and  then  he 
entered  The  Indiana  High  School.  Here  he  made 
a  record  for  himself  not  only  in  scholarship,  but  in 
deportment.  While  still  in  High  school,  Mr.  Shel 
ton  decided  to  be  a  business  man.  No  other  busi 
ness  to  his  mind  offered  the  opportunities  to  the  col 
ored  man  that  are  offered  in  the  undertaking  bus 
iness.  Colored  people  die  at  a  rapid  rate,  if  not  at 
a  greater  rate  than  do  the  people  of  other  races, 
and  of  course  they  require  a  burial.  This,  to  the 
mind  of  Mr.  Shelton,  was  work  for  a  colored  man. 
So  on  leaving  high  school  he  entered  Chicago 
University.  Here,  along  with  other  subjects  taken 
up  he  took  up  the  embalming.  In  this  sub 


ject  he  did  all  the  work  offered  by  the  Univer 
sity  and  on  leaving  received  a  diploma  in  Embalm 
ing.  Mr.  Shelton  had  as  much  foresight  in  choos 
ing  the  place  to  establish  his  business,  as  he  had 
in  choosing  the  kind  of  business.  And  so  instead 
of  returning  to  his  native  town  to  open  his  shop, 
he  stayed  in  Indianapolis.  Here  colored  people 
live  in  large  numbers  and  here  he  felt  sure  that  he 
could  get  a  great  deal  of  the  colored  undertaking 
business.  Starting  out  on  a  small  scale,  Mr.  Shel 
ton  has  steadily  developed  his  business,  putting 
back  into  the  business  the  profits  received  from  it, 
till  today  his  is  one  of  the  choice  business  houses 
operated  by  colored  people  in  the  city  of  Indiana 
polis.  For  his  work  he  now  uses  Auto  Hearses 
entirely.  And  because  of  the  good  equipment  of 
his  establishment  and  because  of  the  courtesy  with 
which  all  persons  are  received  he  gets  a  very  large 
share  of  the  work  in  this  line. 

Mr.  Shelton,  while  he  has  in  no  way  neglected 
his  business,  has,  nevertheless  taken  time  to  serve 
his  people  and  his  city  in  other  capacities.  He  has 
served  as  delegate  to  the  last  three  Republican  Na 
tional  Conventions.  This  shows  the  esteem  in 
which  he  is  held  by  his  people  in  the  matters  of 
political  issue,  not  only  is  he  a  good  organizer,  but 
an  orator  of  ability  also.  He  has  for  the  past  twelve 
years  served  as  Deputy  of  the  Department  of  As 
sessor  of  Center  Township,  Indianapolis.  Mr. 
Shelton  is  the  Past  Grand  Chancellor  of  the  Knights 
of  Pythias  for  the  state  of  Indiana,  and  has  served 
the  order  as  supreme  delegate  for  the  past  ten 
years.  He  is  equally  as  active,  though  not  in  so 
prominent  a  post,  in  other  orders.  He  is  a  Mason, 
Shriner,  an  Odd  Fellow,  a  member  of  the  United 
Brothers  of  Friendship,  and  a  prominent  member 
of  the  Negro  Men's  Business  League.  In  all  of 
these  organizations,  Mr.  Shelton  lends  his  weight 
for  the  betterment  of  the  majority.  Not  only  has 
this  man  loaned  his  business  ability  to  the  develop 
ment  of  secular  orders  that  look  for  the  betterment 
of  the  race,  but  he  gives  freely  of  his  means  and  of 
his  advice  to  the  church  of  which  he  is  an  active 
member.  Although  a  member  of  the  Baptist 
church,  he  helps  all  the  Colored  churches. 

November  25,  1894,  Mr.  Shelton  was  married  to 
Miss  Mamie  E.  Pettiford,  of  Franklin,  Indiana. 
Mrs.  Shelton  has  been  of  great  help  in  the  business 
of  her  husband,  helping  not  only  with  her  advice, 
but  with  actual  work,  whenever  the  occasion  de 
manded  this.  There  is  one  daughter  born  to  them, 
and  who  is  the  joy  of  their  life.  This  is  Miss  Ze- 
ralda  Marion  Shelton.  She  attended  Fisk  Univer 
sity,  Nashville.  Tennessee,  and  for  a  time  was  a 
student  of  music  in  the  Chicago  School  of  Music. 
She  is  now  Mrs.  Scott,  her  husband  being  a  sol 
dier  in  Company  A,  92  Brigade,  now  stationed  in 
France. 


156 


LOGAN  H.  STEWART,  LL.  B. 


HE  son  of  Wesley  and  Victoria 
Stewart,  Logan  H.  Stewart,  news 
boy,  reporter,  real  estate  dealer, 
was  born  in  Union  Town,  Ken 
tucky,  July  22,  1879.  Shortly  af 
ter  his  birth  he  was  taken  to  In 
diana.  When  Mr.  Stewart  was  three  years  old 
his  father  died,  leaving  the  mother  and  three  small 
children.  When  he  was  ten  years  old  his  mother 
took  him  with  the  other  children  to  Evansville, 
where  they  lived  for  a  time  in  want,  but  at  least 
one  son  achieved  victory  over  want,  and  success  in 
life. 

Mr.  Stewart  began  his  career  in  Evansville  by 
selling  papers.  He  sold  the  Evansville  News,  now 
the  Evansville  Journal-News.  Here  the  young  man 
of  fourteen  proved  his  worth.  In  a  short  time  he 
had  built  up  one  of  the  best  routes  of  the  city.  In 
return  the  Evansville  News  made  him  manager  of 
a  district.  He  was  also  given  the  post  of  reporter 
for  the  colored  people,  being  responsible  for  all 
local  news  about  Negroes. 

However,  the  young  man  with  all  this  success 
was  not  merely  working  for  the  newspaper.  He 
was  also  going  to  school.  In  1899  he  was  graduat 
ed  from  the  Latin  course  in  Evansville  High  School. 

157 


Having  decided  to  enter  business  he  took  a  com 
mercial  course  in  the  High  School  in  1900. 

Mr.  Stewart  thanks  all  newspapers  for  his  busi 
ness  career.  He  gained  his  first  experience  in  bus 
iness  by  handling  newspapers.  Moreover,  while 
he  was  attending  school,  he  was  able  to  save  three 
hundred  dollars.  In  the  year  of  his  graduation  he 
invested  a  part  of  this  sum  in  real  estate.  The  ven 
ture  proved  so  profitable  that  he  immediately  re 
solved  to  enter  the  business  of  buying  and  selling 
land  and  lots. 

In  this  business,  Mr.  Stewart  has  been  both  a  pi 
oneer  and  a  benefactor  in  Evansville.  Before  he 
entered  the  business  of  real  estate,  the  10,000  Ne 
gro  population  of  Evansville  was  thought  of  mere 
ly  as  workers  and  church  goers,  not  as  dealers  in 
finance.  Their  realty  holdings  were  less  than  $10,- 

000.  They  had  no  bank  credit,  and  woefully  little 
business    recognition.      Thus    matters    stood    when 
Mr.  Stewart  opened  his  office  in  1900.     By  January 

1,  1917,    the    Negroes    of    Evansville    had   $500,000 
invested  in  real  estate,  substantial  bank  credit,  and 
a  wider  general  credit  and  recognition  throughout 
the  city.     Mr.  Stewart  himself,  beginning  in  pov 
erty  back  in   1889,  now  owns  his  home,  which     is 
valued  at  $7,000;  one  quarter  block  of  stores  and 
shops  in  a  business  section,  valued  at  $15,000;  a  fac 
tory    for   the   manufacture   of   concrete    stone   and 
building  material,  worth  $3,500;  and  other  real  es 
tate  values  amounting  to  $15,000. 

Absorbed  in  business  Mr.  Stewart  has,  however, 
missed  no  opportunity  to  grow  and  to  serve.  While 
joining  no  special  church  he  has  worked  with  the 
Methodist  in  his  town  and  with  any  denomination 
that  set  out  to  serve  the  people.  He  was  one  of 
the  early  members  of  the  National  Negro  Business 
League,  joining  that  body  in  1905.  He  was  charter 
member  of  the  Negro  Y.  M.  C.  A.  of  Evansville  and 
very  instrumental  in  securing  funds  for  the  Negro 
Association  when  it  was  in  its  infancy.  In  1915  he 
organzed  Health  and  Clean-Up  Week  in  Evansville 
causing  five  thousand  colored  people  to  clean  up 
and  beautify  their  homes  and  surroundings,  and 
two  hundred  and  thirty-five  gardens  to  be  planted. 
He  was  president  of  the  Evansville  Negro  Busi 
ness  League  for  more  than  ten  years  and  a  member 
of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  National  Negro 
Business  League.  He  is  on  the  Board  of  Manage 
ment  of  the  Negro  Y.  M.  C.  A.  of  Evansville.  He 
is  a  member  of  the  Evansville  Chamber  of  Com 
merce,  the  only  colored  man  to  have  this  honor.  He 
has  traveled  extensive!}'  in  the  East,  in  the  West, 
and  in  the  South.  He  has  spent  much  time  and  en 
ergy  in  putting  on  their  feet  struggling  Negro  bus 
iness  men,  who  needed  recognition  at  the  banks 
and  instruction  in  handling  business  matters.  In 
honor  of  his  good  services  to  his  fellow  men  and 
in  appreciation  of  his  continued  education,  Lin 
coln-Jefferson  University  of  Hammond,  Ind.,  con 
ferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Laws, 
in  1913. 

Mr.  Stewart  was  married  on  November  30,  1911, 
to  Miss  Sallie  L.  Wyatt  of  Evansville.  Mrs.  Ste 
wart  was  formerly  a  teacher  of  Domestic  Science  in 
the  Evansville  High  School. 


GEORGE  WILLIAM   WARD,   D.   D. 

R.  George  William  Ward,  pas 
tor  of  the  Mount  Zion  Baptist 
Church  of  Indianapolis,  Indiana, 
was  born  in  Port  Gibson,  Mississ 
ippi,  July  2,  1869.  His  early  days 
were  spent  on  the  farm,  where  he 
found  his  first  inspiration  to  labor  and  wait;  where 
he  learned  to  dream  in  big  terms  and  to  execute 
patiently  and  persistently.  This  by  the  way,  this 
quiet  country  life,  in  a  warm  and  fertile  country, 
was  his  first  school. 

He  had  two  more  early  schools.  He  attended  the 
district  schools  of  Clayborne  County,  learning  from 
books  what  knowledge  he  and  his  teacher  could  dig 
out.  Neither  of  them  at  that  time  was  over  adept 
at  this  task,  the  times  being  considerably  out  of 
joint,  by  reason  of  Reconstruction  and  general  rest 
lessness,  and  by  reason  of  the  scarcity  and  very 
limited  preparation  of  the  Negro  teachers.  How 
ever,  a  third  means  of  learning  supplemented  the 
efforts  of  the  struggling  young  lad  and  his  district 
teacher.  He  was  fortunate  enough  to  be  thrown 
into  a  private  white  family,  and  was  given  five 
years  schooling  by  a  white  teacher.  Here  he  got 
environment,  which  did  in  actuality  what  he  had 
been  taught  in  books.  Hence  Dr.  Ward  learned  to 

158 


speak,  to  think,  to  act,  by  example  as  well  as    by 
precept. 

These  three  were  his  preparatory  schools,  nature, 
the  district  school,  the  private  white  family,  in  the 
last  named  speaking  and  acting  education  were  a 
habit  and  not  a  theory.  These  prepared  him  for 
college.  He  chose  Roger  Williams  University,  of 
Nashville,  entered  Corresponding  department  The 
ology,  under  Dr.  Geurnsey,  having  already  become 
a  thorough  going  Baptist.  Theology  and  a  higher 
literary  training  completed  his  studies  and  he  went 
forth  ready  to  preach  and  to  work  among  his  peo 
ple. 

In  his  pastorates  he  has  been  unusually  fortunate, 
as  Baptist  pastorates  go.  He  has  been  pastoring 
now  for  a  quarter  of  a  century,  and  yet  he  has  had 
but  four  charges  in  all  this  time.  His  first  two 
charges  were  in  Mississippi,  at  Duncan,  Mississip 
pi  and  at  Gumunion,  Mississippi ;  at  the  latter 
named  he  worked  for  five  years,  developing  here 
the  habit  of  staying  at  one  post  long  enough  to 
make  his  work  count.  In  1899  he  was  called  to 
Chattanooga,  Tennessee.  I-n  Chattanooga  he  built 
the  Monumental  Baptist  Church,  and  so  made  for 
himself  a  name  in  this  section  of  the  country,  and 
alson  got  in  the  habit  of  church  building. 

From  Chattanooga  he  was  called  to  his 
present  charge  in  Indianapolis,  Indiana,  1907.  Here 
he  again  applied  his  old  practice  of  getting  congre 
gations  into  new  and  spacious  church  homes.  In 
1908  he  built  the  Mount  Zion  Baptist  Church 
on  Twelfth  and  Fayette  Streets,  a  handsome  brick 
structure,  modern  in  all  of  its  appointments  and 
conveniences. 

From  building  churches  and  giving  his  services  in 
other  directions,  honors  have  come  to  him.  He  is 
a  Past  Master  Mason  and  a  moderator  of  the  Union 
Baptist  Association  of  Indiana.  State  University 
at  Louisville,  Kentucky,  has  conferred  upon  him 
the  honorary  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity. 

Dr.  Ward  has  evidently  made  up  his  mind  to  set 
tle  down  in  the  West,  or  at  any  rate  he  is  remaining 
true  to  the  old  habit  formed  back  there  in  Gumun 
ion,  Mississippi,  of  becoming  part  and  parcel  of 
the  place  and  section  he  works  in.  Moreover,  as  a 
minister  he  feels  that  he  must  teach  by  example  as 
well  as  by  precept.  Therefore  he  has  invested  his 
savings  and  his  influence  in  homes  and  enterprises 
in  and  around  Indianapolis.  He  owns  his  home  on 
West  Street  in  Indianapolis  and  one  rent  house,  and 
he  is  stockholder  in  the  Studebaker  Auto  Tire  Cor 
poration  of  South  Bend  and  in  the  Irvington  Sick 
and  Accident  Insurance  Company  of  Indiana. 

Dr.  Ward  was  married  at  Cartersville,  Georgia, 
in  1904.  Mrs.  Ward  was  formerly  Miss  Emma 
Robinson.  What  Dr.  Ward  is  by  example  to  the 
men  of  his  congregation,  Mrs.  Ward  has  in  great 
measure  been  to  the  women.  She  has  been  a  great 
helper  in  church  organization  and  in  church  build 
ing. 


William  Henry  Ballard 


EARED  in  Kentucky  where  he 
seems  to  have  found  the  Elixir 
of  youth  as  well  as  business  suc 
cess,  Dr.  William  H.  Ballard, 
though  approaching  close  upon 
three  scole  years,  carries  upon 
him  no  mark  of  age,  either  in  his  actions  or  in  his 
mind.  To  be  sure,  his  profession  may  be  respon 
sible  for  this  as  he  is  a  pharmacist.  Or  it  may  be 
the  full  life  of  achievement  for  himself  and  of  help 
fulness  to  others  which  he  has  led. 

Among  the  picturesqe  scenes  of  Franklin  County, 
Kentucky,  with  its  rugged  cliffs  overhanging  the 
placid  waters  of  the  Kentucky  River,  was  born  to 
Down  and  Matilda  Ballard,  October  31,  1862,  a  son, 
whom  they  named  William  Henry.  His  parents 
being  industrious  and  energetic  people,  and  seeing 
that  a  liberal  education  was  essential  to  success, 
moved  to  Louisville  in  1870.  Here  their  son  was 
placed  under  a  private  tutor  and  remained  under 
his  instruction  until  the  opening  of  the  public 
schools  in  1873,  when  he  entered  the  public  schools 
and  continued  his  course  of  studies  in  them.  His 
progress  was  rapid ;  he  took  advantage  of  every 
opportunity  to  improve  himself.  After  seven  years 
of  faithful  application  to  his  studies  he  was  gradua 
ted  from  the  Louisville  High  School.  His  thirst 
for  knowledge  was  far  from  being  quenched  when 
he  completed  his  course  in  the  high  school.  What 
he  had  attained  only  whetted  his  appetite  for 
greater  knowledge,  and  made  him  dissatisfied  with 
the  preparation  he  had  received,  which  was  far 
above  that  of  many  youths.  Dr.  Ballard  entered 
Roger  Williams  University,  where  he  pursued  a 
special  course  in  science  and  languages,  complet 
ing  it  in  1884.  While  at  Roger  Williams  Univer 
sity,  Dr.  Ballard  began  the  work  of  teaching.  He, 
like  many  others  who  were  striving  to  be  a  credit 
to  their  race  and  ancestry,  taught  in  the  common 
school  districts  of  Tennessee  and  Kentucky  during 
the  summer  and  pursued  his  studies  at  the  Univer 
sity  during  the  winter. 

The  next  step  in  the  upward  progress  of  Dr.  Bal 
lard  was  his  election  to  the  principalship  of  the 
Mayfield,  Graves  County,  Kentucky,  where  he 
served  with  satisfaction  for  some  time.  His  suc 
cess  as  a  teacher  is  shown  by  the  great  number  of 
ambitious  young  men  and  women  now  employed  in 
the  schools  of  Southwestern  Kentucky,  many  of 
whom  were  under  his  immediate  charge.  This  also 
shows  that  the  fourteen  years  spent  in  the  school 
room  were  characterized  by  conscientious  and  pain 
staking  study. 

In  1890  he  entered  Northwestern  University  at 
Chicago,  111.,  for  the  purpose  of  studying  phar 
macy.  He  was  graduated  from  this  course  in  1892 
receiving  honorable  mention.  Shortly  after  gradu 
ating  from  Northwestern  University,  Dr.  Ballard 


was  married  to  Miss  Bessie  H.  Brady,  one  of  the 
most  estimable  young  women  of  Nashville,  Tenn 
essee,  a  teacher  in  Meig's  High  School,  a  woman 
respected  and  beloved  by  all  who  knew  her. 

He  has  an  interesting  family,  consisiing  of  a  wife 
and  four  children — three  sons  and  a  daughter.  Up 
on  these  he  bestows  his  most  devoted  care  and  af 
fection  and  seeks  their  highest  good.  The  chil 
dren  have  listened  to  the  counsel  of  their  father, 
and  like  him  are  making  something  of  their  lives. 
William  Henry  Ballard,  Jr.,  is  studying  Pharmacy 
at  Howard  University,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  Orville 
L.  Ballard  is  studying  medicine  at  the  same  Insti 
tution  ;  Edward  H.  Ballard  is  a  student  in  the  Lex 
ington  High  School,  and  Miss  Vivian  Elizabeth 
Ballard  is  studying  in  the  Chandler  Normal  School. 

Dr.  Ballard  began  business  in  Lexington,  Ken 
tucky,  February,  1893,  opening  the  first  Pharmacy 
owned  and  controlled  by  Negroes  in  the  State.  He 
has  the  confidence  of  all  his  acquaintances  and  has 
been  highly  honored  by  many  fraternal  orders  to 
which  he  belongs.  He  is  Past  Chancellor  of  the 
Knights  of  Pythias ;  ex-State  Grand  Master  of  the 
United  Brothers  of  Friendship ;  Commander  in 
Chief  of  Blue  Consistory  Scottish  Rite  Masons  ;  and 
has  the  distinction  of  being  a  polished,  capable  and 
conservative  business  man. 

Dr.  Ballard  is  a  Methodist  in  church  affiliation, 
and  is  a  member  of  St.  Paul  African  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church.  He  is  also  a  Trustee  of  the  St. 
Paul  A.  M.  E.  Church.  His  interest  in  the  welfare 
of  the  colored  race  enlists  him  in  all  enterprises 
looking  to  their  development.  The  Colored  Agri 
cultural  and  Mechanical  Fair  Association  was  or 
ganized  to  encourage  the  colored  citizen  to  take 
more  active  interest  in  agriculture  and  mechanical 
pursuits.  Dr.  Ballard  not  only  connected  himself 
with  this  enterprise  but  served  as  Assistant  Secre 
tary,  thus  giving  it  the  benefit  of  his  organizing 
ability. 

While  he  has  not  visited  foreign  countries,  Dr. 
Ballard  has  seen  much  of  the  United  States. 

Dr.  Ballard  exemplifies  what  a  man  of  strong 
character  and  indomitable  courage  may  do.  He  is 
worthy  of  emulation,  not  only  for  what  he  has 
achieved  for  himself,  but  for  the  service  he  has  ren 
dered  in  putting  others  on  their  feet.  The  clerks 
who  worked  in  his  store  have  been  inspired  to 
launch  out  for  themselves.  Four  of  the  drug  stores 
of  the  state  are  run  by  men  who  were  one  time 
clerks  in  the  Ballard  Pharmacy.  One  doctor,  Doc 
tor  White  of  Owensboro,  also  served  time  as  clerk 
in  this  same  store.  Indeed  so  high  is  the  business 
in  the  esteem  of  both  races  that  Dr.  Ballard  has 
been  for  years  a  member  of  the  State  Pharmaceut 
ical  Association.  Thus  Dr.  Ballard  has  lived  a  long 
life  of  usefulness,  helping  to  better  all  whom  he 
touched. 

The  man  who  makes  the  most  of  his  opportuni 
ties  both  for  fitting  himself  for  a  useful  life  and  in 
serving  others  gets  the  most  out  of  life,  and  learns 
from  experience  that  a  life  of  service  is  a  life  of 
joy. 

"What  we  are  is  God's  gift  to  us, 

What  we  make  ourselves  is  our  gift  to  God." 


159 


THOMAS  L.  BROOKS. 

R.  T.  L.  Brooks,  the  subject  of 
this  sketch,  was  born  in  Char- 
lottesville,  Albemarle  County,  Vir 
ginia,  in  1862,  being  the  fourth 
child  of  Thomas  and  Mildred 
Brooks.  His  father  was  a  carpen 
ter  by  trade  and  was  employed  at  the  University  of 
Virginia  to  help  in  keeping  up  the  repairs  around 
the  College  and  it  was  here  that  young  Brooks 
learned  the  trade  of  his  father. 

Commencing  at  the  early  age  of  ten  he  continued 
to  work  with  his  father  until  1883  when  he  came 
to  Frankfort,  Ky.,  secured  employment  with  Rod 
man  and  Sneed,  Contractors,  and  later  with  Wake- 
field  &  Choate.  He  remained  with  the  latter  firm 
eight  years  serving  the  last  half  as  Foreman. 

On  October  18,  1892,  he  was  married  to  Miss 
Mary  L.  Hocker  of  Frankfort,  Ky.,  one  of  the 
Public  School  teachers  of  Franklin  County.  From 
this  union  one  child  was  born,  which  died  in  infancy. 
Both  being  very  fond  of  children  the  home  has  nev 
er  been  without  a  child,  having  adopted  one  daugh 
ter  who  remained  with  them  until  her  marriage  and 
at  present  they  are  rearing  two  of  his  Sister's  child 
ren. 

In  the  same  year  Mr.  Brooks  decided  to  go  into 

160 


the  contracting  business  for  himself.  Although  he 
has  contracted  and  built  throughout  Eastern  Ken 
tucky,  it  has  been  in  Frankfort  that  he  has  made 
his  chief  mark.  Some  of  the  most  beautiful  and 
costly  edifices  erected  all  over  the  Capitol  City  and 
wth  values  ranging  in  the  thousands  are  the  pro 
duct  of  his  brain  and  skill.  It  can  be  truthfully 
stated  that  fully  ninety  percent  of  his  work  has 
been  for  white  people  and  against  the  sharp  oppo 
sition  of  white  competitors.  Over  one-half  of  the 
residences  of  the  celebrated  "Watson  Court" — the 
most  exclusive  and  handsome  section  (white)  of 
Frankfort  was  built  by  him.  The  Columbia  Thea 
tre,  a  $15,000  structure  and  the  leading  and 
most  attractive  moving  picture  theatre  of  the  city 
is  also  his  work. 

The  Auditorium  and  the  Trades  Buildings  of  the 
Kentucky  Normal  &  Industrial  Institute  which 
were  erecter  at  a  cost  of  thirty  thousand  dollars 
were  also  contracted  for  and  built  by  him  and  it  is 
an  object  of  pride  that  both  these  handsome  stone 
buildings  were  built  exclusively  by  Negro  labor. 
The  ten  thousand-dollar  Colored  Odd  Fellows  build 
ing  and  the  twenty-five  thousand-dollar  Colored 
Baptist  Church  were  also  erected  under  his  imme 
diate  supervision. 

Mr.  Brooks  has  a  high  standing  among  the  banks 
and  business  men  of  Frankfort  and  has  accumu 
lated  much  valuable  property,  and  his  word  is  ac 
cepted  as  readily  as  most  men's  bond.  He  is  held 
in  the  very  highest  esteem  by  both  races,  and  is 
one  of  the  most  popular  men  in  the  Capitol  City. 
He  also  takes  high  rank  as  a  Churchman,  being  one 
of  the  most  widely  known  Baptist  laymen  in  Ken 
tucky.  He  has  been  a  Sunday  School  Superintend 
ent  for  twenty  years,  a  Trustee  for  sixteen  years, 
Deacon  for  six  years  and  was  Church  Clerk  for  ov 
er  four  years. 

He  is  also  a  prominent  Secret  Society  man,  hav 
ing  been  Secretary  of  the  Capitol  City  Lodge  of 
Odd  Fellows  for  twenty-seven  years,  frequently 
a  delegate  to  the  B.  M.  C.  and  has  served  his  state 
as  Secretary-Treasurer  of  the  Insurance  Bureau 
and  State  Grand  Master,  at  present  being  State 
Grand  Treasurer.  He  was  the  pioneer  of  the  Ne 
gro  Fraternal  Insurance  in  Kentucky  Grand  Lodge 
of  Odd  Fellows  over  twenty-six  years  ago.  He  also 
holds  high  official  positions  in  the  Masons,  Knights 
of  Pythias  and  the  United  Brothers  of  Frendship. 
At  this  time  he  holds  position  as  Secretary  of  Meri 
dian  Sun  Lodge  which  he  has  held  for  sixteen  years. 
He  is  Past  Grand  Chancellor  and  Treasurer  of  the 
Knights  of  Pythias  which  office  he  has  held  for 
twelve  years  and  has  held  the  office  of  Secretary  of 
Charity  Lodge,  United  Brothers  of  Friendship  for 
five  years  and  is  also  a  member  of  the  Union  Benev 
olent  Society  and  of  the  Mosaic  Templars  of  Amer 
ica. 

Mr.  Brooks  is  of  an  affable  temperament,  up 
right  life  and  a  high  Christian  character  with  an  in 
tense  interest  in  the  welfare  and  advancement  of 
his  people. 


JOHN  BKNJAMIN  COOPER. 


OHN  Benjamin  Cooper,  Funeral 
Director,  Embalmer,  a  business 
man  of  many  interests,  and  a 
member  of  all  the  secret  orders 
of  his  state,  was  born  in  Mobile, 
Alabama,  in  April,  1872.  He  is 
the  son  of  Benjamin  and  Elizabeth  Aga  Cooper. 
In  early  childhood  he  was  possessed  of  an  am 
bition  to  make  something  of  his  life  and  follow 
ing  his  career  from  childhood  to  man's  estate  it 
will  be  seen  that  he  kept  his  eye  upon  his  goal  and 
followed  his  course  unwaveringly.  He  received 
his  early  education  in  the  public  schools  of  Mobile 
and  in  the  Emerson  Institute,  and  A.  M.  E.  School, 
alsb  of  Mobile. 

With  this  foundation,  Mr.  Cooper  left  Mobile 
and  continued  his  education  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio, 
where  he  entered  the  City  High  School.  Finishing 
his  course  here  he  felt  himself  sufficiently  equipped 
for  a  business  career,  but  like  numerous  other 
young  men  he  found  it  necessary  to  earn  some 
money  before  branching  out  for  himself. 

With  this  aim  in  view  he  entered  the  service  of 
the  Pullman  Company  and  was  soon  rated  among 
their  best  employees.  While  in  the  employ  of  the 

161 


Pullman  Company  he  carne  to  a  decision  as  to  the 
character  of  business  he  would  embark  in  and  en 
tered  the  Barnes  School  of  Embalming  in  Chicago 
to  study  the  Undertaking  business.  Completing 
his  studies  here  he  went  to  Louisville  in  1907  and 
took  charge  of  the  Watson  and  Est  which  he  now 
owns  and  controls,  conducting  a  very  successful 
business. 

However,  the  business  of  funeral  director  ap 
pears  to  be  but  a  convenient  peg  upon  which  Mr. 
Cooper  hangs  an  excuse  for  being  in  business. 
From  this,  to  change  the  figure,  he  radiates  into 
every  sort  of  Negro  enterprise  national  or  local, 
that  one  finds  on  the  calendar.  One  wonders  where 
he  finds  time  and  thought  for  it  all.  He  is  a  mem 
ber  of  the  National  Negro  Business  League,  a 
member  of  the  Kentucky  Funeral  Directors'  As 
sociation,  and  of  the  Falls-Cities  Undertaking  As 
sociation.  In  each  of  these  he  is  a  live  member, 
keeping  track  of  the  workings  of  the  organiza 
tions  and  keeping  abreast  of  and  bringing  before 
these  bodies  all  the  latest  inventions  and  devices 
in  handling  and  embalming  the  dead. 

In  business  he  is  director  of  the  Falls  City  Realty 
Company  of  Louisville,  a  director  of  the  Louis 
ville  Cemetery  Association  and  Treasurer  of  the 
Colored  Funeral  Directors'  Association  of  Louis 
ville. 

These  obligations  together  with  the  demands  of 
a  large  business  would  seem  to  be  more  than  the 
average  mortal  could  bear,  but  Mr.  Cooper  is  equal 
to  the  task  and  does  his  work  well.  But  Mr.  Cooper 
is  especially  more  than  the  average  mortal.  He 
has  united  himself  with  fully  a  score  or  more  other 
organizations,  all  of  which  require  time,  thought, 
and  in  many  instances,  a  good  deal  of  study  and 
travel.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Church 
and  is  a  Republican  in  politics.  He  is  a  Mason, 
having  reached  the  thirty-second  degree.  He  is  a 
member  of  the  Odd  Fellows,  of  the  Pythians,  of 
the  United  Brothers  of  Friendship,  of  the  Sons 
and  Daughters  of  Moses,  of  Cooper's  Union, 
of  the  Son's  and  Daughters  of  M  o  r  n  i  ng  ,  of 
the  Brilliant  Comet  Tabernacle,  Sisters  and  Broth 
ers  of  Friendship,  Maces  Lodge,  Union  Star  Lodge, 
Lampton  Street  Aid  Society,  Grand  Star  Court, 
and  active  member  of  Y.  M.  C.  A.  In  none  of  these 
is  he  merely  a  member  but  is  active  in  all  the  mat 
ters  of  business  transactions  and  in  all  that  per 
tains  to  disposing  of  and  handling  the  dead  mem 
bers  of  these  orders. 

Mr.  Cooper  was  married  to  Mrs.  Lavinia  Brady 
Watson  of  Louisville,  August  19th.  1907.  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Cooper  live  in  their  own  home  on  West 
Chestnut  Street,  and  are  both  looked  upon  as  lead 
ers  in  social  uplift  work,  as  well  as  in  business  and 
in  secret  orders. 


THOMAS  MADISON  DORAM,  M.  D.  V. 


HE  Negro  has  yet  in  any  consider 
able  numbers  to  make  his  way  in 
to  the  field  of  Veterinary  practice. 
For  this  there  appears  to  be  sev 
eral  causes.  In  many  cases  the 
calling  appears  not  to  have  been 
attractive.  Again  to  practice  it,  has  been  rather  ex 
pensive  ;  and  finally  many  of  the  Veterinary  schools 
have  been  hard  for  the  black  man  to  enter  and  still 
harder  for  him  to  leave — with  a  diploma. 

Thus  it  is  that  Dr.  T.  M.  Doram,  M.  D.  V.,  of 
Danville,  Kentucky,  will  have  an  added  attraction 
for  the  average  reader  beyond  that  of  mere  per 
sonal  achievement.  Dr.  Doram  is  on  record  as  the 
first  and  only  Negro  in  the  state  of  Kentucky  to  re 
ceive  a  diploma  from  a  Veterinary  College  and  one 
of  the  first  two  colored  men  in  the  United  States 
to  win  such  a  diploma  at  all. 

Dr.  Doram  was  born  in  Danville,  Ky.,  in  1871."  He 
comes  of  a  hardy  stock  of  farmers  and  tradesmen, 
who  loved  to  handle  animals  and  wield  tools.  Dr. 
Doram's  father,  though  a  Carpenter  by  trade,  own 
ed  valuable  land  and  kept  good  horses.  It  was  here 
that  the  young  man  discovered  and  cultivated  fur 
ther  his  love  for  the  horse.  It  is  a  Kentucky  in 


stinct  to  love  a  good  horse  and  from  this  state  has 
come  some  of  the  best  blooded  stock  of  the  world. 
Young  Doram  was  born  and  bread  in  the  Kentucky 
atmosphere  and  it  only  needed  that  he  should  be 
brought  into  a  personal  contact  with  the  horse  to 
develop  a  strong  attachment  for  this  noble  animal. 
While  attending  public  schood  at  Danville,  and 
during  vacation,  the  young  man  worked  with  his 
father  at  the  trade  of  carpentry.  Finishing  the  pub 
lic  school,  Dr.  Doram  entered  the  Eckstein  Norton 
University  at  Cane  Springs,  Ky.,  the  institution  re 
ferred  to  in  the  story  of  Dr.  C.  H.  Parrish  in  this 
volume.  It  was  here,  that  the  young  man  had  his 
skill  acquired  at  carpentry  under  his  father  stand 
him  in  good  stead.  During  his  course  here,  one  of 
the  University  buildings  burned.  Young  Doram 
now  turned  to  and  lent  great  aid  in  rebuilding  the 
University. 

in  1896  he  matriculated  in  the  McKillip  Veter 
inary  College  at  Chicago,  111.  As  a  matter  of  course 
the  rest  of  the  students  were  white,  but  to  show 
what  one  can  do  with  an  opportunity,  at  the  close 
of  the  first  year,  Doram  led  his  class  in  Materia 
Medica ;  the  second  year  he  was  at  the  head  of  his 
class  in  Pharmacy,  and  during  his  last  or  senior 
year  he  was  appointed  senior  assistant  instructor 
in  Pharmacology  of  his  class,  an  honor  of  which 
he  may  be  justly  proud. 

After  graduating,  in  1899,  he  opened  an  office  in 
Evanston,  Illinois,  a  beautiful  suburb  of  Chicago, 
with  a  population  of  thirty  thousand,  where  he 
commenced  the  practice  of  his  profession. 

While  his  practice  here  was  successful  and  grow 
ing,  numbering  among  his  patrons  many  of  the 
wealthy  people  of  that  aristocratic  community,  he 
gave  it  up  after  three  years  residence  there  and 
moved  to  his  old  home  in  Danville,  Kentucky. 
His  practice  has  continuously  grown  and  Dr. 
Doram  is  now  fully  satisfied  that  he  made  no  mis 
take  when  he  entered  the  Veterinary  profession. 

In  October  of  same  year,  at  Danville,  Kentucky, 
he  was  married  to  Miss  Bertha  James  Hancock,  a 
native  of  Austin.  Texas.  She  received  her  educa 
tion  at  Mary  Allen  Seminary,  Crockett,  Tex.  They 
are  now  the  parents  v>f  eight  children,  three  girls 
and  five  boys.  Dr.  Doram  very  much  hopes  that 
at  least  one  or  more  of  his  boys  may  be  inspired 
to  take  up  the  profession  of  Veterinary  Medicine 
and  Surgery,  as  well  as  many  other  young  men  of 
his  race;  for  he  is  confident  that  many  could  suc 
ceed  in  many  parts  of  the  country.  Notwithstand 
ing  that  we  are  in  the  day  of  the  Automobile,  and 
that  so  many  of  them  are  in  use.  Dr.  Doram  is 
thoroughly  convinced  that  the  horse  is  not  a  back 
issue  and  that  this  noble  animal  will  always  be 
in  demand,  which  will  call  for  expert  men  of  his 
profession. 


162 


S.   H.   GEORGE,   M.  D. 

H  1C  story  of  the  small  boy  left 
alone,  either  by  desertion  of  his 
relatives,  by  robbery  or  by  the 
death  of  his  parents  used  to  be  a 
favorite  subject  of  the  writers  of 
fiction.  The  subject  was  one  that 
always  elicited  eager  perusal  and  often  sobs.  Then, 
however,  the  matter  was  very  remote.  No  one 
thought  of  such  a  thing  as  happening  in  real  life. 
I  he  rise  of  modern  biography  and  autobiography. 
the  willingness  of  our  great  men  to  talk  about 
themselves  in  magazine  articles  and  to  be  inter 
viewed  by  the  reporters,  have  turned  the  light  on 
quite  a  different  aspect  of  the  growth  of  our  youths 
into  manhood.  No  longer  is  this  matter  of  priva 
tion,  of  sleeping  out  in  the  open,  of  tattered  clothes 
and  blistered  feet  a  fiction.  It  is  all  a  very  every 
day  reality.  Booker  T.  Washington,  Jacob  Kiis, 
Henry  W.  Grady,  with  the  numberless  capitalists 
who  have  risen  from  hunger  to  opulence,  have 
made  early  hardships  a  sort  of  premium  in  the  life 
of  the  American.  So  much  is  this  so  that  it  is 
counted  a  sort  of  blessing  to  start  off  handicapped 
with  hunger,  lack  of  antecedents  and  with  nobody 
to  appeal  to  but  your  own  strong  arms. 

Such  was  the  early  beginning  of  Dr.  S.  H.  George 


of  Paducah,  Kentucky.  Dr.  George  lays  no  partic 
ular  claim  to  distinction,  is  rather  stingy  with  the 
data  of  his  boyhood  and  early  life,  indeed  is  rather 
inclined  to  withdraw  within  his  shell  when  he  is 
pressed  for  the  story  of  his  career.  Yet  the  distinc- 
ton  of  his  career  lies  in  a  most  desirable  direction. 
Jt  is  this:  It  is  all  normal.  It  is  just  what  the 
average  boy  with  pluck  and  hard  work  could  do. 
The  story  of  Douglass  or  Washington  might  be  dis 
heartening  to  some ;  because  those  men  seemed 
to  accomplish  so  very  much  out  of  so  little.  That 
of  Dr.  George  comes  quite  within  the  reach  of  us 
all. 

Dr.  George  was  born  in  Kentucky.  His  mother 
having  died  when  he  was  three  years  old,  the  lad 
soon  found  it  necessary  to  go  forth  and  earn  a  pen 
ny  wherever  he  could.  He  attended  the  public 
schools  of  his  native  state,  whenever  he  could  af- 
ord  to  do  so.  The  farm,  the  restaurant,  the  rail 
road  all  held  out  chances  for  him  to  earn  his  way. 
Many  of  these  opportunities  he  embraced,  now 
dropping  out  of  school,  now  returning,  when  he 
had  earned  enough  to  sustain  him  for  a  whole  or 
part  of  a  term.  When  he  had  been  sufficiently- 
trained  to  do  school  work,  he  became  a  teacher,  and 
for  seven  years  labored  in  the  school  room.  With 
school  teaching  and  other  work  he  finally  became 
able  to  push  his  education  to  the  desired  end.  He 
entered  Walden  University  in  Nashville,  Tennessee, 
and  after  a  good  long  struggle  was  graduated. 
Daunting  nothing  because  of  the  cost  of  the  col 
lege  course  he  next  registered  in  the  Meharry  Med 
ical  College.  Again  he  had  to  fight  a  lone  battle, 
having  few  to  whom  he  could  look  in  the  time  of 
need.  p:xpenses  here  were  higher,  the  hours  of 
work  were  much  longer,  because  of  experiments, 
lectures  and  outside  reading.  Yet  Dr.  George  was 
not  to  be  halted.  A  doctor  he  wanted  to  be  and  a 
doctor  he  became ;  and  he  used  only  those  means 
which  any  aspiring  youth  with  good  strong  arms 
and  lusty  will  can  use  to  attain  the  goal. 

Completing  his  course  in  Meharry  Medical  Col 
lege,  he  returned  to  his  native  state  and  began  to 
practice.  In  a  few  years  he  felt  more  than  rewarded 
for  all  the  hardships  he  had  suffered ;  for  he  had 
hung  out  his  sign  at  Paducah,  had  made  many 
friends  and  had  built  up  a  very  sucessful  practice. 
He  joined  forces  with  all  the  progressive  organiza 
tions  of  his  state  and  community.  He  allied  himself 
with  the  church  and  with  many  of  the  secret  so 
cieties  of  Kentucky.  He  is  a  Mason,  an  Odd  Fel 
low,  a  Pythian,  and  a  member  of  the  Court  of 
Calanthe.  As  a  professional  man  and  a  leader  Dr. 
George  felt  that  he  must  both  teach  and  show  the 
people  of  his  section  the  ideal  way  to  live.  He, 
therefore,  joined  the  several  business  organiza 
tions.  He  joined  the  Pythian  Mutual  Industrial 
Association  of  the  State  and  soon  became  its  Vice- 
President.  In  a  little  while  the  leading  Negroes  of 
Kentucky  saw  a  wider  need  for  reliable  insurance 
for  colored  people.  They  founded  the  Mamouth 
Life  and  Accident  Insurance  Company.  Dr.  George 
was  one  of  these  founders  and  promoters,  and  has 
been  one  of  the  staunch  supporters  of  the  company. 
'Dr.  George  was  married  to  Miss  Nettie  N.  Mc- 
Claine.  Dr.  George  owns  his  home  in  Paducah. 


163 


JAMES   H.  HATHAWAY. 


ENTUCKY  has  long  taken  a  lead 
ing  place  as  a  prosperous  state. 
She  has  made  a  happy  adjustment 
of  the  so-called  race  question,  by 
giving  all  her  citizens  a  fair  meas- 
sure  of  privileges,  yet  holding  to 
the  social  restriction.  Apparently  this  is  all  her 
darker  sons  have  wanted,  indeed  all  that  black  folk 
want  any  where.  The  Kentucky  men  of  color  have 
gone  far  beyond  their  brothers  in  farming,  in  busi 
ness  and  in  many  instances  in  education.  Thus  her 
sons,  like  the  one  here  mentioned,  have  an  open 
road  to  essay  their  talents. 

Among  the  big  business  men  in  Louisville."  Ken 
tucky.  James  H.  Hathaway  looms  large  and  impor- 
ant.  He  is  not  only  a  business  success  in  one  direc 
tion,  but  in  several.  Indeed  Mr.  Hathaway  appears 
to  have  acquired  the  Midas'  touch ;  only  unlike  the 
king  of  old,  Mr.  Hathaway  worked  for  his  touch  in 
stead  of  gaining  it  through  any  special  favor  of  the 
Gods. 

Of  the  business  he  has  developed,  Mr.  Hathaway 
can  hardly  tell  which,  had  he  to  make  a  choice,  he 
would  select  above  all  the  rest.  He  tried  his  hand 
at  running  a  grocery.  He  succeeded  at  that.  He 
tried  Undertaking,  and  again  he  was  a  success.  He 


essayed  farming,  both  tilling  the  soil  and  raising 
stock ;  again  he  received  abundant  yield.  He  put 
his  hands  to  the  transfer  business  and  once  more 
the  gods  of  fortune  smiled  upon  him. 

Born  in  Montgomery,  Kentucky,  Mr.  Hathaway 
did  not  spend  much  time  in  gaining  an  education. 
He  is  educated,  but  his  is  an  education  of  things  ; 
an  education  from  intimate  contact  and  combat, 
rather  than  the  brand  gained  from  schools  and 
books.  He  began  his  business  experiences  in 
Mount  Stirling,  Kentucky,  where  he  set  up  and 
ran  for  a  good  many  years  a  grocery  store. 

Selling  out  his  grocery,  he  made  his  way  to  Lou 
isville,  Kentucky,  and  secured  a  wagon  or  two  and 
started  in  the  transfer  business.  Thus  for  fourteen 
years  he  plied  his  trade  and  continually  increased 
and  multiplied.  When  Mr.  Hathaway  entered 
business,  there  was  a  transfer  firm  in  Louisville, 
known  as  Smith  and  Nixon.  Seeing  the  business 
acumen  and  dispatch  of  their  colored  rival,  they 
sold  him  their  wagons  arid  horses  for  a  mere  song 
and  got  him  to  handle  their  business  by  contract. 

In  1902,  Mr.  Hathaway  saw  an  opportunity  to  buy 
an  Undertaking  business.  He  secured  this  and  is 
now  one  of  Louisville's  most  successful  colored 
Undertakers. 

As  he  increased  his  income  from  transfer  work 
and  from  Undertaking,  Mr-  Hathaway  looked  out 
upon  the  farmers  and  saw  what  a  happy  invest 
ment  could  be  made  in  farms  and  in  stock  raising, 
especially  in  Kentucky,  where  the  grass  is  luxuriant 
and  the  temperature  is  congenial  to  raising  nearly 
every  breed  of  useful  animals.  Thus  he  has  an 
nexed  to  his  holdings  a  118  acre  farm,  which  is  now 
well  stocked  with  thorough-bred  horses,  sheep, 
hogs,  and  cattle.  After  entering  the  transfer  bus 
iness  it  was  an  easy  glide  into  the  other  branches 
of  business  he  took  on.  As  a  transfer  men  his  ve 
hicles  was  called  into  constant  demand  for  funeral 
occasions  and  this  brought  to  his  attention  the  un 
dertaker's  business.  It  did  not  take  him  long  to 
see  that  this  business  and  the  transfer  business 
could  be  worked  together  and  with  the  large  stock 
of  horses  such  a  business  demanded  it  was  easy 
for  him  to  determine  that  farming  would  be  a  val 
uable  adjunct  to  his  business.  So  the  three  work 
ed  together  to  his  profit.  Mr.  Hathaway 's  other 
property  holdings  are  his  own  house  and  the  build 
ing  in  which  he  runs  his  undertaking  business. 

He  divides  his  energies  between  his  family  and 
his  business.  Other  than  his  membership  in  the 
Christian  church,  he  has  few  affiliations.  He  was 
married  in  1892  to  Miss  Columbia  Gray  of  Louis 
ville,  Ky.  There  are  six  children  in  the  Hathaway 
family :  Miss  Ethel  Louise,  a  graduate  of  the 
Louisville  High  School,  is  her  father's  secretary. 
James  Harris,  Warner  Mason,  Columbia  S.  and 
Ruth  are  still  of  school  age. 


164 


ROBERT  HORACE  HOGAN. 


HE  words  of  the  song,  "Inch  by 
Inch"  find  apt  significance  in  the 
life  of  Mr.  Robert  H.  Hogan,  con 
tractor  and  builder,  of  Lexington, 
Kentucky.  Mr.  Hogan  was  born 
on  a  farm  near  Macon,  Ga.,  Feb. 
12,  1881.  The  Hogans  were  a  very  large  family  who 
lived  the  earlier  years  of  their  history  in  the  coun 
try,  but  who  later  moved  into  Macon.  Mr.  Hogan 
was  born  on  the  farm  near  Macon  before  the  fam 
ily  had  migrated  to  the  city. 

Born  of  a  large  family  the  young  man  had  no 
time  for  school,  but  had  to  earn  money  to  aid  in 
supporting  the  family.  One  of  his  first  jobs  was 
that  of  elevator  boy  in  the  Wesleyan  Female  Col 
lege  at  Macon,  Georgia.  As  good  fortune  would 
have  it,  the  president's  wife,  Mrs.  John  D.  Ham 
mond,  passed  up  and  down  on  that  elevator.  She 
saw  that  young  Hogan  had  no  learning  and  set  out 
to  teach  him.  Mrs.  Hammond  not  only  taught  him 
herself  but  made  arrangement  for  several  of  the 
teachers  to  give  him  help.  She  went  furtner.  She 
wrote  Dr.  Washington  about  the  boy  and  later  had 
him  enter  Tuskegee  Institute. 

While  Mr.  Hogan  liked  Tuskegee  well  enough, 


the  call  of  the  large  family  once  more  threw  him 
out  into  the  world.  He  worked  a  while  in  Macon, 
Ga.,  then  in  Jacksonville,  Florida,  as  a  Government 
brick-layer.  In  the  meantime  he  was  doing  private 
studying  with  the  International  Correspondence 
school.  For  five  years  he  worked  about  in  Florida, 
Georgia,  Alabama  and  Tennessee  as  a  brick-layer, 
studying  and  working  at  the  same  time.  In  1905, 
leaving  Alabama,  where  he  had  been  assisting  in 
the  building  of  a  steel  mill,  he  went  to  Lexington, 
Kentucky,  and  accepted  work  as  foreman  for  H.  A. 
Tandy,  an  old  and  successful  contractor  of  that 
city.  By  this  time  his  studies  began  to  bear  fruit. 
On  completing  his  studies  with  the  International 
Correspondence  School,  he  was  offered  a  position 
with  the  Combs  Lumber  Company,  as  superintend 
ent  of  their  brick  construction  work.  This  was 
one  of  the  largest  firms  of  the  kind  in  the  state 
and  gave  Mr.  Hogan  opportunity  to  app.y  his  the 
ories,  to  learn  new  ones,  and  to  practice  on  big 
undertakings.  For  the  past  seven  years  he  has 
superintended  the  construction  of  all  the  largest 
buildings  of  Lexington.  Continuing  to  study  in 
private,  and  now  having  completed  a  course  in 
Building  Superintendence,  Contracting  and  Estim 
ating,  with  the  American  School  of  Correspondence, 
Mr.  Hogan  thought  it  was  time  for  him  to  launch 
into  business  for  himself.  This  step  he  took,  Jan. 
1,  1916.  Since  that  time  he  has  built  a  mansion  for 
C.  B.  Shafer,  which  cost  $40,000;  constructed  the 
brick  work  in  the  Physicians'  Office  Building  at  a 
cost  of  $20,000;  put  up  the  Bamby  Flat  for  $10,- 
000  and  erected  and  superintended  many  residences 
and  smaller  buildings  and  including  his  own  two- 
story  brick  residence.  At  present  he  is  doing  the 
brick  work  on  the  new  Senior  High  School  Build 
ing,  a  $60,000  building. 

One  feature  in  connection  with  Mr.  Hogan's  new 
line  of  work  is  that  upon  the  guarantee  to  Combs 
Lumber  Co.  that  he  would  take  care  of  a  certain 
amount  of  their  work  as  well  as  the  fact  that  he 
has  an  excellent  standing  with  them,  he  has  been 
able  to  secure  financial  backing  from  that  strong 
company. 

Mr.  Hogan  in  all  his  rush  of  study  and  work  has 
maintained  his  connection  with  the  church  and 
many  other  bodies.  He  is  a  member  of  the  First 
Baptist  Church  of  his  city,  chairman  of  the  Board 
of  Deacons  and  Superintendent  of  the  Sunday 
School.  In  Lodge  affiliation  he  is  a  Mason  of  the 
32nd  degree. 

Mr.  Hogan  was  married  in  1903  to  Miss  Letetia 
Hunter  Jones  of  Macon,  Ga.  Of  the  three  child 
ren  born  in  the  household,  two  are  living.  Robert 
H.,  Jr.,  died  in  infancy.  Horace  Wesley,  10  years 
of  age,  is  in  the  sixth  grade  of  the  public  school; 
Marion  Letetia  is  five  years  old. 


165 


MARSHALL  BELL  LANIER,  A.  B.,  B.  I). 


EVEREND  Lanier  was  born  in 
North  Carolina,  at  Mocksville,  in 
1869.  He  first  attended  the  pub 
lic  schools  of  Salem,  North  Car 
olina,  but  did  not  remain  there  a 
great  while,  but  went  to  Wash 
ington,  D.  C.,  where  he  enrolled  in  Wayland  Semi 
nary.  Here  he  studied  for  two  years,  when  he 
made  another  change.  He  had  become  deeply  im 
pressed  that  he  was  called  to  preach  and  with  a 
view  of  preparing  himself  for  his  ministerial  work 
he  left  Wayland  and  entered  the  Lincoln  Univer 
sity,  located  near  Philadelphia.  He  was  then  a 
young  man,  barely  eighteen  years  of  age,  but  very 
ambitious. 

He  graduated  from  the  Lincoln  University  in 
1892,  and  received  from  that  Institution  his  degree 
of  Bachelor  of  Arts.  Wishing  to  specialize  further 
in  Theological  studies  he  took  a  course  in  Western 
Theological  Seminary,  in  Fittsburg,  Penn.,  and 
was  graduated  as  Bachelor  of  Divinity  in  1896. 
This  was  the  eventful  year  in  the  life  of  Reverend 
Lanier,  for  he  not  only  completed  his  studies  and 
received  his  degree,  but  it  was  the  year  in  which 
he  was  ordained  to  the  ininistrv  and  installed  in  his 


first  pastorate.  His  first  pastorate  was  that  of 
Grace  church,  Pittsburg,  Penn.  He  was  soon  re 
garded  as  an  eloquent  preacher  and  a  sound  theolo 
gian  and  his  progress  in  his  new  field  of  labor  was 
rapid. 

His  reputation  as  a  preacher  soon  spread  and  be 
fore  he  had  served  his  church  very  long  he  rceived 
a  call  to  be  the  Dean  of  the  Theological  Depart 
ment  of  the  State  University.  At  the  same  time 
he  was  called  to  be  Dean  of  the  University  at 
Louisville,  Kentucky.  He  accepted  the  latter  call 
and  for  eight  years  has  served  the  institution.  The 
holding  of  this  office  has  not  prevented  him  from 
continuing  his  work  as  a  minister.  He  has  not  ne 
glected  his  duties  in  connection  with  the  Univer 
sity,  but  has  at  the  same  time  acceptably  served 
the  following  churches  as  Pastor :  First  Baptist 
Church  of  Irvington,  Kentucky,  and  the  Corin 
thian  Baptist  Church,  of  Frankfort,  Kentucky.  He 
is  still  the  Pastor  of  the  latter  church. 

Reverend  Lanier  is  especially  interested  in 
young  men  and  boys  and  never  tires  in  working  in 
their  interest.  He  sees  in  them  great  possibilities 
for  the  advancement  of  the  race,  and  is  exceeding 
ly  ambitious  to  place  before  them  high  ideas  of  life. 
Along  with  his  duties  as  Pastor  and  Dean,  he  is 
trustee  of  the  Home  for  Colored  boys.  This  office 
gives  him  a  fine  opportunity  to  get  in  close  touch 
with  the  boys  and  lead  them  to  improve  their 
minds  and  hearts. 

While  a  minister,  he  does  not  forget  his  duties 
to  his  country  and  State,  and  in  politics  he  very 
naturally  sides  with  the  Republicans.  He  is  also 
a  member  of  .he  Masonic  fraternity  and  makes  his 
personality  felt  in  that  order. 

He  was  married  in  1901,  to  Miss  Maud  E.  Bryce, 
of  Pittsburg,  Penn.,  in  whose  companionship  he 
finds  great  delight.  They  live  in  their  own  home 
on  West  Chestnut  Street,  in  Louisville,  Kentucky. 
Reviewing  the  life  and  work  of  Reverend  Lanier 
it  is  probable  that  in  no  other  way  could  he  have 
served  his  people  better  than  in  the  manner  chosen 
by  him.  First  his  years  of  preparation  gave  him 
a  fund  of  information  which  not  only  fitted  him  for 
his  work,  but  enabled  him  to  scatter  with  a  lavish 
hand  to  the  youth  growing  up  about  him. 

As  Dean  of  the  Theological  Department  of  the 
State  University  at  Louisville,  Kentucky,  he  has 
had  the  privilege  of  touching  with  his  life  a  large 
number  of  young  men  who  are  preparing  to  enter 
the  ministry.  He  has  impressed  them  with  his 
high  ideals  and  has  sent  them  forth  to  influence 
other  lives  in  like  manner. 

All  over  the  State  of  Kentucky,  you  will  find 
men,  young  and  old,  who  have  been  helped  to  a 
better  life  because  at  some  point,  the  life  of  Rev 
erend  Lanier  touched  their's. 


166 


JOHN  A.  C.  LATTIMORE,  M.  D. 


i 


O  man  is  a  hero  to  his  valet,  some 
one  has  said.  This  was  not  the 
case  with  Dr.  John  A.  C.  Latti- 
more,  of  Louisville,  Kentucky. 
Dr.  Lattimore  was  not  a  valet,  but 
he  fulfilled  the  real  spirit  of  the 
saying  in  that  he  was  very  close  to  the  man  who 
influenced  him  to  enter  the  medical  profession. 
Dr.  Lattimore  when  a  lad  was  a  buggy  boy  for 
a  physician,  Dr.  Bullock  of  Greensboro,  North 
Carolina.  He  was  a  very  observant  boy  and  was 
quick  to  note,  as  he  went  with  the  Doctor  in 
making  his  daily  calls,  the  cordial  greeting  he  re 
ceived  and  the  high  esteem  in  which  he  was  held. 
He  also  made  a  note  of  the  handsome  income 
which  came  from  a  large  practice.  Thus  uncon 
sciously.  Dr.  Bullock  influenced  his  buggy  boy  to 
become  a  physician.  Seeing  the  interest  magni 
fied  by  his  buggy  boy  in  bis  work  the  good  Doctor 
suggested  to  him  that  he  study  medicine,  a  sug 
gestion  which  he  was  quick  to  adopt.  I  laving 
formed  the  purpose  he  held  to  bis  course  until 
be  received  his  diploma  and  hung  out  bis  shingle. 
Dr.  Lattimore  was  born  in  Lawndale,  North  Car 
olina,  where  be  received  his  early  training  in  the 


Lawndale  Public  Schools.  After  passing  through 
the  public  schools  he  entered  Bennett  College, 
Greensboro,  North  Carolina,  and  was  graduated 
from  this  Institution  in  the  fall  of  1897.  His  next 
enrollment  was  in  Meharry  Medical  College  in 
Nashville,  Tennessee,  from  which  institution  he 
received  his  doctors  degree  and  the  same  year, 
1901,  be  began  practicing  in  Louisville,  Kentucky. 

The  goal  was    a  magnet  to    draw    him    through 
meshes  of  difficulties  before  the  end  was  obtained. 

However,  his  way  through   school  was  not  one 
fraction  so  easy  as  it  is  to  relate.    The  young  med 
ical  student  was  far  from  rich  and  had  to  toil  at 
many  things  to  defray  his  expenses.     In  vacation 
time,  like  many  other  students,  he  worked  in   the 
hotels  of  Atlantic  City,  N.  J.,  and  New  York  as  bell 
boy  and  waiter.     Throughout  Dr.   Lattimore's  life 
of  hardship  as  a  student  be  remembers  with  great 
tenderness  the  kindness  of  the  president   of   Ben 
nett    College,    who    took    the    young    man    into    his 
home  and  cared  for  him  as  a  father  would  do  for 
his  son.    This  side  of  his  training  brought  into  the 
life  of  the  young  man  a  new  phase,  that  side  which 
neither  the  text-books  nor  the  laboratory  can  dis 
cover;  that  is,  the  spirit  of  helpfulness.     This,  Dr. 
Lattimore  exercises  in  his  relation  to  the  individual, 
but  more  so  in  his  public  spirited  attitude  toward 
life   and   needs    in    his   community.      He    is   always 
willing  and  eager  to  lend  a  band  to  any  progressive 
enterprise  of  his  city  or  state.     With  money,  with 
counsel  or  with  time,  he  has  helped  all  movements 
for  the  betterment  of  his  race  in  his  city,  state,  or 
country.    He  is  found  holding  many  responsible  po 
sitions  of  his  city :  A  member  of  the  executive  board 
of   National   Association    for   the   Advancement   of 
Colored  People,  an  ex-member  of  the  board  of  man 
agers  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  a  trustee  of  his  church. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  K.  of  P.,  of  the  Masons,  of 
the.  U.  B.  F.  and  of  the  Court  of  Calanthe.     He  is 
ex-Grand  Medical  Register  of  the  Knights  of  Py 
thias  of  the  state,  a  postion  which  he  held  until  he 
resigned  to  become  Treasurer  of  the  Pythian  Mu 
tual  Industrial  Association  of  Grand  Lodge  of  the 
State,  a  position  he  holds  until  today.  In  all  these 
bodies  he  is  looked  upon  as  a  wise  leader,  a  gen 
erous  helper,  and  a  man  with  initiative.     He  also 
belongs   to   all   the   leading   Natonal    organizations 
of  his  race :  the  National  Medical  Association,  and 
National  Negro  Business   League,  etc.     Dr.   Latti 
more  is  a  member  of  the  African  Methodist  Epis 
copal   Church. 

Dr.  Lattimore  has  been  fairly  successful  finan 
cially.  He  owns  a  beautiful  home  and  ether  prop 
erty  to  the  value  of  ten  thousand  dollars.  He  is 
also  interested  in  several  business  enterprises  in 
Louisville. 


167 


ALBERT  ERNEST  MEYZEEK,  A.  M. 

ROFESSOR  Albert  E.  Meyzeek, 
Principal  of  the  Normal  and  East 
ern  School  of  Louisville,  Ken 
tucky,  is  the  proverbial  human 
dynamo  in  the  school  teaching 
world  of  Louisville.  He  was  once 
pictured  as  one  who  is  first  to  fight  for  the  rights  of 
his  fellow  countrymen.  Serious  to  the  point  of  se 
verity,  business  like  to  a  fault,  a  friend  to  be  sought 
after,  a  foe  to  be  feared,  a  champion  for  the  rights 
of  the  black  man,  but  with  all  a  jolly  good  fellow. 
In  business  life  a  mighty  factor  in  the  struggle  to 
mould  the  characters  of  our  future  men  and  women 
in  the  private  life,  a  model  husband,  a  property 
owner  and  a  Christian  gentleman. 

The  original  of  the  above  drawn  picture  was  born 
in  Toledo,  Ohio.  Completing  the  course  in  the  pub 
lic  schools  of  his  native  city,  he  pursued  further 
study  in  Terre  Haute,  Indiana.  Finishing  in  Terre 
Haute,  having  planned  definitely  to  make  school 
teaching  his  life  work,  he  entered  Indiana  State 
Normal  College  and  later  studied  at  the  state  Uni 
versity.  Ready  now  for  the  business  of  life,  he 
went  to  Louisville,  Kentucky,  and  began  to  work 

•>    '  cJ 

in  his  chosen  field. 


Inch  by  inch  he  rose  in  the  scale  as  a  school 
teacher,  becoming  prim  ipal  of  the  Grammar,  then 
of  the  Normal  and  Eastern  Schools  of  Louisville 
and  then  of  the  Kentucky  State  Normal  and  In 
dustrial  School. 

In  his  school  work,  Prof.  Meyzeek  always  leaned 
towards  the  practical,  the  useful.  He  put  discipline 
and  order  into  the  Eastern  schools  of  Louisville, 
because  he  looked  upon  discipline  as  a  fundamental 
item  in  education.  He  established  courses  in  domes 
tic  science  even  when  the  city  could  not  provide 
funds  for  it,  because  he  felt  that  such  was  needed 
in  the  every  day  lives  of  his  pupils.  He  organized 
clubs  for  parents  because  he  saw  a  means  of  bring- 
nig  parent  and  child  to  a  better  understanding  with 
each  other  and  both  in  a  relation  to  the  school.  He 
established  the  Normal  training  school  on  a  busi 
ness  basis,  employing  teachers  specially  trained  to 
teach  teachers,  and  he  organized  his  courses  so  that 
those  who  studied  the  theory  could  later  secure 
the  practice. 

To  him  was  intrusted  the  establishment  of  the 
Normal  courses  and  the  organization  and  equip 
ment  of  same  was  left  entirely  to  his  discretion 
and  supervision.  Students  are  appointed  to  posi 
tions  in  the  public  schools  according  to  a  list  fur 
nished  by  him  and  clone  upon  merit  and  no  influ 
ence  can  change  the  plan  adopted  by  him. 

Thoroughly  alive  in  all  the  details  of  school  work. 
Professor  Meyzeek  nevertheless  connected  his 
school  life  with  the  life  of  a  citizen.  Noticing  that 
the  advertisements  in  the  papers  stated  "white  pre 
ferred"  in  asking  for  cooks,  he  opened  courses  for 
domestic  science  that  he  might  improve  the  effi 
ciency  of  the  colored  cooks  already  in  service.  He 
entered  the  campaign  for  a  new  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  was 
the  means  of  securing  a  pledge  of  $6,500  from  the 
white  citizens.  He  entered  in  the  fight  against  the 
separate  street  car  law  in  Louisville  and  broke  the 
back  of  that  measure.  He  fought  the  Louisville 
Segregation  ordinance  tooth  and  nail,  pointing  out 
that  the  white  people  drove  the  best  colored  people 
out  of  colored  sections  of  the  city  by  planting  there 
the  white  "palaces  of  sin." 

It  is  no  wonder  that  the  Kentucky  people  loved 
Prof.  Meyzeek  and  that  various  organizations  hon 
or  him.  For  more  than  seventeen  years  he  has  been 
a  member  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  board  of  directors  and 
for  ten  years,  president.  The  state  University  re 
cently  honored  him  with  the  degree  of  Master  of 
Arts.  He  is  a  pioneer  Juvenile  Court  worker,  a 
promoter  of  libraries  and  an  all  round  citizen  of 
whom  Louisville  is  exceedingly  proud. 

Prof.  Meyzeek  owns  his  own  home  and  three 
rent  houses  in  Terre  Haute.  In  1896  Prof.  Mey 
zeek  was  married  to  Miss  Pearl  Hill,  who  was  a 
teacher  in  the  Louisville  Public  School. 


168 


ROBERT   MITCHELL,  A.   M.,  D.   D. 

EW  big  undertakings  have  occur 
red  among  the  Negroes  of  Ken 
tucky,  or  indeed  among  the  color 
ed  people  of  the  Nation  during  the 
past  quarter  of  a  century  without 
enlisting  the  services  of  Reverend 
Robert  Mitchell,  A.  M.  D.  D.  of  Lexington,  Ken 
tucky.  He  has  been  in  constant  demand  on  the  lec 
ture  platform,  at  Chautauquas,  at  temperance  gath 
erings  and  at  revivals.  In  his  denomination  and 
out  he  has  worked  incessantly.  For  two  years  he 
was  president  of  the  Kentucky  State  Teachers  Asr 
sociation.  For  four  years  he  was  moderator  of  the 
General  Association  of  Kentucky  Baptists.  He  was 
for  fourteen  years  Auditor  of  the  National  Baptist 
Convention  and  is  now  its  vice  president.  For 
twenty-five  years  he  has  been  a  Trustee  of  State 
University  at  Louisville  and  still  holds  his  place 
there.  He  was  a  member  of  the  committee  which 
appeared  before  the  state  legislature  in  1891against 
the  separate  car  law.  Reverend  Mitchell  was  chos 
en  by  his  committee  to  address  the  legislature  of 
Kentucky  on  that  occasion.  Two  years  later  in 
1893,  he  was  a  member  of  the  committee  from  the 
National  Baptist  Convention  to  appear  before 

169 


President  Cleveland  on  matters  pertaining  to  the 
Negro  race. 

In  spite  of  all  these  extra  duties,  Dr.  Mitchell  has 
been  a  constant  and  hard  worker  at  a  special  post. 
He  was  born  in  Fulton  County,  Kentucky,  March 
1,  1864.  When  a  mere  infant  he  was  taken  to  Mis 
sissippi  where  he  attended  the  public  schools  and 
studied  also  in  private  schools.  From  Mississippi  he 
attended  the  State  University  in  Kentucky,  where 
he  gained  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts.  From 
Louisville  he  entered  Gaudaloupe,  Seguin,  Texas, 
where  he  won  the  degree  of  D.  D.  He  is  one  of 
the  many  to  get  his  education  by  waiting  on  the 
tables  mornings  and  evenings.  He  preached  in  odd 
times  when  he  could  get  a  hearing. 

Finishing  his  course  he  immediately  entered  the 
ministry.  His  first  charge  was  at  Paducah,  Ky., 
over  the  Seventh  Street  Baptist  Church.  Here  he 
was  pastor  four  years.  From  Paducah  he  went  to 
Bowling  Green,  where  he  served  eighteen  years, 
two  periods  of  nine  years  each.  He  was  pastor  of 
the  Main  Street  Baptist  Church,  Lexington,  for  two 
years :  of  the  First  Baptist  church  of  Frankfort  five 
and  a  half  years;  of  the  First  Baptist  church  of 
Kansas  City,  Kansas,  three  years  and  of  the  First 
Baptist  Church  of  Lexington,  his  present  charge, 
two  years.  He  was  president  of  Simmons  Memor 
ial  College  at  Bowling  Green  for  eight  years.  He 
has  built  one  church,  completed  and  paid  for  the 
State  Street  Baptist  Church  of  Bowling  Green  at  a 
cost  of  $7,500,  purchased  and  paid  for  the  present 
site  of  the  First  Baptist  Church  of  Frankfort  at  a 
cost  of  more  than  five  thousand  dollars. 

While  he  has  given  himself  untiringly  to  the  de 
velopment  of  his  work  among  his  churches,  he  has 
not  been  altogether  unmindful  of  his  obligations 
to  his  family  and  has  accumulated  a  property,  per 
sonal  and  real,  valued  at  eight  or  ten  thousand  dol 
lars. 

Dr.  Mitchell  was  married  in  1885  to  Miss  Virginia 
Leech  of  Paducah.  One  daughter,  Miss  Emma  B. 
Mitchell  has  been  their  only  child.  She  died  in 
1911.  She  was  a  young  woman  of  rare  attainments, 
having  been  graduated  from  the  Frankfort  High 
School  and  from  the  Kansas  City  High  School  and 
having  done  special  work  in  both  Chicago  Univer 
sity  and  Miami  University. 

Dr.  Mitchell  was  appointed  also  by  the  National 
Baptist  Convention  as  a  member  of  the  delegation 
to  the  World's  Baptist  Alliance,  that  convened  in 
London,  England,  July  1905,  but  owing  to  pressing 
home  obligations  it  was  not  possible  for  him  to  at 
tend. 

He  is  a  splendid  specimen  of  what  honesty, 
sturdy  pluck,  and  persistency  will  do  for  one,  al 
though  born  and  reared  under  unfavorable  circum 
stances. 


REVEREND    JAMES    JODY    McCUTCHEN. 


N  November  9th,  1868,  in  Logan 
County,  Kentucky,  was  born  Rev 
erend  James  J.  McCutchen,  of 
Lexington,  Kentucky,  who  began 
his  career  in  public  by  winning 
honors,  and  throughout  his  long 
and  serviceable  career  he  has  continued  to  carry 
laurels  won  on  fields  of  labor.  Attending  the  pub 
lic  schools  of  his  native  county  he  was  awarded  the 
gold  medal  for  excellence  in  scholarship  and  was 
Valedictorian  of  his  class,  in  1891,  at  Simmons  Me 
morial  College,  Bowling  Green,  Kentucky. 

His  habit  of  study  acquired  in  Logan  County  led 
him  into  several  institutions  and  into  courses,  of 
study  in  various  ways. — He  took  a  post  graduate 
correspondence  course  in  the  scientific  studies  from 
Danville,  New  York ;  gained  an  honorary  degree 
from  Eckstein  Norton  Institute  at  Cane  Spring, 
Kentucky,  finished  a  teacher's  training  course  with 
the  American  Baptist  Publication  Society,  and  com 
pleted  a  course  of  study  in  stenography. 

The  early  age  at  which  he  finished  his  education 
al  courses  gives  evidence  of  an  ususually  vigorous 
mind,  which  his  after  career  enlarged  and  develop 
ed.  These  courses  he  finished  at  the  early  age  of 


sixteen  and  for  some  years  thereafter  he  taught 
school.  He  taught  nine  years  in  Logan  County, 
where  he  was  born,  and  two  years  in  Bowling 
Green  Kentucky.  From  Bowling  Green  he  enter 
ed  the  Theological  College  of  Glascow,  Kentucky, 
where  he  served  as  Principal  for  one  year. 

Rev.  McCutchen  is  a  Missionary  Baptist  and 
was  ordained  to  the  ministry  of  that  church  in  the 
year  1893.  He  took  up  his  work  as  a  minister  at 
once  after  his  ordination  and  found  his  first  field 
of  labor  in  the  pastorate  of  the  Bristow  Baptist 
Church,  of  Bristow,  Kentucky.  Here  he  labored 
for  one  year,  but  gave  up  the  work  for  a  larger 
field,  to  which  he  was  called.  From  1905  to  1913, 
he  served  as  State  Missionary  for  the  Western  dis 
trict  of  Kentucky,  in  which  capacity  he  rendered 
his  denomination  a  great  service.  The  National 
Baptist  Home  Mission  Board  and  the  Southern 
Baptist  Board  co-operated  with  the  State  Board  in 
this  work. 

He  built  the  church  at  Daniel  Boone,  Kentucky ; 
remodeled  the  church  at  Adairville,  Ky.,  remodeled 
the  church  at  Townsends  Grove,  Ky.,  built  the 
church  at  Auburn,  Ky.,  and  two  school  houses  in 
Logan  County.  He  also  assisted  in  establishing 
the  "Baptist  Voice,"  a  Baptist  paper  which  is  pub 
lished  at  Princeton,  Ky.,  and  is  at  present  the  offi 
cial  organ  of  the  Baptists  of  Western  Kentucky. 

His  good  work  was  of  a  character  to  stand,  for 
he  built  upon  a  good  foundation 

When  he  accepted  the  Main  Street  Baptist 
Church,  Lexington,  Kentucky.,  that  body  was  heav 
ily  in  debt  and  much  discouraged,  and  there  was 
a  great  falling  off  in  membership. 

Reverend  McCutchen  in  less  than  two  years  rais 
ed  over  nine  thousand  dollars  ($9,000),  re-united  the 
forces  of  the  church,  lifted  the  mortgage,  put  in 
a  two  thousand  dollar  ($2,000)  pipe  organ,  put  in 
modern  equipment  and  appliances,  and  added  275 
members,  which  gave  the  church  a  total  member 
ship  of  1200.  In  his  career  as  minister,  he  has  bap 
tized  some  1400  souls. 

The  great  denomination  to  which  he  belongs  re 
cognized  his  ability  as  a  leader  and  has  placed  him 
in  many  positions  of  honor  and  responsibility.  He 
is  First  Assistant  Moderator  for  the  State,  and 
holds  the  position  of  Secretary  of  the  Minister's 
and  Deacons'  meeting  of  Lexington  and  vicinity. 
Reverend  McCutchen  has  been  twice  married ; 
the  first  time  to  Miss  Katy  Morrow,  of  Mortimer, 
Kentucky,  in  1892.  She  died  in  1897,  leaving  a  son, 
Walter  L.,  who  died  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  having 
graduated  from  the  preparatory  department  of  M. 
and  F.  College,  Hopkinsville,  Ky.  The  second  Mrs. 
McCutchen  was  Mrs.  Lucy  Morse,  of  Mayfield, 
Kentucky.  They  were  married  at  Mayfield  in  1900. 


170 


REVEREND    ELMORE   THEVALL   OFFUTT. 

MONG  the  Baptist  of  Kentucky, 
Reverend  Elmore  Thevall  Offutt, 
Lexington,  Kentucky,  is  one  of 
the  peers.  His  preparation  has 
been  ample  and  thorough:  his 
knowledge  or  education  from  con 
tact  and  experience  has  been  fully  as  broad  and  in 
timate  as  his  studies  in  books. 

lie  is  out  and  out  a  Kentuckian.  He  was  born 
in  Logan  County  March  17th,  1871.  For  several 
years  he  attended  common  school  but  because  of  a 
lack  of  finance  he  was  forced  to  stop  school  and  to 
"remain  on  the  farm  where  he  worked  in  the  tobac- 
to  fields  to  aid  in  the  support  of  the  family.  At  the 
age  of  eighteen  by  the  consent  of  his  father  he  went 
to  Louisville  to  find  work  with  the  idea  of  finish 
ing  his  education.  It  was  there  In-  learned  the 
tanner's  trade,  working  during  the  day  and  study 
ing  at  night.  At  noon  hours  or  whenever  oppor 
tunity  permitted  he  used  the  blacked  side  of  a  tan 
ned  cow  hide  as  a  substitute  for  a  black  board  upon 
which  he  solved  problems  in  mathematics  and  dia 
gramed  sentences  which  he  had  not  been  able  to 
solve  the  preceding-  night. 

He  was  married  in  Louisville  in  1893  to  Miss   |o- 

171 


anna  Kemble,  whose  faithful  cooperation  and  Chris 
tian  life  has  made  his  success  possible.  There  are 
nine  children  in  the  Offutt  family:  Miss  Elnora  B. 
who  is  teaching  in  the  public  school,  Elmore  T.  Jr., 
Harriett,  James  Arthur,  Olivia,  Queenie,  Garland 
and  William,  who  are  students  and  pupils  in  school 
and  Joanna  Kimble  Offutt  who  is  yet  a  baby. 

He  was  converted  and  baptized  into  the  fellow 
ship  of  the  Portland  Baptist  Church  in  1894  and 
was  ordained  to  the  gospel  ministry  in  1896.  In 
connection  with  his  school  work  he  has  sucessfully 
pastored  the  following  churches  each  of  which 
protested  his  resignation:  Harrods  Creek,  Jeffer 
son  County;  Elk  Creek,  Spencer  County;  Indiana 
Ave.  Baptist  Church,  Jeffersonville,  Ind. ;  La 
Grange,  Oldham  County,  Ky. ;  Eminence,  Henry 
County;  Portland  Baptist  Church,  Louisville,  which 
he  resigned  to  accept  his  present  charge,  the  Pleas 
ant  Green  Baptist  Church,  Lexington,  Ky.  He  has 
recently  written  a  short  history  of  this  church 
which  is  of  great  value  to  those  who  are  interested 
in  the  early  history  of  Baptists  in  this  country.  This 
is  the  oldest  Colored  Baptist  church  west  of  the  Al- 
leghanies  and  one  of  the  oldest  in  the  United  States. 
It  was  organized  in  1790,  has  a  membership  of 
twelve  hundred  and  a  property  valuation  of  thirty 
thousand  dollars.  The  prosperity  of  the  church 
was  never  greater  than  at  present. 

Jn  1901,  he  entered  State  University,  Louisville, 
an  opportunity  he  recognized  as  answer  to  prayer. 
Here,  he  was  not  long  in  making  his  presence  felt, 
becoming  a  brilliant  student  in  most  of  the  branches 
he  inn-sued.  After  his  graduation  from  the  Colleg 
iate  and  Theological  departments,  he  became  a 
teacher  in  the  University,  a  position  he  filled  with 
credit  for  several  years.  While  teaching  at  the 
University  he  continued  his  pastoral  duties  and 
studied  medicine  in  the  Louisville  National  Medi 
cal  College.  He  has  also  taken  a  course  in  law 
from  the  American  Correspondence  School  of  Law, 
Chicago. 

Rev.  Offutt  is  active  in  both  the  state  and  nation 
al  work  of  his  denomination.  Eor  several  years  he 
served  as  moderator  of  Central  District  Association 
of  Kentucky  Baptist.  Because  of  his  modesty  and 
Christian  piety  combined  with  his  general  knowl 
edge,  especially  of  the  Bible,  he  is  held  in  high  es 
teem  by  the  ministry  and  has  been  honored  for  the 
past  three  years  by  the  minister's  meeting  of  his 
city  as  lecturer  on  the  Sunday  School  lesson,  one  of 
which  is  delivered  each  Monday  morning.  In  his 
church  he  conducts  a  class  twice  a  week  for  the 
benefit  of  all  ministers  who  have  not  had  the  ad 
vantage  of  theological  training.  He  is  interested 
in  the  Sunday  School  work  of  the  State  and  con 
ducts  institutes  in  his  own  district  convention.  He 
is  a  contributor  to  the  Sunday  School  Teacher  pub 
lisher  by  the  National  Baptist  Publishing  Board, 
Nashville,  Tenn.  From  time  to  time  he  has  served 
on  the  various  boards  of  the  National  Baptist  Con 
vention  and  is  now  a  member  and  treasurer  of  the 
(educational  Board  of  that  body. 


CHARLES  HENRY  PARRISH,  A.  B.,  A.  M., 
D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  F.  R.  G.  S. 


T  was  the  late  Mark  Twain  who 
insisted  that  mere  facts  contained 
by  far  more  mystery  and  more 
thrills  than  fiction.  Such  certain 
ly  are  the  facts  of  the  iife  of  Dr. 
C.  H.  Parrish,  D.  D.,  F.  R.  G.  S., 
President  of  the  Eckstein  Norton  University, 
Cane  Springs,  Ky.,  and  thirty  years  pastor  of  the 
Calvary  Baptist  Church,  Louisville,  Ky.  Dr.  Par 
rish  was  born  a  slave  on  the  Beverly  A.  Hicks  plan 
tation  in  Lexington,  Ky.  At  ten  years  of  age  he 
was  converted  and  baptized,  by  Reverend  James 
Monroe,  Pastor  First  Baptist  Church,  Lexington, 
Ky.  Shortly  after  this  he  began  a  life  that  has 
been  crowned  with  rare  distinctions,  unusual  and 
out-of-the-way  honors  and  happenings. 

Dr.  Parrish  began  to  win  laurels  in  school.  One 
of  the  early  students  in  the  State  University,  he  was 
the  first  valedictorian  from  the  college  department 
of  that  insitution.  This  was  in  1886.  The  Univer 
sity  thought  so  well  of  its  first  valedictorian  that  it 
afterwards  engaged  him  as  a  Professor  of  Greek 
and  secretary  and  treasurer  of  Eckstein  University. 
Jointly  with  the  Reverend  Wm.  J.  Simmons,  he 
founded  the  Eckstein  Institute,  in  1890,  where  he 
remained  as  its  President  for  twenty  two  years,  at 


which  time  Eckstein  Institute  was  connected  with 
Lincoln  Institute.  Dr  Parrish  is  Secretary  of  the 
Board  of  Trustees  of  Lincoln  Institute. 

During  this  period,  so  full  of  responsible  labors, 
he  remained  the  Pastor  of  the  Calvary  Baptist 
Church,  of  Louisville  Kentucky,  never  once  halting 
in  his  active  duties  in  connection  therewith.  His 
time  was  fully  occupied  in  teaching,  preaching,  vis 
iting  and  the  other  multiform  duties  of  a  city  pas 
torate.  He  won  the  degree  of  A.  B.  and  A.  M.  and 
D.  D.  from  the  Kentucky  State  University,  LL.  D. 
from  the  Central  Law  School  and  Fellow  of  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society  from  London. 

He  went  to  the  world's  Baptist  Congress,  which 
met  in  Jerusalem  in  1894;  was  messenger  to  the 
World's  Sunday  School  Convention  the  same  year ; 
under  the  direction  of  Karl  Maschar  inspector  of 
German  Baptist  Missions,  he  traveled  through  Ger 
many  and  preached  in  seventeen  German  towns, 
winning  six  hundred  converts ;  he  was  a  messen 
ger  to  the  Baptists  of  Jamaica  in  1915;  he  has  trav 
eled  through  the  Holy  Land  and  has  stood  waist 
deep  in  the  waters  of  the  river  Jordan ;  he  has 
baptised  believers  in  the  Carribean  Sea,  and  in  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico. 

Traveling  thus  abroad  and  extensively  in  this 
country,  Dr.  Parrish  has  nevertheless  held  no  end 
of  important  posts  at  home.  As  has  been  stated, 
he  has  been  the  pastor  of  the  Calvary  Baptist 
Church  of  Louisville  for  thirty  years.  He  is  Sup 
erintendent  of  the  Kentucky  Home  for  Colored 
Children ;  president  of  the  citizens  National  Hospi 
tal  and  Vice  President  of  the  Mammoth  Life  and 
Accident  Insurance  Company;  Ex-Moderator  of 
the  General  Association  of  Kentucky  Baptists.  Yet 
these  side  duties  appear  only  to  have  multiplied  Dr. 
Parrish's  offices  in  the  church.  He  has  baptised 
1500  persons,  united  160  couples  in  marriage, 
preached  548  funerals,  preached  3000  sermons  and 
delivered  even  more  lectures.  Probably  his  great 
est  effort  as  a  pulpit  orator  came  at  the  Nashville 
Convention  a  few  years  ago,  known  as  the  fiftieth 
Jubilee  sermon.  Dr.  J.  M.  Frost  of  Nashville,  said 
of  the  sermon :  "It  was  a  most  fitting  crown  of  the 
fifty  years  of  remarkable  progress  of  the  colored 
people." 

Many  of  his  sermons  and  tracts  have  appeared  in 
print.  Aside  from  these  he  has  published  several 
books  entitled :  "What  Baptists  Believe,"  "God  and 
His  People,"  "The  Gospel  in  the  Adjustment  of 
Race  Differences,"  "Orient  Light  or  Travels  in  the 
Holy  Land,"  "The  Golden  Jubilee  of  Kentucky  Bap 
tists." 

Dr.  Parrish  was  married  in  1898  to  Miss  Mary  V. 
Cook,  of  Bowling  Green,  Kentucky.  One  son, 
Charles  Henry,  Jr.,  has  been  born  into  the  Parrish 
Home.  The  young  man  is  now  in  school  in  How 
ard  University,  Washington,  D.  C. 


172 


OTHO  DANDRITH   PORTER,  A.   B..   M.   D. 

R.  O.  D.  Porter,  A.  B.  and  M.  D. 
is  one  of  those  to  contradict  the 
saying  that  the  prophet  is  without 
honor  in  his  own  country.  Born  in 
Bowling  Green,  Kentucky,  he  has 
spent  most  of  his  life  there.  As  a 
boy  he  attended  the  public  schools  there.  As  a 
young  man  struggling  to  find  the  light  he  worked 
in  and  around  his  native  city. 

On  finishing  the  public  schools  of  Bowling  Green, 
Dr.  Porter  went  out  as  a  school  teacher  and  for 
years  gave  instruction  in  the  country  schools.  Two 
factors  contributed  to  his  stay  in  the  school  room  : 
one  was  that  he  was  not  yet  fully  persuaded  of  his 
calling:  the  other,  persuasion  or  not,  he  had  to 
earn  a  livelihood  and  also  pay  his  way  if  he  de 
cided  to  study  further. 

His  experience  with  the  people  in  the  country 
soon  pointed  to  a  decision.  The  people's  ways  of 
eating,  of  sleeping,  of  wearing  clothes  convinced 
him  that  no  need  was  so  crying  as  that  for  a  phy 
sician  and  a  social  worker,  one  who  not  only  admin 
istered  drugs,  but  spread  everywhere  and  at  all 
times  common  knowledge  of  health  and  sanitation. 
So  persuaded,  he  entered  Fisk  University  prepar 
atory  department  in  1884.  He  was  not  seeking 

173 


short  cuts  but  thorough  preparaton.  From  the  pre 
paratory  department,  he  entered  the  college  from 
which  he  obtained  his  Bachelor  of  Arts  degree  in 
1891.  During  this  time  he  taught  school  in  Ken 
tucky,  Tennessee,  Texas,  and  many  other  places  to 
earn  money  to  make  his  way.  However,  though  he 
had  to  work  his  way,  he  stood  as  one  of  the  best 
scholars  of  his  class  and  one  of  the  institution's 
strongest  men. 

From  Fisk,  Mr.  Porter  enrolled  as  a  medical  stu 
dent  in  Meharry  Medical  College.  From  here  he 
received  his  doctor's  degree  in  three  years.  Back 
to  his  native  home  he.  went,  passed  the  state  ex 
amination  and  set  out  to  right  the  wrongs  of  health 
such  as  he  had  seen  during  his  boyhood  days  and 
during  his  school  teaching  in  the  country.  Know 
ing  his  community  and  state,  Dr.  Porter  was  able 
to  go  to  the  heart  of  his  work  at  once.  He  has 
been  practicng  a  little  more  than  20  years.  During 
this  period,  though  he  came  out  of  school  all  but 
penniless,  he  has  equipped  himself  with  the  best 
books  and  tools  his  profession  affords,  has  his  auto 
mobile,  owns  some  of  the  choicest  real  estate  in 
Bowling  Green  and  owns  and  lives  in  a  two-tory 
brick  resdence.  His  two-story  office  building  faces 
main  street  and  joins  the  costly  lot  on  which  is 
built  the  $150,000.00  Custom  House. 

During  the  few  years  of  his  practice,  Dr.  Porter 
has  been  president  of  the  National  Medical  Asso 
ciation  of  Colored  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  a  post 
to  which  he  was  elected  in  1899.  One  of  the  best 
facts  about  his  election  to  this  post  is  the  fact  that 
it  came  unsought.  He  is  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
State  Medical  Association  and  is  a  member  of  the 
State  Association  of  both  white  and  colored  doc 
tors. 

Doctor  Porter  was  married  in  April,  1895,  to  Miss 
Carry  Bridges  of  Macon,  Miss.  Mrs.  Porter  was 
educated  at  Fisk  Universty.  To  her  Dr.  Porter 
gives  most  of  the  praise  for  his  success. 

From  his  own  town  comes  this  tribute : 

"The  public  takes  keen  interest  in  Dr.  Porter's 
work.  The  white  physicians  have  no  hesitancy  in 
sitting  in  consultation  with  him  because  they  know 
his  worth  and  ability  as  a  physician,  and  therefore 
value  highly  his  opinion  in  cases  which  require 
rare  skill  and  experience.  He  is  thoroughly  inter 
ested  in  all  business,  social  or  benevolent  move 
ments  for  the  advancement  of  the  race  in  this  city 
a  -id  vicinity,  and  n^ver  refuses  to  give  encourage 
ment  to  the  struggling  young  men  and  women  of 
the  race.  As  busy  as  Dr.  Porter  is  with  matters 
as  above  indicated,  he  devotes  time  to  religious 
work  in  his  church  in  an  official  capacity. 

Dr.  Porter  believes  in  race  co-operation  along  all 
lines,  anJ  h:c  willingness  to  he'.p  hir,  p-o;:!e  by  serv 
ing  at  the  head  of  many  organized  bodies  for  uplift 
in  this  city  is  an  evidence  of  his  sincerity." 


WILLIAM   HENRY   STEWARD. 


William  Henry  Steward 


Y  virtue  of  devoted  services  as  well 
as  by  dint  of  years,  William  H. 
Steward  of  Louisville,  Kentucky, 
is  known  throughout  the  country 
as  the  "Dean  of  Colored  Editors." 
He  began  the  publication  of  the 
American  Baptist  in  1879.  For  thirty  eight  years 
therefore  he  has  molded  the  sentiments  of  his  peo 
ple  both  in  his  state  and  wherever  Baptists  are 
found.  But  the  American  Baptist  has  merely  serv 
ed  as  a  sort  of  peg  for  him  to  hang  on  while  he 
labored  here  and  advised  there.  For  fourteen  years 
he  was  secretary  of  the  National  Baptist  Conven 
tion.  For  forty  years  he  has  been  secretary  of  the 
Kentucky  Baptist  Association,  and  for  forty  years 
chairman  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Kentucky 
State  University. 

Mr.  Steward  was  born  on  July  26,  1847,  at  a  time 
when  neither  the  advantages  of  education  nor  op 
portunities  knocked  very  energetically  on  the  black 
boy's  cabin  door,  but  his  ear  was  keen  to  hear  even 
the  slight  knocking  of  opportunity  and  to  seize  it 
by  the  forelocks  while  it  was  passing. 

He  received  the  ground  work  of  his  education 
through  private  instruction  and  when  he  had  ad 
vanced  to  a  certain  point  he  was  sent  to  Louisville 
where  he  entered  private  schools.  He  proved  an 
apt  pupil  and  became  very  proficient  as  a  scholar 
so  that  when  emancipation  came  he  was  ready  to 
take  his  place  as  an  efficient  worker  and  leader 
among  his  people. 

His  preparation  during  the  period  of  slavery  was 
a  God  send  to  both  himself  and  his  people  for  his 
services  came  at  a  time  when  the  demand  for  edu 
cated  leadership  among  the  Negroes  was  great  and 
the  supply  exceedingly  small. 

Mr.  Steward  was  quick  to  recognize  the  situa 
tion  and  quick  to  respond  to  the  cry  of  help  and 
to  devote  his  life  to  the  uplift  of  his  race. 

Like  most  persons  who  at  that  time  chanced  to 
have  an  education,  Mr.  Steward  entered  the  pro 
fession  of  school  teaching.  He  began  at  Krank- 
fort,  Kentucky,  where  he  taught  for  three  years. 
From  Frankfort,  he  returned  to  his  native  heath. 
Louisville,  continuing  in  the  same  profession. 

The  teaching  profession  did  not  offer  the  moder 
ate  income  and  fair  opportunities  for  service  and 
advancement  as  it  does  now.  Mr.  Steward  there 
fore  left  the  schoolrooms.  He  entered  the  employ 
of  the  railroad  and  for  a  number  of  years  served 
as  messenger  for  the  Louisville  and  Nashville  Rail 
road  Company.  From  Railroad  messenger  he  be 
came  letter  carrier,  being  the  first  colored  mail  car 
rier  ever  appointed  in  the  city  of  Louisville.  This 


post  he  held  for  sixteen  years.  By  this  time  he  had 
established  himself  as  a  thinker  and  writer.  His 
paper  had  become  known  along  with  him.  He  could 
now  give  his  time  to  the  publishing  of  the  American 
Baptist  and  to  the  uplift  work  with  which  he  had 
aligned  himself  from  the  beginning  of  his  career. 

He  had  begun  his  career  by  joining  the  church. 
In  1867,  when  he  launched  out  as  a  school  teacher, 
he  became  a  member  of  the  Fifth  Street  Baptist 
Church  in  Louisville.  Subsequently  he  taught  a 
Sunday  School  class,  the  largest  in  his  church,  be 
came  secretary  of  the  choir  and  Sunday  School 
Superintendent.  He  was  elected  secretary  of  the 
Board  of  Directors  of  the  Louisville  Colored  Public 
Schools  from  which  place  he  was  later  advanced  to 
chairman  of  the  board.  He  joined  the  Masonic 
Lodge  and  was  soon  made  Grand  Master.  In  1905 
he  was  chosen  one  of  the  lay  delegates  to  the 
World's  Congress  which  was  held  in  London,  Eng 
land. 

Mr.  Steward  has  traveled  much,  mainly  as  a 
newspaper  man  and  as  an  active  servant  of  his 
people.  Few  Negro  organizations  assemble  with 
out  him.  The  late  Dr.  Washington  was  won't  to 
say,  speaking  at  the  annual  Farmers  Conference, 
"This  conference  would  be  very  incomplete  without 
the  presence  of  Mr.  W.  H.  Steward,  he  has  come 
here  regularly  with  his  sympathy  and  words  of 
cheer  for  years." 

Mr.  Steward  lives  in  his  own  home,  a  brick  res 
idence  in  Louisville,  surrounded  by  a  happy  and  well 
educated  family.  He  was  married  to  Miss  Mamie 
E.  Lee,  in  Lexington,  in  1878.  Mrs.  Steward  is  well 
known  herself  as  an  educator  and  a  woman  of  tal 
ent.  She  was  for  years  a  teacher  of  music  at  the 
State  University,  a  native  Baptist  worker  among 
women  and  a  lecturer  in  continual  demand.  There 
are  three  daughters  and  one  son  in  the  Steward 
family  Misses  Lucy  B.  and  Jennette  L.  are  gradu 
ates  of  the  Louisville  High  School;  Miss  Carolyna 
is  not  only  a  graduate  from  the  High  School,  but 
from  the  State  University.  All  three  have  been 
successful  school  teachers.  Willim  H.  Jr.,  is  a  Me 
chanical  Engineer,  being  a  graduate  of  the  Armour 
School  of  Technology  of  Chicago.  He  was  for  two 
years  a  teacher  in  Tuskegee  Institute,  having 
charge  of  the  school's  heating  plant  and  lending 
great  aid  in  the  construction  of  the  larger  Tuske 
gee  heating  and  lighting  plant.  He  is  drafting  en 
gineer. 

The  veteran  editor  and  worker,  though  seventy 
years  of  age,  is  still  in  the  heyday  of  service,  active 
in  mind  and  in  body,  editing,  lending  aid,  giving  ad 
vice,  attending  organizations  just  as  if  he  were  ne 
ver  to  grow  old. 


175 


EDWARD  E.  UNDERWOOD,  M.  D. 


HE  black  man  of  the  North  and  of 
the  West  is  rapidly  coming  into 
his  own.  Time  was  when  the  man 
of  the  South  boasted  that  the 
"Doers"  all  came  from  their  ranks. 
Not  so  in  these  days.  Dr.  E.  E. 
Underwood  is  a  conspicious  ex 
ample  of  the  plucky  boy  born  and 
reared  in  the  West.  Dr.  Underwood  was  born  in 
Mt.  Pleasant,  Ohio,  in  1864.  As  a  lad  he  attended 
the  Mt.  Pleasant  High  School,  where  he  was  grad 
uated  in  1881.  Ten  years  later  he  was  graduated 
from  the  medical  department  of  the  Western  Re 
serve  College  of  Cleveland,  Ohio.  For  a  time  he 
studied  theology  under  the  direction  of  a  private 
tutor. 

On  graduating  from  the  Medical  College,  Dr. 
Underwood  began  to  practice  medicine,  hanging 
out  his  sign  in  Frankfort,  Kentucky.  For  twen 
ty-five  years,  now  he  has  practiced  medicine  in 
Frankfort.  In  that  time  he  has  carried  honor: 
and  responsibilities  enough  to  stagger  the  average 
man.  He  was  for  seven  years  a  school  teacher, 
teaching  in  the  Enerson  Colored  School,  of  Ohio. 
In  1891  he  began  the  editorship  of  th  e  "Blue 
Grass  Fugle,"  the  colored  weekly  of  Frankfort, 
which  was  edited  by  him  for  ten  years.  He  was 
for  four  years  assistant  city  physician  of  Frank- 
f^rt ;  for  fourteen  years  secrctaiy  of  the  U.  S. 
Board  of  Pension  Examining  Surgeons.  In  1910 
he  established  the  People's  Pharmacy  and  was  its 

176 


first  president.  He  has  been  its  secretary  since 
1911.  He  is  Educational  Editor  of  the  Lexington 
News ;  is  author  of  the  "History  of  Colored  Church 
es  of  Frankfort,"  and  of  several  poems. 

Besides  all  6f  these  duties  and  honors,  Dr.  U..- 
derwood  has  been  a  "Daniel  Boone"  among  and 
for  the  Negroes  of  his  section.  The  numbers  of 
first  times  for  a  colored  man  to  do  things  in  his 
section  seems  to  fall  upon  him.  He  was  the  first 
colored  student  to  enter  and  graduate  from  the 
Mt.  Pleasant,  (Ohio)  High  School ;  first  colored 
member  of  the  Jefferson  County  (Ohio)  Republican 
Committee ;  first  Negro  member  of  the  Mt.  Pleas 
ant,  City  Council,  being  elected  over  four  whit? 
aspirants  for  the  office.  He  is  the  first  colored 
member  of  the  Board  of  Regents  of  Kentucky  Nor 
mal  and  Industrial  Institute,  having  been  appoint 
ed  by  Governor  Bradley  in  1898,  and  appointed 
again  by  Governor  Wilson,  in  1907. 

Large  as  the  number  of  first  things  that  Dr.  Un 
derwood  has  done,  they  utterly  pale  before  the  num 
ber  of  organizations  with  which  he  is  actively  affi 
liated. 

Dr.  Underwood  is  a  Mason,  a  Knight  Templar, 
a  Knight  of  Pythias,  an  Odd  Fellow,  United  Bro 
ther  of  Friendship,  member  of  the  Union  Benevo 
lent  Society,  and  of  the  Mosiac  Templars.  He  ij 
not  merely  a  member  of  good  standing  in  these 
bodies,  but  has  held  offices  in  all  of  them.  He  is 
at  present  Supreme  Keeper  of  Records  and  Seals, 
of  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  N.  A.  S.  A.  E.  A.  and  A., 
and  member  of  the  Kentucky  State  Board  of  Man 
agers  of  the  United  Brothers  of  Friendship. 

Having  so  wide  and  intimate  contact  with  his 
people.  Dr.  Underwood  became  extremely  sensi 
tive  to  their  needs  and  to  the  wrongs  they  have 
suffered.  Thus  he  is  found  undertaking  many  ser 
vices  in  their  defense  and  for  their  uplift.  From 
1891  to  1893,  he  was  Executive  Secretary  of  the 
Anti-Separate  Coach  State  Executive  Committee, 
which  tested  the  constitutionality  of  the  "Jim 
Crow"  law.  In  1895,  he  was  the  Kentucky  Commis 
sioner  to  the  Cotton  States  Exposition,  which  was 
held  in  Atlanta,  and  at  which  Booker  T.  Wash 
ington  leaped  into  fame  as  an  orator.  Two  years 
later  he  was  commissioner  from  his  State  to  the 
Tennessee  Centennial  Exposition,  held  in  Nash 
ville.  In  1898,  he  organized  and  was  first  presi 
dent  of  the  State  League  of  Colored  Republican 
Clubs  of  Kentucky.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Frank 
lin  County  Republican  Committee  in  his  State  and 
has  been  a  delegate  to  every  Republican  State 
Convention  since  1892.  He  was  delegate  at  large 
to  the  Republican  National  Convention  of  1904  and 
was  strongly  endorsed  in  his  State  for  Register 
of  the  United  States  Treasury  in  1909.  He  is 
president  of  the  Franklin  County  Colored  Ag 
ricultural  and  Industrial  Association,  member  of 
the  National  Medical  Association,  of  the  Nation 
al  Association  of  Pension  Examining  Surgeons,  of 
the  National  Negro  Business  League,  of  the  Na 
tional  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Thrift 
among  Colored  people  and  of  the  Kentucky  State 
Medical  Association. 

Dr.  Underwood  married  Miss  Sarah  J.  W'alker, 
There  are  two  sons:  Ellworth  W.  and  Robert  M., 
the  former  is  a  student  in  the  Dept.  of  Pharmacy, 
Western  Reserve  University  of  Cleveland,  the  lat 
ter  a  Senior  in  the  Frankfort  Colored  High  School. 


DR.    RANDOLPH   FRANKLIN   WHITE. 


H1LE  he  is  really  filling  the  place 
of  a  modest  business  and  profes 
sional  man.  Dr.  Randolph  Frank 
lin  White,  the  Negro  Pharmacist. 
of  Owensboro,  Kentucky,  has  so 
so  happily  mixed  business,  educa 
tion,  work  and  travel,  that  he  may  be  almost  called 
a  globe  trotter.  His  travels,  which  all  the  time 
had  in  them  the  purpose  of  business,  have  taken 
him  into  the  leading  cities  of  America,  into  Can 
ada,  into  Hawaii,  into  Japan,  and  into  the  Philip 
pine  Islands.  Few  men  have  made  the  profession 
of  pharmacy  serve  them  such  triple  service — pro 
vide  travel,  gain  experience  and  supply  a  livelihood. 
Dr.  White  was  born  in  Warrentown,  Florida, 
June  25th.,  1870.  He  spent  his  early  school  days 
in  his  native  State,  and  early  made  up  his  mind  to 
become  a  pharmacist.  To  this  end  he  entered  Ho 
ward  University,  from  which  he  graduated  in  1897. 
But  Dr.  White  cannot  be  said  to  have  begun  or  to 
have  completed  his  course  at  any  one  time.  As  he 
mixed  travel  with  business,  so  he  mixed  school  ed 
ucation  and  practical  education.  Thus  while  he 
was  attending  Howard  University,  pursuing  a 
course  in  Pharmacy,  he  was  at  the  same  time  gain- 

177 


ing  practical  experience  in  Pharmacy,  working  for 
the  Plumnur  Pharmacy,  in  Washington,  D.  C. 

His  graduation  in  1897  was  therefore  more  at 
taining  freedom  and  license  for  he  was  already  ripe 
in  his  calling,  ready  to  take  charge  and  manage  ra- 
ther  than  serve  the  usual  apprenticeship.  He  found 
no  trouble  under  the  circumstances  with  securing 
good  responsible  posts  at  the  very  outset.  His 
first  position  was  in  Louisville,  Kentucky.  Here 
he  took  charge  of  the  Peoples'  Drug  Store,  and 
ran  it,  giving  satisfaction  to  its  stockholders.  From 
Louisville  he  went  to  Lexington  and  for  a  time 
joined  forces  with  Dr.  Ballard.  He  was  already 
well  known  as  a  pharmacist.  The  United  States 
Government,  needing  a  Hospital  Steward,  Dr. 
White  was  appointed  to  the  post,  and  commission 
ed  to  serve  in  the  Philippines.  Here  he  worked  for 
two  years,  from  1899  to  1901.  Hence  it  was  that 
he  got  his  trip  to  the  Orient,  and  other  countries 
while  he  was  away  from  the  United  States. 

Having  completed  his  travels  and  finished  his 
services  with  the  Government,  he  returned  to  Ken 
tucky,  to  begin  business  for  himself.  In  1901  he 
opened  a  drug  store  in  Owensboro.  Dr.  White  had 
some  difficulty  in  securing  a  place  to  begin  busi 
ness.  He  therefore  bought  the  store  which  he 
was  to  use  and  which  he  still  uses.  His  business 
prospered  from  the  outset,  as  he  had  had  wide  ex 
perience  in  handling  drugs  and  in  handling  people. 
He  owns  his  home  and  his  store  in  Owensboro  and 
owns  three  rent  houses  in  Lexington. 

Dr.  White  is  a  good  churchman  and  a  member 
of  several  fraternal  bodies.  He  is  an  Episcopalian, 
a  Mason,  an  Odd  Fellow,  U.  B.  F.,  and  a  Knight  of 
Pythias.  In  the  Masonic  order  he  is  Deputy  Grand 
Master  of  the  State. 

Dr.  White  was  married  in  Lexington,  July  23. 
1901,  to  Miss  Fannie  Hathaway. 

Almost  every  city  has  some  one  individual  or 
business  which  holds  a  unique  position  because  of 
some  marked  and  distinctive  feature  or  characte 
ristic. 

Thus  in  Owensboro.  Kentucky.  Dr.  Randolph 
Franklin  White  is  known  as  the  Pharmacist. 

lie  has  won  this  distinction  from  his  remarkable 
success  in  business,  which  is  universally  recog 
nized,  but  not  from  this  alone,  his  valued  services 
to  the  Government  during  his  travels  abroad  make 
their  contribution  to  the  enviable  reputation  he- 
enjoys. 

His  thorough  knowledge  of  his  business  is  evi 
denced  in  the  great  success  he  has  achieved  in  it 
and  this  with  his  courteous  manner  and  elevated 
bearing  commands  the  respect  of  all  who  deal  with 
him. 


WILLIAM  MILLIARD  WRIGHT. 


HERE  was  a  time  when  the  Negro 
.lawyer  was  the  jest  of  his  own 
and  of  .the  white  race.  He  was 
not  allowed  to  practice  in  the 
courts ;  or  if  accorded  the  techni 
cal  privilege,  he  was  denied  the 
genuine  right.  He  was  a  lawyer  in  name  and  often 
well  prepared  for  his  work,  but  prejudice  stepped 
between  him  and  the  practice  of  his  profession  and 
embarrassed  him  in  his  efforts  to  win  recognition. 
His  earnings  were  therefore  next  to  nothing. 
His  clothes  were  thread-bare;  his  home  depleted; 
he  and  his  family,  were  he  so  rash  as  to  marry, 
went  hungry. 

Yet  with  the  true  spirit  of  the  pioneer,  the  black 
lawyer  has  endured  the  whips  and  scorns  of  the 
courts  and  of  the  public  until  lie  is  no  longer  the 
mark  of  open  rebuke.  Patiently  winning  his  way 
he  has  faced  and  overcome  opposition,  met  ridi 
cule  with  intellectual  force,  and  dignity,  and  with 
a  kind  though  determined  spirit,  has  finally  won 
recognition  from  both  the  Court  and  the  Bar. 
He  now  even  boasts  a  home  of  his  own ;  good 
clothes,  and  a  happy  family.  He  enters  the  courts, 
especially  in  the  West  and  handles  his  cases  on  his 
merit. 


Slowly  the  men  of  his  profession  have  devel 
oped  sufficient  esprit  d'corps  to  accord  him  at 
least  common  courtesy.  To  win  this  recognition 
he  has  had  to  study  hard,  endure  and  persevere. 
All  the  time,  he  like  all  men  of  professional  careers 
among  black  folk,  has  had  to  serve  as  missionary 
to  his  people  on  the  one  hand  and  batter  down  by 
every  sort  of  means  their  prejudices  on  the  other. 
Surely  no  men  deserve  more  gratitude  from  their 
people,  for  whatever  has  been  their  endeavor,  the 
first  impulse  of  the  public  was  that  the  lawyer 
was  really  "something  out  for  a  suit"  and  not  real 
ly  seeking  the  public  good. 

While  Mr.  Wright's  large  and  ever-growing  law 
practice  requires  most  of  his  time,  and  attention, 
he  is  not  unmindful  of  civic  matters  and  the  devel 
opment  of  his  people.  He  is  always  on  the  alert 
to  seize  upon  every  suggestion  that  will  conduce 
to  their  uplift  and  is  foremost  in  all  plans  looking 
to  that  end. 

In  Louisville,  for  example,  the  white  citizens  have 
what  is  known  as  the  "Million  Dollar  Foundation 
Fund.  Mr.  Wright  was  much  impressed  with  the 
idea  resulting  in  the  organization  and  reasoned 
that  a  like  organization  would  be  helpful  to  tin- 
colored  race.  Co-operating  with  the  colored  bus 
iness  and  professional  men  of  the  city,  a  club  sim 
ilar  in  purpose  is  in  process  of  forming.  The  Negro 
Club  is  to  be  a  $100,000  Mercantle  Foundation 
Fund. 

The  prime  mover  in  this  endeavor  among  the  col 
ored  people  is  William  H.  Wright  of  Louisville.  Mr. 
Wright  has  been  before  the  public  of  his  state  for 
many  years,  both  as  a  professional  man  and  as  a 
man  of  business.  As  a  student,  a  professional  and 
business  man,  Mr.  Wright  is  amply  equipped  for 
the  great  undertaking.  Born  in  Livingston,  Ala 
bama,  he  was  educated  in  Selnia  University,  Selma, 
Alabama,  in  the  State  University,  Louisville,  Ken 
tucky,  and  in  the  department  of  law,  Howard  Uni 
versity,  Washington,  D  C  For  the  most  part  he 
worked  his  way  through  all  these  schools.  He  be 
gan  the  practice  of  law  in  Louisville,  in  1904.  He 
organized  the  first  Negro  Insurance  Company  of 
Kentucky  and  thus  educated  many  colored  people 
up  to  the  idea  of  insurance  and  to  entrusting  their 
money  to  Negro  enterprises,  Since  1904  lie  has 
been  able  to  amass  considerable  property  holdings, 
as  he  owns  his  office  building  on  Sixth  Street  in 
Louisville,  and  several  rent  houses. 

Mr.  Wright  is  a  Baptist  in  religious  affiliation, 
and  is  a  member  of  the  Fifth  Street  Baptist  Church, 
a  Mason,  Odd  Fellow,  K.  of  P.  and  Mosaic  Templar. 

lie  has  traveled  extensively  both  in  the  United 
States  and  Canada,  his  travels  giving  him  an  en 
larged  view  of  life.  He  has  not  yet  traveled  upon 
the  sea  of  matrimony,  and  so  the  pleasure  of  that 
voyage  still  awaits  him. 


178 


HOMER  MILTON  CHARLES. 


HIS  successful  business  man,  of 
Chalmette,  Louisiana  St.  Bernard 
Parish,  has  one  of  the  most  pros 
perous  businesses  in  Louisiana. 
His  reputation  is  not  only  state 
wide,  but  generally  national.  He 
is  a  life  member  of  the  National  Negro  Business 
Men's  League,  is  an  attendant  at  all  meetings  of 
this  body,  and  an  enthusiastic  supporter  of  the  Ne 
gro  Business  ideas.  Mr.  Charles  has  not  always 
moved  with  men  of  larger  finance  among  Negroes. 
He  has  know  the  pinch  of  need  and  has  vivid  recol 
lections  of  hard  struggles  to  gain  a  footing. 

Mr.  Charles  was  born  in  St.  Martin  Parish,  La., 
July  4,  1861.  Two  years  later  his  parents  moved 
to  St.  Bernard  Parish.  His  schooling  consisted  of 
what  he  gained  in  the  public  school  of  said  Parish 
and  of  a  private  tutor,  at  home.  However,  he 
was  one  of  the  family  of  thirteen  children,  which 
usually  means  that  as  soon  as  the  boys  are  able  to 
earn  a  penny  they  must  be  up  and  away  to  their 
post.  Being  very  industrious,  he  was  employed 
on  a  sugar  farm,  where  he  filled  many  positions. 
Later  on  he  began  truck  farming  with  his  father. 

In  1887,  feeling  that  he  must  still  make  the  de- 

179 


termined  start,  he  launched  forth  in  business.  His 
undertaking  was  modest  enough  ;  consisting  of  a 
fruit  stand  on  the  river  bank  in  a  store  nine  by  nine 
feet.  There  were  three  conspicious  features  to  the 
whole  setting;  first,  that  he  was  determined  to  sell 
as  cheap  as  his  competitors ;  second,  that  with  the 
assistance  of  his  wife,  he  was  satisfied  to  be  as  ec 
onomical  as  any  one  else ;  third,  that  as  he  had  that 
ambition  to  push  forward,  was  determined  to  be 
as  polite  to  his  customers  as  his  competitors.  This 
spot  was  near  Chalmette  National  Cemetary,  on  the 
historic  spot  where  the  "Battle  of  New  Orleans" 
was  fought.  It  was  one  of  the  rather  few  instances 
in  which  a  Negro  dared  to  become  a  fruit  dealer. 
Inch  by  inch,  as  the  song  goes,  he  developed  his 
business.  Taking  his  basket  on  his  shoulder,  he 
peddled  his  fruits  from  house  to  house,  until  he 
had  built  up  confidence,  gained  patronage  and  the 
respect  of  the  entire  community.  Then  he  purchas 
ed  a  one-horse  wagon ;  then  followed  two  horses 
and  wagon  to  meet  the  demand  for  deliveries. 

He  was  already  married  to  Miss  Hester  Anderson 
of  St.  Bernard  in  the  year  1885.  She  was  the  si 
lent  but  effective  partner  during  these  stages  of 
uncertainty.  She  did  work  in  private  families, 
helping  to  provide  food  for  the  family  and  some 
times  capital  for  the  business.  Four  daughters 
sprang  from  this  union,  three  of  whom  are  living. 
Miss  Sadie  died  while  preparing  for  graduation  at 
New  Orleans  University.  The  others  are:  Misses 
Augusta,  Mary  and  Clara.  Miss  Clara,  the  young 
est,  is  still  in  school. 

Today  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  are  among  the  lead 
ing  property  owners  of  Louisiana.  Besides  own 
ing  their  home,  they  have  stock  in  the  Friscoville 
Realty  Company,  of  St.  Bernard  and  have  several 
houses  for  rent. 

Mr.  Charles  is  what  is  often  called  an  organiza 
tion  man,  believing  as  he  does  in  organization  of 
men  into  bodies  as  means  of  promoting  race  wel 
fare.  He  is  Catholic  in  his  religion  ;  a  member  of 
Felicity  Lodge  K.  P.  No.  199,  Daughters  of  Cres 
cent  Tab.  No.  27,  Progressive  Aid  Mutual  Benefit 
Association.  In  the  business  and  educational 
world,  he  is  a  life  member  of  the  National  Negro 
Business  Men's  League,  an  honorary  member  of 
the  Bergemont  Educational  Association,  a  member 
of  the  Fazendville  Educational  Association,  a  stock 
holder  in  the  Bank  of  St.  Bernard,  a  stock  holder 
in  the  World  Bottling  Company,  New  Orleans.  He 
has  traveled  over  the  United  States  on  business,  and 
for  pleasure  and  relaxation. 

During  his  residence  in  St.  Bernard  Parish,  Mr. 
Charles  has  built  up  such  a  reputation  of  integrity 
and  honesty  as  to  be  considered  the  most  respon 
sible  Negro  Citizen  in  his  community  by  both  his 
people  and  the  White  authorities. 


Walter  L    Cohen 


N  New  Orleans,  Louisiana,  Jan 
uary  22,  1860,  was  born  Walter 
L.  Cohen ;  and  the  place  of  his 
birth  has  been  the  scene  of  most 
of  his  active  life.  Here  he  has 
lived  and  made  a  place  for  himself 
in  the  business  world,  in  the  fraternal  world,  and 
in  the  political  world,  as  well  as  one  of  prominence 
in  the  social  world.  As  a  young  lad,  he  attended 
the  public  schools  of  New  Orleans,  and  then  spent 
two  years  in  Straight  University,  of  New  Orleans, 
and  one  year  in  the  St.  Louis  Catholic  School. 
While  his  opportunity  for  attending  school  lasted 
we  find  the  young  man  applying  himself  diligently 
to  the  work  in  hand.  Indeed  this  has  been  the  key 
note  of  his  whole  life — applying  himself  to  the 
work  then  in  hand. 

While  still  a  boy  he  started  out  to  learn  to  be  a 
cigar  maker,  but  because  he  was  not  a  smoker,  he 
was.  made  ill  by  this  work  and  had  to  give  it  up. 
His  next  work  was  in  a  saloon.  Here  he  remained 
for  about  four  years.  In  1889  he  gave  up  his  work 
in  the  saloon  to  take  up  the  work  of  United  States 
Inspector.  Later  he  was  promoted  to  the  position 
of  Lieutenant  of  the  United  States  Inspectors.  In 
this  capacity  he  served  until  the  democrats  took 
charge,  when  he  resigned  the  position.  In  1899  he 
was  appointed  Register  of  the  United  States  Land 
Office  at  New  Orleans.  This  appointment  came 
from  President  McKinley  and  he  was  re-appointed 
by  President  Roosevelt.  He  served  in  this  office 
until  1911.  We  find  that  Mr.  Cohen  has  been  very 
active  in  politics  for  a  great  number  of  years.  He 
was  a  delegate  to  the  National  Republican  Con 
vention,  in  1892,  1898,  1900,  1904,  1908,  1912  and  in 
1916.  He  is  the  recognized  leader  of  the  fight 
against  the  "Lily  White  Republicans  of  Louisiana." 
So  active  has  Mr.  Cohen  been  in  the  interest  of  his 
people  in  his  native  city  that  the  Mayor  of  the  city 
appointed  him  as  a  chairman  of  the  colored  citi 
zens  committee.  This  committee  has  charge  of  all 
matters  concerning  the  education  and  general  wel 
fare  of  the  colored  people  of  New  Orleans.  In  this 
capacity  Mr.  Cohen  has  had  a  great  opportunity 
to  help  his  race,  an  opportunity  which  he  was  quick 
to  seize  and  which  he  used  to  their  best  advantage. 
In  another  line  of  work,  he  has  done  equally  as 
much  for  the  betterment  of  his  people.  He  is 
President  of  the  People's  Industrial  Life  Insurance 
Company..  Mr.  Cohen  owns  three-fifths  of  the 
stock  of  this  company.  To  do  the  work  of  the 
company  there  are  employed  nearly  one  hundred 
colored  agents.  In  all  they  collect  over  $100,000.00 
in  premiums  yearly.  The  organization  of  this  com- 

180 


pany  furnishes  work — work  where  our  young  peo 
ple  can  earn  a  livelihood  and  still  keep  their  self 
respect.  Mr.  Cohen  has  also  one  third  interest  in 
two  drug  stores.  In  addition  to  the  money  inves 
ted  in  these  concerns  he  owns  his  beautiful  resi 
dence  in  the  city  and  a  summer  home  in  Bay  St. 
Louis,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Cohen  leads  a  full,  active  life  and  it  would 
seem  that  his  private  interests  would  command  his 
entire  time,  nevertheless,  he  is  found  upon  the  mem 
bership  roll  of  a  number  of  organizations. 

He  is  a  member  of  Mt.  Olive  Lodge,  No  21,  Ma 
sons  ;  Zenith  Lodge  No.  175,  Knights  of  Pythias  ; 
1'ride  of  Louisiana,  No.  1324,  Grand  Linked  Order 
of  Odd  Fellows.  He  has  been  president  of  the  Ec 
onomy  Benefit  Association  for  twenty-four  years. 
This  last  named  organization  is  composed  of  the 
old  Creole  citizens  in  New  Orleans,  they  first  or 
ganized  themselves  in  1836.Mr.  Cohen  is  also  Pres 
ident  of  the  Iroquois  Social  Club,  and  Vice-Presi 
dent  of  Providence  Hospital  Board  of  Administra 
tors. 

In  these  times  of  war  our  country  has  not  fail 
ed  to  recognize  the  need  of  strong  men  to  help  back 
her  in  all  her  efforts  to  conquer  Germany.  It  is 
not  surprising  that  Mr.  Cohen  was  early  called  upon 
to  take  a  part  and  he  did  his  share  of  the  work 
well.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Speakers  Bureau, 
whose  duty  was  to  speak  in  the  interest  of  Liberty 
Bonds,  Red  Cross  and  other  war  measures.  He  was 
also  the  representative  of  the  colored  people  on  the 
Executive  Committee  for  War  Saving  Stamps  for 
New  Orleans. 

In  religious  belief,  Mr.  Cohen  is  a  Catholic.  He 
is  active  in  the  affairs  of  his  church.  He  serves 
as  a  member  of  the  board  of  Directors  of  the  St. 
Louis  Catholic  School.  In  the  St  Joseph  Catholic 
Church,  New  Orleans.  Louisiana,  Mr.  Cohen  was 
married,  to  Miss  Wilhelmina  M.  Seldon,  March  19, 
1882.  There  is  a  family  of  four  children,  two  boys 
and  two  girls.  W'alter  L.  Cohen,  Jr.,  and  Benjamin 
B.  Cohen,  work  with  their  father  in  the  Insurance 
Company  and  are  following  in  his  footsteps,  and 
are  being  trained  to  carry  on  this  business,  when 
their  father  retires.  Miss  Margret  R.  Cohen  is  a 
school  teacher  and  Miss  Camille  is  now  Mrs.  Bell 
and  is  a  cashier  in  one  of  her  father's  drug  stores. 
As  is  seen  from  this,  Mr.  Cohen  has  provided  pay 
ing  positions  for  his  own  children  in  developing  his 
business  ability,  as  well  as  providing  places  for 
the  children  of  others.  What  he  is  doing  for  his 
children  in  a  material  way  will  not  compare  with 
what  he  has  done  to  fit  them  for  life. 


PAUL  H.  V.  DEJOIE,  M.  D. 


|  ORN  and  educated  in  New  Orleans, 
La..  Dr.  Paul  H.  V-  Dejoie  enter 
ed  upon  and  successfully  pursued 
his  practice  in  his  native  city. 
Born  July  2nd.  1872,  he  was  the 
first  child  of  Artistide  Dejoie  and 
Ellen  Chambers.  Because  of  the  fact  that  his 
father  held  many  responsible  positions  during  his 
life  time,  the  young  lad  did  not  have  all  the  strug 
gle  for  an  education  that  some  of  our  prominent 
men  have  had.  So  we  find  that  Mr.  Dejoie  as 
a  buy  was  a  constant  pupil  in  the  New  Orleans 
Public  Schools.  Having  gotten  from  the  public 
course  of  instruction  all  that  they  li  d  to  offer.  Dr. 
Dejoie  entered  Southern  University.  Here  he  was 
one  of  the  best  known  and  most  popular  students 
of  his  day.  He  won  the  Peabody  Scholarship  Me 
dal.  After  graduation  from  Southern  he  decided 
to  take  up  the  study  of  medicine.  To  this  end  he 
matriculated  at  the  New  Orleans  University,  and 
completed  the  course  in  1895.  He  went  before 
the  Louisiana  State  Board  of  Medical  Examiners 
and  passed.  This  fact  is  striking  because  he  was 
the  first  colored  man  to  pass  that  board. 

Having  secured  his  privilege  to  practice  medicine 
he   settled  down  to  that  work  in   his  own   native 


city,  New  Orleans.  Here  he  remained  for  the  past 
t \venty-three  years.  During  this  time  he  has  been 
successful  as  a  practitioner,  having  built  up  quite 
a  practice.  Seeing  the  need  of  the  colored  people 
for  a  Drug  Store,  he  busied  himself  in  opening  one. 
In  this  drug  store  he  owns  half  interest.  It  was 
from  the  first  a  very  successful  undertaking.  The 
store  bears  his  name — Dejoie  Cut  Rate  Pharmacy, 
being  the  name  of  the  Drug  Store. 

In  the  work  as  a  physician,  he  had  an  abundant 
chance  to  see  the  needs  of  the  colored  people  when 
they  were  sick,  and  the  needs  of  the  bereaved  fam 
ilies.  To  in  a  measure  alleviate  the  suffering  from 
these  two  sources,  he  has  interested  himself  in  the 
Unity  Industrial  Life  Insurance  and  Sick  Benefit 
Association.  For  two  years  he  served  the  organi 
zation  in  the  capacity  of  Secretary,  and  since  that 
time  he  has  been  president  of  the  organization. 
Under  his  management  he  has  seen  the  association 
grow  rapidly.  It  has  gone  to  the  front  and  now 
is  ahead  of  all  companies  doing  similar  insurance 
in  the  State.  This  company  is  conducted  on  broad 
and  liberal  principles  by  conservative  and  well- 
qualified  persons.  The  company  paid  over  $350,- 
000.00  to  members  in  Louisiana  for  sickness,  ac 
cident  and  death.  It  gives  profitable  employment 
to  over  two  hundred  colored  people.  In  this  way. 
Dr.  Dejoie  has  been  able  to  serve  his  race  from 
two  entirely  different  points.  He  has  made  work 
for  a  number,  and  he  has  made  it  possible  for  many 
sick  to  have  some  of  the  comforts  of  life. 

Dr.  Dejoie  has  made  it  a  point  to  come  in  contact 
with  the  better  men  of  the  race.  In  order  to  do 
this  he  had  connected  himself  with  several  frater 
nal  orders.  He  is  a  thirty-second  degree  Mason, 
an  Odd  Fellow,  and  a  Knight  of  Pythias.  To  these 
organizations  he  has  brought  his  good  business 
judgment,  his  strong  sense  of  right  and  wrong  and 
his  pleasing  personality. 

During  the  twenty-three  years,  Dr.  Dejoie  has 
been  out  in  the  world  for  himself,  he  has  formed 
the  habit  of  saving.  So  among  his  worldly  poss 
essions  we  might  note  his  beautiful  home,  a  dou 
ble  cottage  and  his  stock  in  various  banks,  oil  wells 
and  gold  mines. 

Although  born,  partly  educated  and  established  in 
business  in  the  same  city,  Dr.  Dejoie  has,  never-the 
less  taken  time  to  travel  about  a  great  deal  in  his 
own  country.  He  has  traveled  extensively  in  the 
Kast,  and  through  most  of  the  Southern  States. 
He  also  spent  some  time  in  Jaures,  Mexico.  Dr. 
Dejoie  has  served  his  Alma  Mater  as  president  of 
the  Alumni  Association. 

On  June  16th,  1900,  he  was  married  to  Miss  El 
la  Brown,  of  New  Orleans.  There  are  two  sons  in 
the  Dejoie  family,  P.  H.  V.  Jr.,  and  Pradhomme, 
who  are  now  attending  school  in  New  Orleans. 


181 


SMITH  WENDELL  GREEN. 


W.  GREEN  became  a  member  of 
the  order  of  K.  of  P.  on  July  17, 
1883  when  the  Order  was  in  its 
infancy,  being  a  charter  member 
of  Pride  of  Tensas  Lodge  No.  21, 
St.  Joseph,  La.  He  was  elected  to 
the  station  of  V.  C.  of  the  lodge,  but  served  as  C.  C. 
from  the  time  of  the  organization  of  the  lodge  until 
June  30,  1886.  He  was  the  Grand  Representative 
from  this  lodge,  and  immediately  upon  entering  the 
Grand  Lodge,  his  ability  to  handle  finances  com 
menced  to  show  itself,  and  in  May,  1884,  he  was 
elected  to  the  position  of  G.  M.  of  F.,  and  served 
for  one  year ;  the  office  has  since  been  abolished. 

In  April,  1886,  he  was  elected  to  the  position  of 
G.  K.  of  R.  and  S.  and  served  in  that  station  until 
1891.  He  was  elected  to  the  position  of  G.  C.  in 
May,  1892,  served  until  1897,  and  declined  re-elec 
tion.  In  April,  1899,  he  was  again  elected  to  the 
position  of  G.  C.  Upon  assuming  that  station  he 
found  the  finances  of  the  Grand  Lodge  in  an  insol 
vent  condition.  The  general  fund  had  no  assets, 
while  its  liabilities  amounted  to  $105.62.  The  En 
dowment  Fund  showed  the  small  amount  of  assets 
as  $196.40,  while  its  liabilities  showed  death  claims 


due  and  unpaid,  aggregating  $3,424.25.  The  mem 
bership  at  that  time  was  only  897. 

He  found  that  it  was  necessary  to  increase  the 
endowment  dues  if  the  Grand  Lodge  of  the  State 
of  Louisiana  was  to  be  resurrected.  The  recom 
mendation  he  made  was  adopted  and  became  a  part 
of  the  laws  of  the  Grand  Lodge  with  the  result 
that  a  sufficient  sum  was  soon  accumulated  to  pay 
off  all  outstanding  claims  for  endowment.  When 
the  Grand  Lodge  met  in  April,  1902,  they  found 
themselves  entirely  out  of  debt,  with  a  small  sur 
plus  on  hand  to  the  credit  of  the  endowment  de 
partment.  The  Grand  Lodge  was  then  paying  an 
endowment  of  $300.00,  ninety  days  after  filing  the 
claim. 

In  April,  1905,  he  recommended  that  the  endow 
ment  policies  be  raised  to  $500,  and  the  claims  be 
paid  within  thirty  days  after  they  were  filed.  In 
the  year  of  1906,  the  surplus  in  the  Endowment 
Fund  had  reached  such  a  large  sum,  and  was  grow 
ing  all  the  time,  that  the  question  arose,  "What 
shall  we  do  with  this  money?"  It  was  then  nec 
essary  for  S.  W.  Green  to  study  out  a  way  of  in 
vesting  it.  Accordingly,  in  1906,  at  the  Grand 
Lodge  Session  in  Alexandria,  La.,  he  recommended 
that  the  Grand  Lodge  State  of  Louisiana  erect  a 
Pythian  Temple,  and  accordingly  an  appropriation 
of  $12,000  was  made  by  the  Grand  Lodge  for  the 
purchase  of  a  site. 

This  appropriation  was  found  to  be  insufficient 
to  purchase  a  site  in  the  desired  locality,  and  an  ad 
ditional  $3,000  was  therefore  appropriated  to  pay 
for  same.  This  appropriation  resulted  in  the  pur 
chase  of  a  desirable  site  in  the  city  of  New  Drleans, 
La.,  to  be  used  at  later  date  for  a  Pythian  Temple. 
The  original  appropriation  for  the  temple  was  only 
$60,000  but  realizing  that  a  $60,000  building  in  a  city 
like  New  Orleans  would  not  serve  the  purpose  for 
which  it  was  intended,  he  allied  his  forces,  and  car 
ried  them  to  the  Grand  Lodge,  which  convened  in 
the  city  of  New  Orleans  in  1908.  Here  the  Grand 
Lodge  approved  his  action  in  reference  to  building 
a  magnificent  structure,  which  is  now  completed 
and  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of  $200,000.  Today  we 
see  that  from  the  crippled  conditions  of  affairs 
when  Mr.  Green  assumed  control  of  the  office,  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  the  State  of  Louisiana  has  180 
lodges  in  the  state,  with  a  membership  of  9,000  and 
with  the  total  resources  of  $123,354.07,  endowment 
claims  being  paid  within  thirty  days  after  filing. 

Mr.  Green  attended  the  first  Supreme  Lodge  ses 
sion  in  August,  1893  as  Supreme  Representative 
for  the  State  of  Louisiana,  in  August,  1895,  at  St. 
Louis,  Mo.,  and  has  attended  every  Supreme  Lodge 
session  as  a  representative  since  that  date. 

At  the  Supreme  Lodge  session  at  Pittsburg,  Pa., 
in  1905,  he  was  elected  to  the  position  of  Supreme 
Vice  Chancellor  and  ex-officio,  Supreme  Worthy 
Counsellor.  At  the  Supreme  Lodge  session  in 
Louisville,  Ky.,  in  1907,  he  was  re-elected  to  the 
position  and  held  that  position  until  April  3,  1908, 
when  he  assumed  the  duties  of  Supreme  Chancellor 
the  place  made  vacant  by  the  death  of  the  late  S. 
W.  Starks. 


182 


HENRY   CLAUDE  HUDSON,  D.   D.   S. 


LL  those  doubting  the  efficacy  of 
a  young  man's  acquiring  a  trade 
in  his  early  years  should  know 
the  story  of  Dr.  Henry  Claude 
Hudson,  D.  D.  S.  of  Shreveport, 
Louisiana.  A  trade  not  only  pro 
vided  him  his  daily  bread,  even  when  he  was  very 
young,  but  it  was  the  agency  whereby  he  gained 
funds  to  pursue  his  education  and  whereby  he  was 
able  on  at  least  one  occasion  to  render  almost  price 
less  service  to  himself  and  to  his  people. 

Born  in  Marksville,  Avoyles  Parish,  Louisiana, 
April  19th,  1886,  his  parents  moved  to  Alexandria, 
La.,  when  he  was  a  five-year-old  where  he  passed 
his  early  school  days.  Having  aspiration  for  higher 
education  he  entered  the  eighth  District  Academy 
at  Alexandria,  where  he  prepared  to  enter  college. 
However  there  was  no  means  in  sight  to  defray 
his  expenses  through  school  and  so  dropping  out  of 
school  he  went  forth  and  became  apprentice  at 
brickmasonry.  Having  mastered  this  trade  he  re- 
entered  school  and  once  more  pursued  his  studies. 
From  the  academy  in  Alexandria,  he  went  to  Wiley 
University  in  Marshall,  Texas.  It  was  here  that  his 
trade  served  him  in  such  good  stead  and  did  such 
excellent  service  for  his  people.  When  Dr.  Hudson 
entered  Wiley,  in  1910,  that  institution  was  about 
to  erect  a  Carnegie  Library.  All  was  ready  except 
the  labor.  This  was  under  the  control  of  the 


unions.  A  dead  lock  insued.  In  this  situation  the 
young  man  came  forward,  stated  that  he  was  a 
brickmason  and  that  he  would  take  charge  of  the 
work  and  complete  it,  if  the  University  would  pro 
vide  students  to  help.  This  was  agreed  to,  and  the 
library  was  built,  much  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
university  and  the  glory  and  profit  of  the  young 
man. 

Finding  him  a  thoroughly  reliable  builder  and 
that  it  saved  money  by  his  taking  the  contract,  Wi 
ley  University  soon  had  him  on  other  buildings. 
Several  dormitories  for  boys  were  to  be  erected.  It 
engaged  his  services  as  superintendent,  and  thus 
erected  its  buildings  with  a  considerable  saving  to 
itself  and  with  no  further  trouble  from  the  labor 
unions. 

Having  now  decided  to  become  a  dentist,  and 
having  solved  pretty  well  the  difficulty  of  financing 
himself,  Dr.  Hudson  entered  Howard  University 
in  Washington,  D.  C.  Several  times,  however,  he 
found  during  his  course  in  dentistry  that  he  could 
not  turn  his  trade  to  immediate  account.  Compe 
tition  was  a  good  deal  sharper  in  the  North,  he 
found,  than  it  was  in  the  South.  Thus  in  his  short 
vacations  when  time  was  exceedingly  precious  he 
turned  his  energies  to  whatever  task  his  hands 
could  find.  He  found  the  Pennsylvania  Dining  Car 
service  the  most  immediate  employment  and  the 
largest  remuneration  for  a  short  space  of  time. 
Engaging  in  this  service  he  was  able  to  continue 
his  education.  Incidently  he  traveled  all  over  the 
eastern  states  while  he  was  in  this  work. 

Graduating  from  the  Howard  University  Dental 
course  in  June,  1913,  he  immediately  returned  to 
his  home  land  and  prepared  for  the  state  examin 
ations.  To  make  assurance  doubly  sure  he  took 
the  examinations  in  two  states,  Louisiana  and  Ark- 
kansas.  In  both  states  he  passed.  Louisiana  was 
his  home,  and  in  his  home  he  preferred  to  try  first. 
Hanging  out  his  sign  in  Shreveport,  he  began  his 
career  as  a  dentist.  His  success  has  far  exceeded 
even  his  ambition.  In  a  short  time  he  found  that 
one  chair  was  not  sufficient  to  accommodate  his 
patrons.  He  found  also  that  he  could  not  meet  all 
the  demands  made  upon  him.  He  therefore  set  up 
a  second  chair  and  employed  an  assistant,  a  young 
lady  who  is  giving  most  efficient  service. 

That  he  has  been  unusually  successful  as  a  pro 
fessional  man  is  shown  from  the  amount  he  has 
been  able  to  accumulate  during  the  few  years  of 
his  practice.  Dr.  Hudson  owns  his  home,  a  very  at 
tractive  residence  on  Jordan  Street  in  Alexandria. 
He  has  equipped  his  office  with  the  most  up-to-date 
dental  appliances  available.  All  these  he  owns, 
having  paid  for  them  $3000. 

Though  genuinely  interested  in  the  life  of 
Shreveport,  Dr.  Hudson  has  but  little  time  to  °-ive 
to  lodge  or  social  engagements.  Only  his  Sabbaths 
are  free,  and  frequently  only  a  part  of  these.  He 
is  a  member  of  the  St.  James  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  of  Shreveport,  where  he  attends  services, 
and  takes  such  active  part  in  church  work  as  his 
time  will  allow.  He  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
Board  of  trustees  of  Wiley  University  in  May,  1918. 

Dr.  Hudson  was  married  to  Miss  Thomey  B. 
Thomas  of  Shreveport,  September  14,  1914.  Dr. 
and  Mrs.  Hudson  have  two  children,  Henry  Claude, 
Jr.,  who  was  born  January  5th,  1916;  and  Gloria  T., 
who  was  born  April  11,  1917. 


183 


MASON  ALBERT  HAWKINS,  A.  B.,  A.  M. 

ASON  Albert  Hawkins,  of  Balti 
more,  Maryland,  is  a  Virginian  by 
birth.  On  October  21,  1874,  he 
was  born  in  Charlottsville,  Al- 
hermarle  County.  At  an  early 
age  he  went  from  Virginia  to 
Maryland  where  he  attended  the  Elementary 
schools,  of  Baltimore.  Completing  the  work  of 
the  graded  schools  he  prepared  for  college  at 
Morgan  College,  also  in  Baltimore.  From  Mor 
gan  College  Mr.  Hawkins  went  to  Harvard  Univer 
sity.  Here  he  spent  four  years  in  the  classical 
course  of  this  great  institution,  graduating  in  1901. 
with  the  degree  A.  B.  He  received  the  degree  of 
A.  M.,  from  Columbia  University  in  1910. 

Upon  finishing  the  course  at  Harvard,  Mr.  Haw 
kins  became  a  teacher  of  Latin,  German,  and  Ec 
onomics,  in  the  Colored  High  School,  of  Baltimore. 
In  this  position  he  worked  for  five  years,  when  he 
became  head  of  Department  of  Foreign  Languag 
es  in  1906.  In  1909  he  was  made  Vice-Principal  of 
this  school  and  Principal  the  latter  part  of  the  same 
year.  Here  Mr.  Hawkins  still  labors.  Most  of 
his  life  has  been  spent  in  the  school  rooms  of  Bal 
timore. 


Since  Mr.  Hawkins  took  charge  of  the  Colored 
High  School  it  has  had  a  great  growth.  He  has 
modified  the  course  of  study  to  meet  in  a  large  de 
gree  the  needs  of  the  community  which  it  serves. 
He  emphasizes  the  obligations  of  the  teacher  to  the 
parents.  He  also  lays  great  stress  upon  the  need 
of  broad  vision  and  sympathy  and  the  requirement 
of  high  professional  skill.  With  these  views  it  is 
but  natural  that  Mr.  Hawkins  himself  should  go 
out  of  the  school  room  to  touch  the  lives  of  all  in 
the  community.  So  we  find  him  an  active  member 
of  the  Union  Baptist  Church,  a  member  of  the 
American  Academy  of  Political  and  Social  Sciences, 
and  a  Fellow  of  American  Geographical  Society. 
But  his  interests  in  the  people  of  his  immediate 
community  is  shown  more  in  the  fact  that  he 
serves  as  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Provident 
Hospital;  President  of  the  Maryland  Colored  Pub 
lic  Health  Association;  Treasurer  of  the  Maryland 
Colored  Blind  Association ;  Member  of  the  Com 
mission  on  Preparedness  and  Defense  for  the  Col 
ored  People  of  Maryland. 

He  was  appointed  to  the  Commission  on  Pre- 
pardness  by  Governor  Harrington.  This  alone  goes 
to  show  that  his. efforts  in  the  behalf  of  the  Race 
has  attracted  the  attention  of  the  whole  State.  So 
numerous  and  so  varied  are  these  bodies  which  he 
serves,  that  it  is  readily  seen  that  it  is  no  one 
phase  of  the  development  of  the  Race  which  Mr. 
Hawkins  has  at  heart,  but  the  advancement  of  the 
entire  people. 

Along  with  all  the  interests  which  are  ever  be 
fore  Principal  Hawkins,  he  has  an  interest  in  cer 
tain  inventions.  On  this  he  spends  considerable 
time.  It  to  him  is  a  recreation  from  the  other  kind 
of  work  which  is  ever  with  him.  He  has  been 
awarded  patents  on  a  cabinet  for  player  music  rolls 
and  he  has  patents  pending  on  a  number  of  various 
devices. 

On  October  14,  1905,  Mr.  Hawkins  was  married 
to  Miss  Margaret  B.  Gregory.  Mrs.  Hawkins  is 
the  daughter  of  the  late  Professor  James  M.  Gre 
gory,  of  Bordentown  Industrial  School,  Borden- 
town,  New  Jersey.  Mr.  Hawkins  has  two  sons, 
Gregory  Hawkins,  and  Mason  A.  Hawkins.  These 
two  lads  are  in  the  schools  of  Baltimore  and  give 
promise  ;of  great  intellectual  development.  Mr. 
Hawkins  ambition  is  to  prepare  them  for  an  hon 
orable  and  useful  life. 

Mr.  Hawkins  has  set  the  example  of  thrift  for 
those  who  take  him  as  a  pattern.  He  pays  taxes 
on  both  real-estate  and  personal  property.  In  this 
man  we  see  one  well  rounded.  He  is  a  sound 
scholar,  a  progressive  educator,  and  an  excellent 
administrator.  At  the  same  time  he  touches  the 
lives  of  all  the  people  about  him,  even  the  most 
lowly  in  a  helpful  manner. 


184 


WILLIAM  PICKENS,  A.  B..  A.  M.,  LIT.  D.,  LL.  D. 

S  a  very  young  man  in  school, 
William  1'ickens  won  for  himself 
honors  and  the  name  ot  a  close 
student  and  a  good  speaker.  What 
the  young  man  gave  promise  of 
being  William  1'ickens,  the  man, 
is.  He  was  born  in  South  Carolina, 
Jan.  15,  1881.  His  public  school 
training  was  received  in  Arkansas.  In  1899  he 
graduated  from  the  High  School  in  Little  Rock,  as 
Valedictorian  of  the  class.  Not  only  had  young 
Pickens  led  his  particular  class,  but  he  had  higher 
marks  than  any  student  had  ever  made  in  the 
school.  After  leaving  High  School,  Mr.  Pickens 
entered  Talledega  College,  Talledega,  Alabama,  and 
graduated  with  the  degree  of-  A  .B.,  again  valedic 
torian  of  his  class.  Not  yet  satisfied  with  his  train 
ing  the  subject  of  this  sketch  next  entered  Yale  Un 
iversity.  After  two  years  stay  he  graduated  in  the 
highest  grade,  "Philosophical  Oration  Grade"  in 
class  of  over  three  hundred.  One  of  the  rewards 
of  his  high  scholarship  was  receiving  Phi  Beta 
Kappa.  During  his  first  year  at  Yale  Mr.  Pickens 
won  the  highest  of  ten  different  prizes  for  Oratory 
in  the  James  Teneyck  Oratorical  Contest.  Thous 
ands  of  people  complimented  him  on  this  achieve 
ment  among  them  being  ex-President  Cleveland. 
President  Roosevelt's  family. 

Having  completed   the  work  at  Yale,   Professor 
Pickens  first  worked   in   his   old   school.  Talladega 


College.  Here  for  ten  years  he  was  Professor  of 
Language.  While  in  Talladega,  he  took  a  very 
special  interest  in  the  students.  At  all  times  he 
was  willing  and  ready  to  see  their  side  of  any  ques 
tion  and  to  see  that  they  were  given  their  rights. 
While  teaching  in  Talladega,  Fisk  University,  Nash 
ville,  Tennessee  gave  him  the  degree  of  Master  of 
Arts,  for  a  Latin  thesis.  After  ten  years  of  work 
at  Talladega,  Professor  Pickens  gave  up  the  work 
there  and  accepted  the  position  as  Professor  of 
Greek  and  Sociology  in  Wiley  University,  Mar 
shall,  Texas,  1914-15,  and  then  the  post  of  Dean  of 
Morgan  College,  Baltimore,  Md.  This  position  he 
held  till  1917,  when  the  Trustees  of  Morgan  made 
him  Vice-President.  Selma  University  honored  him 
with  the  degree  Lit.  D.,  in  1915,  and  Wiley  with 
L.  L.  D.,  in  1918. 

Mr..  Pickens  did  not  leap  suddenly  into  fame  as 
a  speaker.  From  his  earliest  young  manhood  he 
led  his  mates  in  this  particular  line.  While  in  the 
Sophomore  year  at  Talladega,  he  began  lecturing 
in  the  North.  At  this  time  he  was  only  nineteen 
years  of  age.  And  so  well  were  his  hearers  pleased 
with  the  words  of  wisdom  uttered  by  one  so  young, 
that  they  requested  the  publication  of  these  address 
es. 

Since  this  beginning  as  a  public  speaker,  Mr. 
Pickens  has  made  for  himself  a  great  name  in  this 
particular  line.  He  appeared  on  the  American 
Missionary  Association  program  at  Springfield, 
Massachusetts,  in  1900,  in  the  Court  Square  Thea 
tre.  At  the  same  time  Booker  T.  Washington,  the 
great  race  leader,  and  Newell  Dwight  Hillis,  fa 
mous  New  York  preacher,  were  speakers.  Many 
times  since  that  day  Mr.  Pickens  has  appeared  in 
similar  meetings.  He  is  in  constant  demand  in 
both  the  North  and  the  South  for  the  lecture  plat 
form. 

At  the  same  time  that  he  was  making  a  name  for 
himself  in  this  line  of  speaking,  he  was  making 
known  his  powers  as  a  writer.  He  has  written 
many  articles  for  magizines  and  many  phamplets. 
He  has  out  now  a  book,  "The  New  Negro."  It  is 
a  book  of  merit  and  one  that  has  met  with  ready 
appreciation. 

That  Mr.  Pickens  is  no  dreamer  but  can  handle 
practical  problems  very  well  is  evidenced  by  the 
manner  in  which  he  is  serving  his  country  during 
this  war.  He,  with  Mr.  Spingarn  are  reputed  to  be 
the  first  to  make  a  move  for  an  officers'  Training 
Camp  for  Negroes.  At  the  time  many  were  hostile 
to  the  idea,  especially  is  this  true  of  the  attitude  of 
the  Negro  press.  But  today  we  are  proud  of  that 
cam])  and  its  results.  Mr.  Pickens  has  taken  his 
time  to  busy  himself  with  the  different  canton 
ments,  visiting  and  speaking  to  the  men.  As  a 
member  of  the  Maryland  Council  of  Defense,  he 
is  doing  many  sorts  of  war  work. 

Mr.  Pickens  was  married  in  1905,  to  Miss  Min 
nie  McAlpine  of  Meridian  Mississippi.  To  them 
have  been  born  three  children,  William,  Jr.,  Har 
riet  Ida,  Ruby  Annie.  They  are  all  pupils  in  school 
and  are  showing  that  they  have  inherited  from 
their  father  some  of  his  ability. 

Mr.  Pickens  has  traveled  extensively.  He  has 
covered  the  greater  part  of  this  country  and  has 
traveled  in  Europe.  He  is  a  fine  example  of  "The 
New  Negro"  himself. 


18S 


WILLIAM    STANLEY   RRAITHWAITE. 


N  Boston,  Massachusetts,  in  the 
year  1868,  there  was  born  a  child 
who  was  destined  to  take  a  lead 
ing  place  as  an  authority  on 
American  Verse.  This  child  was 
William  Stanley  Braithwaite.  At 
the  age  of  twelve  years  he  had  to  leave  school  in 
order  that  he  might  help  provide  for  his  mother. 
This  was  due  to  the  fact  that  he  had  lost  his  father. 
Up  to  the  time  he  left  school  the  lad  had  been  a 
close  student  and  had  mastered  all  the  tasks  that 
were  set  for  him.  And  even  though  lie  was  out 
of  school,  young  Braithwaite  did  not  cease  to  study 
but  continued  to  be  thoughtful  and  to  absorb  all 
the  culture  that  surrounded  him. 

Mr.  Braithwaite  says  of  himself:  "At  the  age 
of  fifteen  like  a  revealation,  there  broke  out  in  me 
a  great  passion  for  poetry,  an  intense  love  for  lit 
erature,  and  a  yearning  for  the  ideal  life  which  fos 
ters  the  creation  of  things  that  come  out  of  dreams 
and  visions  and  symbols.  J  dedicated  my  future  to 
literature,  though  the  altar  upon  which  I  was  to 
lay  my  sacrificial  life  seemed  beyond  all  likelihood 
of  opportunity  and  strength  and  equipment  to 
reach.  I  set  about  it,  however,  with  fortitude, 
hope  and  patience." 

What  the  exercise  of  these  three  virtues  brought 
r.bout  in  the  life  of  this  young  man  may  be  readily 


seen  from  the  results  that  he  has  been  able  to 
achieve.  In  America  and  abroad  as  well  he  is  re 
cognized  as  the  leading  authority  .on  American 
Poetry.  This  high  place-  did  not  conic  to  him  be 
cause  of  his  love  for  this  work,  but  because  of  tin- 
time  and  effort  he  put  into  the  study  of  the  sub 
ject.  For  the  past  twelve  years  he  has  devoted 
most  of  his  time  to  the  study  of  American  poetry. 
F.ach  year  he  has  published  in  the  Boston  Tran 
script  a  review  of  poetry  for  the  vear  and  each 
year  he  has  published  an  Anthology  of  American 
Poems.  In  this  work  Mr.  Braithwaite  includes  all 
of  the  poems  written  during  the  year  that  arc,  in 
his  opinion  worth  while.  In  such  high  regard  is 
the  opinion  of  this  man  held  that  not  to  be  in  his 
book  for  the  vear,  is  not  to  be  known  as  a  poet. 
In  fact  in  the  opinion  of  literary  folk  in  F.ngland 
Mr.  Braithwaite  is  not  only  an  authority  on  Amer 
ican  Poetry,  but  The  Authority  on  the  subject. 

Mr.  Braithwaite  stands  to  the  colored  boy  and 
the  colored  girl  as  an  example  of  the  man  who  has 
gone  to  the  top  in  spite  of  his  color.  So  many  hold 
that  the  best  place  is  never  given  to  a  person  of 
color.  Mr.  Braithwaite  is  a  positive  denial  of  this 
saying.  In  fact  with  him,  and  with  a  few  others 
who  have  dared  to  go  ahead,  starts  the  saying — 
a  man  can  be  just  what  he  wants  to  be  in  spite 
of  his  color. 

The  works  of  Braithwaite  include  "Lyrics  of 
Life  and  Love,"  "The  Book  of  Klizabethian 
Verse,"  "The  House  of  Falling  Leaves,"  "The 
Book  of  Georgian  Verse,"  "The  Book  of  Restora 
tion  Verse,"  and  "The  Book  of  Victorian  Verse." 
The  publishers  for  the  works  of  Braithwaite  say 
of  his  Poetic  Year  for  1916:  "Here  is  a  book  that 
is  actually  'Something  new  tinder  the  sun,'  and 
furthermore,  'fills  a  long  felt  want.'  "  Any  lover 
of  poetry,  any  student  of  contemporary  literature, 
who  desires  to  form  an  intelligent  estimate  of 
recent  poetry,  or  to  make  an  acquaintance  with  any 
individual  poet  of  our  time  sufficiently  definite  to 
give  him  the  requisite  knowledge  for  an  intelligent 
discussion,  will  find  the  book  indispensable. 

"The  method  of  the  book  is  not  the  least  of  its 
virtues.  A  friendly  discussion  takes  place  among  a 
group  of  four  friends,  including  Mr.  Braithwaite 
himself,  who  provides  the  guiding  hand." 

"Bv  this  lively  treatment,  so  surprisingly  differ 
ent  from  the  usual  method  of  critical  writing,  tin- 
reader  forms  a  personal  impression,  as  human  as 
it  is  well  founded  of  the  poetry"  of  all  contempo 
rary  poets  who  are  really  deserving  of  that  title. 

William  Stanley  Braithwaite  has  made  a  place 
for  himself  at  the  top  in  his  chosen  work,  lie  is 
held  up  here  as  an  ideal  along  his  line  to  all  young- 
persons  of  color,  lie  is  an  example  of  what  con 
centrated  endeavor  will  do  for  a  person  of  deter 
mination. 


186 


WILLIAM  NELSON  DeBERRY,  D.  D. 


HEN  Fisk  University  wishes  to 
point  to  her  useful  and  scholarly 
graduates,  she  usually  comes  very 
soon  to  the  name  of  William  N 
DeBerry.  As  it  is  with  Fisk,  so 
it  is  with  the  whole  of  Nashville. 
He  is  especially  a  source  of  pride  to  Nashville,  not 
because  she  is  lacking  in  conspicious  men  among 
her  colored  citizens,  but  because  of  the  theory  that 
the  men  living  nearest  institutions  of  learning  fre 
quently  make  the  least  use  of  them.  This  saying  is 
far  from  true  in  the  case  of  the  subject  of  this 
sketch. 

Mr.  DeBerry  was  born  in  Nashville,  Tennessee, 
August  29,  1870.  He  was  fortunate  enough  to  be 
able  to  attend  school  from  early  childhood.  So  we 
find  him  as  a  lad  attending  the  public  schools  of  his 
native  city.  Here  he  applied  himself  very  diligent 
ly  to  the  work  in  hand.  Always  he  had  before 
him  the  chance  of  attending  the  University  which 
was  open  for  him  at  his  very  door.  So  we  find 
him  while  still  a  young  man  entering  Fisk.  Here 
he  remained  to  complete  the  course  of  study  and 
graduate.  He  finished  with  the  class  of  1896.  While 
in  Fisk  University  young  DeBerry  was  always 

187 


ready  to  receive  with  an  open  mind  the  instruc 
tion  of  his  teachers.  Hence  we  have  him  as  a  shin 
ing  example  of  the  good  scholars  that  arc  turned 
out  by  Fisk  University. 

Leaving  Fisk,  Mr.  DeBerry  matriculated  at  Ober- 
lin  College  in  Ohio.  Here  he  was  a  student  in  the 
theological  Department.  From  the  full  course  of 
that  department  he  was  graduated  in  189C).  Mr. 
DeBerry  is  a  Congregationalist  in  church  affilia 
tion.  Leaving  Oberlin  he  went  to  Springfield, 
Massachusetts  to  pastor  the  St.  John's  Congrega 
tional  Church  there.  Here  he  has  remained  since 
that  time,  having  had  but  the  one  charge  in  all 
these  years.  This  is  remarkable  for  a  pastor  of 
any  denomination. 

Working  hard  and  steadily  at  his  post,  studying 
to  keep  abreast  of  the  times,  Dr.  Ue  Berry  is  much 
in  demand  as  a  public  speaker  and  lecturer  and 
freely  welcomed  into  many  organizations  for  his 
usefulness.  His  has  been  a  life  spent  in  develop 
ing  the  younger  people  with  whom  he  came  in 
contact.  He  has  endeavored  to  make  them  better 
men  and  women — better  mentally,  morally  and 
spiritually. 

The  St.  John's  Congregational  Church  has  what 
is  perhaps  the  most  modern  and  best  equipped 
plant  of  all  the  colored  churches  in  New  England. 
The  present  edifice  which  was  erected  in  1911  is 
valued,  together  with  its  equipment,  at  $30,000.  It 
io  free  from  debt. 

Ihe  Church  is  unique  in  its  plan  of  organization 
and  in  the  method  of  its  varied  activities.  It  seeks 
to  adapt  its  work  in  all  its  phases  to  the  religious 
and  social  needs  of  the  people  whom  it  serves.  It 
is  known  throughout  the  country  for  the  well  or 
ganized  and  very  efficient  institutional  work  which 
it  carries  on.  The  institutional  activities  include 
a  parish  home  for  working  girls,  a  night  school  of 
Domestic  Science,  a  social  center  for  women  and 
girls,  a  club  house  for  young  men  and  boys,  a  free 
employment  bureau  and  a  department  of  family 
housing.  The  institutional  staff  includes  six  paid 
workers  in  addition  to  the  pastor.  The  real  estate 
and  equipment  of  the  institutional  department  are 
valued  conservatively  at  $50,000  making  the  total 
valuation  of  the  property  owned  by  the  church  at 
about  $80,000. 

Among  the  many  organizations  which  are  proud 
to  claim  Dr.  DeBerry  a  member  are  the  American 
Missionary  Association,  and  the  American  Board 
of  Commissioners  for  Foreign  Missions.  Of  both 
these  organizations  he  is  a  life  member. 

In  1914  Fisk  University  elected  him  a  member 
of  her  board  of  trustees.  In  this  capacity  he  still 
serves  the  school  that  gave  him  his  inspiration  for 
his  life  of  usefulness. 

Recognizing  the  excellent  work  of  this  man, 
Lincoln  University  conferred  upon  him  the  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Divinity,  in  1915.  In  1917  he  was  el 
ected  to  honorary  membership  in  the  fraternity  of 
Alpha  Phi  Alpha.  In  this  way  some  of  the  honor 
due  Dr.  DeBerry  is  being  received  by  him  now. 

Dr.  DeBerry  was  married  in  1899  to  Miss  Aman 
da  McKissack,  of  1'ulaski,  Tennessee.  Mrs.  De- 
Berry  is  a  graduate  of  Fisk  University.  Two 
children  have  been  born  to  brighten  and  gladen  the 
home  of  the  DeBerry's — Charlotte  Pearl  and  Anna 
Mae.  They  are  both  young  misses  in  school. 


DAVID  EUGENE  CRAWFORD. 

ROM  a  date  somewhere  near  the 
clays  of  Plymouth  Rock  and  the 
first  Pilgrims,  Boston,  Massachu 
setts,  has  had  its  famous  Negroes. 
Phillis  Wheatley  was  the  first  fa 
mous  Negro  of  Massachusetts,  as 
she  was  the  first  woman  poet  of  the  state  and  the 
first,  and  perhaps  the  only  Negro  woman  poet 
of  the  ages.  Crispus  Attucks  and  Peter  Salem  were 
the  famous  black  men  of  the  Revolutionary  times, 
then  came  the  Ruffins,  the  Trotters,  but  history 
becomes  confused.  She  cannot  distinguish  between 
the  real  Bostonian  and  the  man  and  woman  who 
went  to  Boston  to  become  famous,  or  who  be 
came  famous  because  they  went  to  Boston. 

Hem-ever,  from  Phillis  Wheatley  to  this  day  Bos 
ton  has  never  lacked  for  genuinely  strong  and  use 
ful  colored  people.  Among  the  modern  leaders  of 
the  practical,  modest  yet  very  powerful  and  useful 
type  is  numbered  David  Eugene  Crawford. 

Mr.  Crawford  was  born  in  Lynchburg,  Virginia, 
December  26th,  1869.  He  attended  the  public 
schools  of  Lynchburg,  and  then  attended  Hampton 
Institute.  Getting  the  Hampton  stamp  upon  him 
he  went  to  Boston  and  began  work.  All  along  he 

188 


has  linked  work  and  education ;  because  he  could 
not  pursue  his  studies  without  working  and  he 
would  not  work  without  studying.  When  he  was 
sixteen  he  began  dealing  in  produce  in  the  Virginia 
markets.  In  Boston,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  he  be 
came  a  caterer,  pursuing  his  studies  in  the  mean 
time  in  the  Boston  Y.  M|  C.  A..  This  business  of 
caterer  and  student  he  followed  until  1907  when 
he  was  admitted  to  the  Bar  to  practice  law.  Thus 
he  became  after  a  struggle  of  a  quarter  of  a  century 
to  realize  his  dream  of  a  professional  life. 

But  Mr.  Crawford  found  entrance  into  the  pro 
fession  of  law  by  no  means  marked  his  entrance  in 
to  public  life.  It  rather  marked  a  public  recogni 
tion  of  what  he  had  done  and  been  in  Massachu 
setts  for  more  than  a  score  of  years.  He  has  been 
closely  allied  with  the  New  England  Suffrage 
League,  with  civic  movements,  with  meetings  and 
petitions  for  justice  to  the  black  man  throughout 
the  country.  Indeed  there  has  scarcely  been  a  step 
taken  among  the  colored  people  of  Boston  during 
these  years  but  Mr.  Crawford  has  been  a  conspic 
uous  figure. 

What  the  leading  citizens  of  Massachusetts  think 
of  him  is  shown  by  the  many  prominent  offices  he 
holds  and  by  the  cooperation  he  has  been  able  to 
gain  in  his  undertakings.  He  is  treasurer  of  the 
Ebenezer  Baptist  Church,  of  which  he  has  for  years 
been  a  member.  He  has  been  a  Mason  for  twenty- 
five  years.  He  is  a  thirty-third  degree  Mason  and 
Past  Master  of  the  Eureka  Lodge,  a  member  of  all 
masonic  branches  and  Deputy  of  the  Valley  of 
Massachusetts.  In  1915  the  Governor  of  Massachu 
setts  appointed  him  master  in  Chancery,  and  in  1916 
the  citizens  of  Boston  elected  him  as  a  delegate  to 
the  National  Republican  Convention,  which  met  at 
Chicago.  The  crowning  mark  of  public  confidence, 
however,  came  to  Mr.  Crawford,  in  1910,  when  he 
opened  the  Eureka  Co-Operative  Bank,  the  only 
Negro  Bank  in  the  Bay  State.  That  it  has  run 
successfully  ever  since  in  a  city  and  in  a  state 
where  banks  are  common  and  competition  for 
money  very  sharp,  is  highly  expressive  of  the  pub 
lic  in  Mr.  Crawford. 

Through  studying  and  serving  Mr.  Crawford 
managed  all  along  to  accumulate  property  and  to 
educate  a  growing  family.  He  has  traveled  in  the 
North,  Middle  West,  and  in  some  parts  of  the 
South  and  in  Canada.  His  property  holdings  of 
apartments,  stores  and  commercial  properties  are 
valued  in  all  at  $150,000. 

Mr.  Crawford  was  married  to  Miss  Almira  G. 
Lewis  of  Boston  in  1894.  Their  four  children  are 
all  making  careers  worthy  of  their  father,  who  has 
set  such  a  high  standard  of  attainment.  J.  William 
Crawford,  who  is  twenty-two  years  of  age  is  a 
senior  in  the  Boston  University  Law  School ;  Miss 
Mildred  L.,  age  twenty-one,  is  a  bookkeeper  and 
stenographer,  Miss  Helen  F  is  a  sophomore  in  Rad- 
cliff  College,  and  Miss  M.  Virginia  is  a  senior  in  the 
Girl's  High  School  of  Boston. 


ROLAND  WILTSE  HAYES. 


OLAND  W.  Hayes,  easily  the 
leading  tenor  of  the  Colored  Race 
was  born  June  5,  1887,  at  Curry- 
ville,  Georgia.  Here  in  Georgia 
he  lived  on  the  farm,  working,  at 
tending  school  when  it  was  in 
session,  till  he  was  fourteen  years 
of  age.  His  father  died,  leaving 
seven  children,  and  Roland  was  among  the  older 
ones.  On  him  therefore  fell  some  of  the  responsi 
bility.  His  mother  moved,  when  he  was  fourteen, 
to  Chattanooga,  Tennessee.  The  problem  of  edu 
cating  the  children  was  a  serious  one.  Mrs.  Hayes 
finally  hit  upon  the  plan  of  letting  the  two  older 
boys,  Robert  and  Roland,  take  turns  at  attending 
school.  One  went  to  school  one  year,  while  the 
other  worked  to  help  in  the  support  of  the  family 
and  the  next  year  this  turned  it  about.  In  this 
manner  Roland  W.  Hayes  had  a  chance  t«i  attend 
school.  He  made  the  most  of  his  opportunity  dur 
ing  the  four  years  they  were  thus  taking  their 
turns  at  school. 

Arthur  W.  Calhoun,  (Colored),  a  graduate  of  the 
Oberlin  Conservatory  of  Music,  heard  young  Hay 
es  sing  one  day  and  persuaded  him  to  take  lessons 
and  urged  him  to  adopt  singing  as  a  profession. 
His  first  public  appearance  aroused  enthusiastic 
comment  and  a  sum  of  money  was  raised  to  per 
mit  the  boy  to  continue  his  studies  at  the  musical 
college.  With  this  help  and  by  his  own  labors  he 


spent  four  years  in  Fisk  University.  Here  his  voice 
was  under  the  care  of  the  Vocal  teacher,  Miss 
Jennie  A.  Robinson,  head  of  the  music  department. 

In  the  summer  of  1910  Mr.  Hayes  went  to  Louis 
ville,  Kentucky,  where  he  worked  for  eight 
months.  His  object  in  working  in  Louisville  was 
to  save  money  enough  to  go  North  for  further 
training.  Combining  work  and  education,  Mr. 
Hayes  took  a  job  as  a  waiter  in  Pendennis  club. 
Some  of  the  members  learned  that  he  could  sing, 
through  the  head  waiter,  Mr.  Henry  T.  Bain. 
Through  them  he  had  many  opportunities  to  fill 
engagements  as  a  singer.  It  was  through  this 
club  that  he  met  a  theatrical  manager,  who  hired 
him  at  five  dollars  a  day  for  a  month.  At  the  con 
clusion  of  this  engagement,  through  one  of  the 
members  of  the  Pendennis  club,  in  which  he  was 
a  waiter,  made  arrangements  for  him  to  sing  in 
Louisville  at  the  National  Fire  Insurance  Agent's 
Banquet.  A  few  weeks  after  this  engagement  he 
was  asked  to  sing  in  the  missionary  meeting  "The 
World  in  Boston."  Here  he  appeared  with  the 
Fisk  Jubilee  Singers,  where  the  engagement  lasted 
for  six  weeks. 

In  the  Fall  of  1911,  Mr.  Henry  H.  Putnian.  of 
Boston,  arranged  for  Mr.  Hayes  to  begin  his  mus 
ical  training  in  Boston,  under  Maestro  Arthur  1. 
Hubbard,  where  he  has  continued  his  studies  until 
the  present.  Under  the  teaching  of  the  great 
Maestro  Hubbard,  for  the  last  seven  years,  the  na 
turally  sweet  voice  of  Mr.  Hayes  has  been  devel 
oped  and  straightened  until  now,  he  as  an  artist, 
ranks  among  the  best  artists  of  the  land.  In  No 
vember  of  1917,  he  made  his  first  appearance  in 
the  great  Symphony  Hall,  of  .Boston. 

He  is  the  first  Colored  Artist  to  have  a  recital  in 
this  Hall.  To  quote  from  the  Guardian  we  can  see 
how  Mr.  Hayes  was  received. 

"Doff  the  hat  to  Roland  W.  Hayes,  the  singer ! 
He  essayed  the  difficult  and  succeeded.  He  made 
the  fight  and  won.  In  size  of  audience,  in  finan 
cial  profit,  in  auditorium  and  in  his  own  musical 
performance  Hayes  scored  a  triumph. 

"The  great  Symphony  Hall  was  packed,  even  the 
platform  was  filled  with  seats  and  persons  stood 
thick  along  both  hall  aisles.  It  was  a  mixed  aud 
ience  with  no  segregation  and  thoroughly  repres 
entative  of  both  rates,  as  big  an  audience  as  world- 
famous  white  artists  have  there.  No  Colored  Ar 
tist  ever  had  a  recital  in  Symphony  Hall. 

"In  this  respect  and  in  the  talent  displayed  by 
Mr.  Hayes,  as  well  as  in  the  size  and  character  of 
the  audience  the  recital  made  musical  history  for 
Colored  Bostonians.  Mr.  Hayes  rendered  a  wide 
variety  of  songs.  After  Mr.  Hayes'  singing  Thurs 
day  night.  Colored  Boston  can  claim  to  have  the 
leading  tenor  of  the  day.  His  voice  was  full  and 
robust  with  a  long  range-  It  was  resonant  and 
flexible. 

Mr.  Hayes  has  traveled  over  the  United  States 
as  a  Concert  Artist.  His  time  has  been  given 
wholly  to  the  development  of  his  voice  and  in  ear 
ning  means  for  that  purpose.  He  is  a  member  of 
the  Baptist  Church,  of  Boston,  but  has  connected 
himself  with  no  other  organizations.  His  is  the  life 
of  the  true  artist,  one  of  continual  application  of 
self  for  continued  artistic  development,  for  the 
sake  of  art  and  for  the  inspiration  of  the  members 
(musical),  of  his  race. 


189 


ALEXANDER   HUGHES. 

ORN  a  slave  in  Richmond,  Virginia 
January  17,  1857,  growing  to 
manhood  without  even  the  rudi 
ments  of  an  education,  Alexander 
Hughes  of  Springfield,  Massachu 
setts,  has  won  his  way  into  the 
hearts  of  his  fellow  townsmen,  until  he  is  one  of 
the  most  respected  and  best  loved  men  of  his  sec 
tion  of  Massachusetts.  The  respect  of  his  fellow 
citizens  he  gained  through  careful  attention  to  his 
work  and  to  his  business  relation,  paying  his  debts 
and  meeting  obligations  promptly,  a  thing  that 
pleases  a  New  Englander.  Their  affections  he  won 
through  flowers;  through  growing  flowers  and 
giving  away  flowers..  For  three  successive  years 
he  lias  won  a  pri/.e  offered  by  the  Springfield  Re 
publican  for  the  prettiest  flowers  in  back  and  front 
yards.  He  even  went  further.  He  rented,  or  bor 
rowed,  vacant  lots  and  planted  flowers  in  these. 
Then,  when  the  flowers  grew,  he  would  give  them 
in  handsome  bouqets  to  the  sick,  to  invalids,  to  the 
members  of  old  people's  homes. 

Mr.  Hughes  was  nine  years  old  when  his  master 
returned  from  the  war.  The  master  gave  Mr. 
Hughes'  father  five  days  to  leave  the  plantation. 


The  father  departed,  but  left  Mr.  Hughes  with  one 
brother  and  two  sisters  to  aid  the  master.  From 
nine  to  twelve  Mr.  Hughes  tended  cows  and  did 
chores  about  the  plantation.  From  twelve  to  eight 
een  he  worked  in  a  tobacco  factory  of  Richmond ; 
from  eighteen  to  twenty  he  drove  a  grocery  wagon 
from  twenty  to  twenty-four  he  carried  brick  and 
mortar.  From  twenty-four  to  twenty-seven,  he 
drove  a  wholesale  grocery  wagon  in  Spring 
field.  Then  he  cared  for  furnaces  for  t  w  o 
years,  and  was  a  janitor  for  two  years.  In  Oct 
ober,  1888,  he  became  shipping  clerk  for  the  Massa 
chusetts  Mutual  Life  Insurance  Company. 

Here  he  has  remained,  winning  distinction  in 
many  directions.  In  1889  he  added  night  catering 
to  his  list,  his  patrons  being  of  social  exclusiveness  ; 
and  won  distinction  and  made  money.  He  became 
a  member  of  the  Springfield  Chamber  of  Com 
merce;  of  the  St.  John's  Congregational  Church, 
also  deacon,  church  treasurer,  Sunday  School  teach 
er  and  member  of  the  Standing  Committee,  mem 
ber  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  member  of  the  Golden  Chain 
Lodge  of  Odd  Fellows:  treasurer  of  the  Household 
of  Ruth;  member  of  the  Negro  Civic  League  of  the 
Springfield  Improvement  Association  ;  of  the  Un 
ion  Relief  Association;  of  the  Home  Guards,  a  war 
defense  organization.  He  is  treasurer  and  trustee 
of  the  Mutual  Housing  Company,  a  company  which 
keeps  homes  for  colored  people. 

All  these  posts  he  fills  with  honor.  Yet  Mr. 
Hughes  began  life  a  slave  and  rose  to  maturity  il 
literate.  Indeed  his  education  in  books  is  very  lim 
ited.  Back  in  1881,  when  he  was  twenty-four  years 
old,  he  attended  for  a  while  the  Springfield  Night 
Schools,  where  he  learned  some  reading,  writing 
and  arithmetic. 

Mr.  Hughes  has  been  twice  married.  In  1882  he 
was  married  to  Miss  Bettie  A.  White ;  she  died  in 
1892.  The  second  Mrs.  Hughes  was  Miss  Pauline 
Simms.  Both  came  from  Virginia,  his  native  home. 

Mr.  Hughes'  story  has  been  a  source  of  much  in 
spiration  even  in  Massachusetts.  The  following 
from  New  England  Character,  edited  by  Thomas 
Dreier,  will  show  how  highly  Mr.  Hughes  is  es 
teemed  and  how  widely  he  is  written  of  in  the  Old 
Bay  State. 

"Recently  I  wrote  for  a  magazine  a  little  squib, 
about  Alexander  Hughes  of  Springfield,  Massachu 
setts.  I  told  how  this  negro,  born  in  slavery,  has 
for  two  years  won  the  prize  offered  by  this  city 
for  the  best-kept  lawn  and  garden,  how  it 
is  his  habit  to  appropriate  the  vacant  ground  be 
longing  to  his  neighbors  and  plant  flowers  on  it, 
h'^w  he  carries  flowers  to  the  hospitals  to  make 
brighter  the  days  of  those  forced  to  lie  in  their 
beds — taking  especial  care  to  provide  flowers  for 
strangers  and  those  who  have  no  friends  at  hand, 
how  he  works  all  day  in  the  shipping  de 
partment  of  the  Massachusetts  Mutual,  and  at 
nights  serves  as  a  caterer  where  rich  folks  want 
service  plus,  how  he  stands  as  a  leader  in  re 
ligious  work  among  his  people,  and  how  each  year 
he  sends  part  of  his  salary  to  southern  educational 
institutions.  All  these  things  and  more  I  told,  and 
what  I  wrote  was  reprinted  with  editorial  backing 
in  the  Springfield  "Republican." 


190 


WILLIAM  H.  LEWIS,  A.  B.,  LL.  B.,  LL.  D. 


N  November  28,  in  Berkley,  Vir 
ginia,  William  Jrl.  Lewis  was 
born.  Berkley  is  now  a  part 
of  Norfolk.  At  an  early  age  he 
went  to  Portsmouth,  Virginia, 
where  he  was  a  student  in  the 
public  schools  of  that  city.  Leaving  the  schools 
of  Portsmouth  he  next  entered  the  State  Normal 
School  at  Petersburg.  He  next  matriculated  at 
Ainherst,  from  whence  he  was  graduated  in  1892. 
Having  decided  upon  the  practice  of  law  as  a  pro 
fession  he  then  entered  the  Harvard  Law  School 
and  was  graduated  in  1895.  In  1918  Hon.  Lewis 
once  more  received  a  degree.  This  time  is  was  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Law  and  it  came  from  Wil- 
berforce  University. 

During  his  school  days  Mr.  Lewis  was  noted  for 
his  foot  ball.  He  was  one  of  the  best  centers  that 
they  have  ever  had  in  Harvard.  He  was  Captain 
of  the  foot  ball  team  of  Amherst  and  was  al,so  the 
Class  Orator  of  his  class.  When  he  entered  Har 
vard  he  once  more  had  a  place  with  the  foot  ball 
team,  h'or  two  years  he  played  on  the  team  and 
then  for  ten  years  he  served  as  the  coach  for  the 
foot  ball  eleven.  His  knowledge  of  college  men 
and  liis  interest  in  them  has  extended  over  a 
greater  period  of  years  than  is  given  most  men 
in  liis  profession. 

Having  finished   law   at   the   Harvard   School   of 

191 


Law  in  1895,  Mr.  Lewis  was  promptly  admitted 
to  the  practice  of  law  in  Boston.  Since  that  time 
many  positions  of  honor  have  been  filled  by  him. 
He  was  member  of  the  City  Council,  Cambridge. 
Massachusetts,  in  1899,  1900,  1901.  He  was  mem 
ber  of  Massachusetts  Legislature,  1902.  President 
Roosevelt  appointed  him  Assistant  United  States 
District  Attorney  in  1903.  He  was  made  a  member 
of  the  Public  Library  Trustees  of  the  City  of  Cam 
bridge.  From  1908  to  1909  he  was  the  Attorney  in 
charge  of  Naturalization  for  the  New  England 
States.  President  Taft  appointed  him  Assistant 
Attorney  General  of  the  United  States  in  1911. 

Mr.  Lewis  has  been  fearless  in  standing  for  the 
rights  of  the  colored  people  of  the  United  States. 
He  was  invited  to  join  the  American  Bar  Associa 
tion.  Later  he  had  an  invitation  to  resign,  but  in 
his  characteristic  manner  he  refused  to  comply 
with  the  invitation.  Mr.  Lewis  has  had  many  hon 
ors  from  the  government.  He  has  done  good  for 
the  entire  race  by  the  manner  in  which  he  has  filled 
the  various  posts  that  have  been  given  him. 

In  religious  belief  Mr.  Lewis  is  a  Congregation- 
alist.  He  has  traveled  extensively  through  the 
United  States  and  in  1912  he  visited  England  and 
France.  September  26,  1896,  Mr.  Lewis  was  mar 
ried  to  Miss  Elizabeth  Baker  of  Cambridge,  Mas 
sachusetts.  Three  children  have  been  born  to 
brighten  this  home.  Miss  Dorothy  Lewis  is  a  stu 
dent  of  Wellesley.  Here  Miss  Lewis  gives  a  good 
account  of  herself  among  her  fellows.  Miss  Eliza 
beth  Lewis  is  a  student  at  High  School,  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts,  and  Mr.  William  H.  Lewis,  Jr.,  is 
also  a  High  School  student.  In  the  point  of  edu 
cation  the  young  people  of  this  family  bid  fair  to 
follow  in  the  footsteps  of  their  father. 

Mr.  Lewis  has  made  a  success  of  his  life.  In 
school  besides  being  a  good  student  he  was  a  good 
orator  and  a  first  class  athlete.  Out  in  life  he  has 
carried  the  same  idea  of  success  in  everything  un 
dertaken.  The  many  duties  that  have  been  show 
ered  upon  him  have  been  filled  to  his  credit.  In 
his  profession  he  is  a  good  lawyer.  If  the  case 
involves  some  things  in  the  medical  world,  Mr. 
Lewis  is  not  satisfied  till  he  has  mastered  all  the 
knowledge  on  the  subject.  If  it  is  a  matter  of 
boundaries  he  studies  equally  as  hard.  To  him  the 
thing  desired  is  a  complete  knowledge  of  all  the 
things  that  touch  the  case  even  remotely,  tie  has 
been  quoted  on  some  of  his  famous  cases  through 
out  the  United  States.  Of  course  the  fact  that  he 
was  colored  was  not  known.  But  the  color  of  his 
skin  could  not  change  the  facts  that  were  gathered 
in  his  brain.  Nothing  short  of  perfect  understand 
ing  of  the  matter  in  hand  satisfied  Mr.  Lewis.  Be 
cause  of  this  he  is  one  of  our  most  prominent  men. 


HORACK  G.   McKERROW,   M.   D.,  C.   M. 


R.  Horace  G.  Mackerrow,  of 
Worcester,  Massachusetts,  in 
vested  many  years  in  education, 
in  attending  various  institutions 
of  learning.  He  appears  to  have 
set  over  against  each  year  and 
each  institution,  all  itemized, 
some  definite  service  to  men  and 
to  the  state.  He  was  born  in  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia, 
October  thirteenth,  1879.  As  a  lad  he  attended  the 
public  schools  of  Halifax.  From  1893  to  1897  he- 
was  a  student  in  Halifax  Academy.  The  next  year 
1898,  he  spent  in  the  Teachers'  Training  Class  of 
Dollwise  College.  From  this  institution  he  enrolled 
in  the  Montreal  Business  College.  Still  forging  to 
the  front  he  taught  school  in  Halifax  for  two  years. 
Finding  this  none  too  much  to  his  liking  he  came  to 
the  "states."  For  a  while  he  oscilated  between  the 
Montreal  postal  service  and  hotel  work  at  Atlantic 
City.  He  spent  some  time  also  in  Pullman  service. 
Running  on  the  Grand  Trunk  Rail  Road  in  dining 
car  service. 

By  this  time  he  had  fully  made  up  his  mind  as 
to  the  career  he  wished  to  follow.  In  October  1900 
he  enrolled  in  the  Leonard  Medical  College  at  Shaw 
University,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina.  Completing 
his  medical  course  in  1904,  he  entered  Bishop's  Uni 
versity.  Here  he  was  graduated  with  the  degree  of 
M.  D.  C.  M.  in  1905.  Returing  to  Canada,  he  was 
for  six  months  resident  house  surgeon  for  the  Wo- 

192 


man's  Hospital.  In  September,  1905,  he  took  the 
medical  examination  in  Massachusetts.  Passing, 
he  opened  office  in  Worcester  of  the  same  year. 

It  is  in  Worcester  that  he  has  translated  all  his 
former  experiences,  all  his  years  of  study  into  use 
ful  action.  Here  he  is  a  member  of  the  John  Street 
Baptist  Church,  and  superintendent  of  the  Sunday 
School.  He  is  Past  Master  of  Masonic  Lodge  of 
King  David.  He  is  a  member  of  the  St.  John  Chap 
ter  of  R.  A.  M.  and  Zion  Commandery,  K.  T.  C.  P., 
of  the  Holy  Shepherds  Consistory,  Lizra  Temple 
A.  K.  O.  N.  M.  S.,  and  Past  Examiner  of  this  body  ; 
he  is  Grand  Commander  of  the  Knight  Templars 
of  Rhode  Island  and  Massachusetts;  he  is  Past 
Grand  Master  of  the  Council  of  the  Odd  Fellows, 
North  Star  Lodge,  G.  U.  O.  O.  and  P.  N.  F.  To 
his  activities  in  the  various  lodges.  Dr.  Mackerrow 
add  many  activities  in  civil  and  social  life.  He  is 
a  member  of  the  Executive  Board  of  the  Citizens 
League  of  Worcester,  of  the  Massachusetts  State 
Guards.  19th  regiment  of  Worcester,  of  the  Wor 
cester  Military  Training  School,  of  the  Pistol  and 
Rife  Club,  of  Worcester,  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Club, 
of  Worcester,  of  the  Gun  and  Rod  Club  of  Cam 
bridge  and  Boston.  Not  forgetting  his  profession 
Dr.  Mackerrow  has  allied  himself  to  all  medical 
associations  of  his  section  of  the  country.  He  is  a 
member  of  the  Worcester  District  Medical  Associ 
ation,  of  the  Massachusetts  Medical  Association,  of 
the  American  Medical  Association  and  of  the  Na 
tional  Association  of  Physicians,  Doctors  and  Phar 
macists.  He  has  traveled  extensively  in  the  United 
States  and  Canada. 

Dr.  Mackerrow  comes  from  a  substantial  line  of 
Europeans.  His  father  was  a  Canadian  fur  dealer, 
having  dealt  in  furs  for  forty  three  years.  The  pa 
ternal  grandfather  was  a  Scotchman,  coming  from 
Aberdeen,  Scotland.  The  maternal  grandfather 
was  of  Welch  origin.  Both  ancestors  had  landed 
in  Canada  and  had  made  themselves  substantial  and 
loyal  subjects  of  their  Government.  Their  off 
spring  was  true  to  their  example  ;  for  Dr.  Mack 
errow  not  only  set  forth  to  make  for  himself 
a  most  enviable  career,  but  even  in  his  early  years 
in  Canada,  he  joined  the  battalion  of  the  Halifax 
Academy  and  became  before  he  left  that  institution 
a  major  in  his  company.  In  his  early  years  as  well 
as  later  Dr.  Mackerrow  has  also  shown  himself  a 
substantial  citizen,  by  owning  and  paying  taxes  on 
property,  both  in  his  native  country  and  in  his 
adopted  land.  He  is  a  property  owner  in  his  na 
tive  city,  Halifax,  in  the  state  of  New  York,  and 
in  Worcester.  More  than  this,  by  his  conversation 
with  his  patients  as  he  goes  about,  he  has  encour 
aged  many  to  buy  property,  to  pay  taxes,  to  clean  up 
to  join  with  all  the  forces  of  civic  improvment  in 
making  Worcester  one  of  the  best  cities  in  the  land 
for  colored  people.  To  him,  and  this  is  often  his 
text,  thorough  participation  with  all  the  myrid  ac 
tivities  of  the  city  and  of  the  state  is  the  very  bone 
and  fibre  of  citizenship.  This  explains  his  almost 
countless  membership  in  lodges,  in  civic  clubs,  in 
recreation  clubs  and  in  various  military  organiza 
tions. 

Dr.  Mackerrow  was  married  in  1916,  to  Miss  Ef- 
fie  S.  Wolf  of  Allston,  Massachusetts.  Mrs.  Mack 
errow  is  the  daughter  of  the  famous  James  H.  Wolf 
G.  A.  R.  Commander.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mackerrow  are 
parents  of  one  child,  a  son,  Horace  Gilford  Mack 
errow,  Jr.,  who  is  now  two  years  old. 


GEORGE  BUNDY,  M.  D. 


R.  George  Bundy,  M.  D.  was  born 
May  4th,  1868,  at  Mt.  Pleasant, 
Jefferson  County,  Ohio.  Like  so 
many  people,  born  in  Ohio  ,  he 
made  his  way  to  Michigan  to 
work,  but  this  was  not  done  until 
after  he  had  spent  a  number  of  years  in  the  schools 
and  colleges  of  his  native  State.  He  spent  the  usual 
years  in  the  common  schools  and  then  went  to 
Widberforce  University,  to  Wittenberg  College. 
Springfield,  Ohio  and  to  Payne  Divinity  School, 
Petersburg,  Virginia,  and  later  to  Detroit  College 
of  Medicine  and  Surgery. 

When  but  fifteen  years  of  age,  Dr.  Bundy  had 
his  first  lesson  in  the  Medical  science  under  a  no 
ted,  wealthy,  white  physician  in  Ohio.  Under  this 
kind  of  physician,  Dr.  J.  E.  Finley,  he  got  a  taste  of 
the  healing  art  that  he  could  never  quite  get  out  of 
his  system.  So  we  find  Dr.  Bundy  at  the  age  of 
forty-four,  graduating  from  the  full  medical  course 
in  the  Detroit  College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery. 
He  graduated  with  honors  in  a  class  of  fifty  and  he 
had  the  distinction  of  being  the  only  colored  man 
in  his  class.  Since  graduating  from  the  medical 
college,  he  has  enjoyed  a  very  lucrative  practice  in 
the  city  of  Detroit. 


During  the  years,  between  college  days  and 
the  taking  up  of  medicine,  Dr.  Bundy  spent 
in  church  work.  He  was  first  ordained  for 
the  ministry  in  the  A.  M.  E.  Church.  He  after 
wards  studied  for  the  Priesthood  of  the  Protes 
tant  Episcopal  Church.  He  was  made  priest  in  St. 
Paul's  Cathedral,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  in  1900.  He  was 
recommended  by  the  Episcopal  Church  for  chap 
laincy  in  the  United  States  Army,  and  was  receiv 
ed  by  President  Roosevelt  at  Washington  concern 
ing  the  appointment.  He  was  offered  the  Arch  dea- 
conry  of  Colored  Work  in  Diocease  of  Lexington, 
Kentucky,  but  the  study  of  medicine  that  he  had 
done  when  a  lad  could  never  be  really  forgotten, 
and  so  although  rather  late  for  one  to  change  pro 
fessions,  Dr.  Bundy  entered  the  medical  college, 
and  gave  up  the  ministry. 

In  the  residence  district  of  Detroit,  Dr.  Bundy 
has  a  home  worth  $5,500.00  this  as  a  showing  for 
the  savings  during  the  years  of  his  practice  of  med 
icine.  Presiding  over  this  beautiful  home  is  Mrs. 
Bundy,  who  was  Miss  Evelyn  Tardif,  of  Columbia, 
South  Carolina.  They  were  married  April  26th, 
1905,  in  Springfield,  Ohio.  Mrs.  Bundy  has  been 
to  Dr.  Bundy  a  great  help  in  carrying  out  his  am 
bition  to  become  a  physician.  In  it  all  and  through 
it  all,  she  has  been  an  inspiration.  Now  she  helps 
make  life  pleasant  for  their  many  friends  at  their 
home. 

It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  value  of  a  good 
wife  who  enters  sympathetically  and  actively  into 
the  plans  of  her  husband  and  helps  him  bear  the 
burdens  when  heavy  and  rejoice  with  him  when 
success  crowns  his  efforts. 

Dr.  Bundy  has,  along  with  all  other  whole  heart 
ed  Americans,  done  his  part  in  helping  win  this 
world  war.  Besides  contributing  freely  of  his 
means  in  the  cause  of  the  various  charities,  the 
Red  Cross,  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  and  other  relief  funds,  he 
served  for  six  months  on  the  Draft  Board  for  the 
United  States  Army. 

Dr.  Bundy  has  become  a  part  of  the  community 
life  there  in  Detroit.  He  is  still  active  in  the  church 
of  his  profession  and  through  the  church  he  is  able 
to  reach  many.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Paul  Law 
rence  Dunbar  Memorial  and  Scholarship  Fund,  as 
he  was  a  personal  friend  of  Mr.  Dunbar.  Through 
this  organization  he  has  helped  not  only  in  honor 
ing  the  most  noted  of  our  Negro  poets,  but  in  aiding 
many  students. 

Dr.  Bundy  should  be  a  source  of  inspiration  to 
the  many  men  who  are  now  engaged  in  work  that 
is  not  altogether  to  their  liking.  Reading  of  his 
success  when  he  had  the  courage  to  give  up  a  work 
in  which  he  had  made  good,  but  which  could  never 
have  his  whole  heart,  one  should  take  courage  and 
try,  even  if  late  in  life,  for  the  one  thing  that  is  his 
heart's  ambition. 


193 


KENTUCKY   PYTHIAN  TEMPLE   BUILDING— LOUIS 
VILLE,    KENTUCKY— AND    THE    MEN    LARGELY 
RESPONSIBLE  FOR  ITS  ERECTION. 


Kentucky  Pythian  Temple 


HE  Kentucky  Pythian  Temple  is 
the  outgrowth  and  an  outward 
expression  of  a  deep  seated  idea 
which  had  taken  a  strong  hold  of 
the  Pythians  of  Kentucky  and 

which  was  born  of  the  conviction 

that  fraternal  organizations  could  and  should  make 
wider  use  of  their  strength  and  authority.  Once 
the  idea  had  been  presented  to  the  Pythian  Grand 
lodge,  jurisdiction  of  Kentucky,  it  would  not  down 
but  session  after  session  it  was  kept  to  the  front 
until  the  idea  took  concrete  form.  A  number  of 
prominent  knights  championed  it  and  fought  for 
it  until  the  temple  was  built.  Sir  Knight,  J.  L.  V. 
Washington  raised  his  voice  in  its  behalf  and  Sir 
Knight,  J.  H.  Garvin,  at  Mt.  Sterling,  fanned  the 
coals  into  a  blazing  fire  by  a  beautiful,  eloquent 
and  practical  speech  which  he  delivered.  The 
movement  took  form  in  the  appointment  of  a 
commission  whose  duty  was  to  formulate  and  sub 
mit  a  plan  for  securing  the  building.  It  was  sty 
led  the  "Kentucky  Pythian  Temple  Commission. 
Sir  Knight,  H.  Francis  Jones,  was  made  President 
of  the  commission.  He  was  a  man  of  fine  parts, 
of  propelling  energy  and  unselfishly  devoted  to  the 
task  assigned  him.  Under  the  leadership  of  Sir 
Knight  Jones,  the  commission  set  to  work  and 
after  a  season  of  patient  toil  they  worked  out  a 
plan  which  made  their  dream  of  a  temple  a  living 
led  the  "Kentucky  Pythian  Temple  Commission." 
was  presented  to  the  Grand  Lodge  at  its  meeting 
at  Winchester.  It  so  happened  that  the  Supreme 
Chancellor,  Sir  Knight  S.  W.  Starks,  visited  the 
Kentucky  jurisdiction  at  this  session  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  and  was  present  when  the  plan  was  sub 
mitted.  He  was  first  impressed  with  the  enthu 
siasm  with  which  the  plan  was  received,  but  after 
a  careful  consideration  of  it  he  caught  the  fever 
himself,  and  returned  to  his  home  in  Charleston, 
West  Virginia,  a  strong  convert  to  the  plan  and 
fired  by  the  Kentucky  spirit.  He  procured  a  copy 
of  the  plans  and  immediately  started  a  similar 
movement  in  his  home  jurisdiction  and  within  a 
year  had  organized  his  forces  and  erected  the  first 
Pythian  Temple  of  the  colored  race.  The  temple 
idea  carried  with  it  not  accommodations  for  the 
lodge  alone,  but  suitable  quarters  for  the  colored 
men  to  carry  on  their  business  enterprises.  Fra 
ternity  is  the  spirit  of  the  order  and  its  policy  is 
to  encourage  the  negro  to  make  the  best  of  his  ta 
lents  and  opportunities  and  in  the  erection  of  their 
temple  this  idea  was  kept  in  mind.  So  much  for 
the  spirit  which  gave  vision  to  the  enterprise  and 

195 


inspired  the  erection  of  the  temple.  Now  for  a 
description  of  it : 

It  is  a  beautiful  seven-story  structure,  built  of 
reinforced  concrete  and  brick  crowned  with  a  roof 
garden.  It  is  situated  in  the  heart  of  a  Negro  set 
tlement — the  gateway  of  the  Metropolis  of  the 
South.  The  building  contains  five  business  rooms ; 
a  theatre,  operated  by  a  colored  man ;  twelve  offi 
ces  ;  fifty-two  sleeping  apartments,  and  a  commo 
dious  amusement  hall,  40x97  feet — which  cares  for 
the  needs  of  a  pleasure-seeking  public.  Besides 
these  it  has  a  kitchen,  dining  room,  pool  room, 
barber  shop,  buffet  and  cabaret.  It  is  lighted  with 
electricity  and  is  steam  heated,  has  elevator  ser 
vice,  and  has  bath  arrangements  for  the  use  of  ten 
ants.  The  building  cost  approximately  $150,000.00. 
This  sketch  could  not  be  properly  closed  without 
mentioning  a  few  of  the  men  who  have  brought 
the  enterprise  to  a  successful  issue. 

Sir  Knight  Jones  and  Grand  Chancellor  Garvin 
and  their  assistants  have  been  the  moving  spirits 
but  they  have  been  ably  assisted  by  the  following 
Knights:  J.  H.  Garvin,  J.  L.  V.  Washington,  W. 
W.  Wilson,  Rev.  J.  M.  Mundy,  B.  E.  Smith,  S.  H. 
George,  M  D.,  F.  C.  Dillon,  W.  H.  Wright,  Attor^ 
ney,  J.  A.  C.  Lattimore,  M.  D.  French  Thompson. 
Directors  and  Van  J.  Davis,  M.  D.,  G.  G.  Young, 
T.  T.  Wendell,  M.  D.,  Owen  Robinson.  Dr.  E.  E. 
Underwood,  M.  D.,  William  and  John  B.  Caulder, 
Grand  Lodge  Officers. 

The  vision  inspired  these  men  and  held  them 
to  their  task  was  not.  as  has  been  stated,  simply 
a  Pythian  Temple,  although  that  in  itself  was  a 
strong  incentive,  but  a  wider  outlook  which  took 
in  the  interests  of  their  race  in  all  departments  of 
their  life.  In  addition  to  the  accommodations  pro 
vided  for  the  business  enterprises  of  their  people 
and  for  their  social  pleasures,  they  kept  in  mind 
possibilities  not  yet  developed.  Among  the  things 
they  hope  for  at  an  early  date  is  a  Negro  bank,  to 
stimulate  their  people  to  lives  of  thrift  and  to  en 
courage  them  to  buy  their  homes.  Another,  being 
the  establishment  of  a  Negro  newspaper,  whose 
aim  and  purpose  will  be  to  influence  their  people 
to  higher  ideals  of  living  and  to  inform  the  world 
of  the  progress  being  made  by  the  Negro  race. 
When  this  portion  of  their  dream  is  realized  the 
mission  of  the  Pythian  Temple  will  very  nearly 
have  filled  its  place. 

Thus  a  building  has  been  erected  in  which  the 
Colored  Pythians  take  a  commendable  pride,  and 
which  forms  a  center  of  influence  for  the  colored 
race  which  will  work  for  their  good  for  many  years 
to  come. 


ALBERT  H.  JOHNSON,  M.  D. 


LBERT  H.  Johnson,  is  a  Can 
adian  by  birth.  He  was  born 
in  Windsor,  Ontario,  June  23, 
1870.  His  early  schooling  was 
had  in  the  public  school  system  of 
Canada.  After  leaving  Canada, 
the  young  man  attended  school  in  Detroit,  Michi 
gan.  From  the  Detroit  High  School  he  was  grad 
uated  in  1889.  From  the  Detroit  High  School  he 
entered  the  Detroit  College  of  medicine  and  sur 
gery,  and  was  graduated  with  the  degree  of  M.  D. 
in  1893. 

This  recital  of  the  school  training  gotten  by  Dr. 
Johnson  seems  simple  enough,  and  so  it  is  for  the 
young  man  with  ample  means  for  support.  But 
this  was  not  the  fact  in  the  case  of  Dr.  Johnson.  In 
order  to  get  his  education  he  had  to  work  his  way. 
He  started  his  career  as  a  newsboy.  In  this  he 
had  the  usual  life  of  the  newsboy.  He  learned  to 
give  and  take,  he  learned  human  nature  as  only  a 
newsboy  or  one  in  a  similar  line  can  learn  it.  From 
newsboy  he  next  became  a  news  agent.  In  this  oc 
cupation  he  continued  throughout  his  High  School 
career.  Dr.  Johnson  made  the  sale  of  news  items 
purchase  for  him,  in  a  large  measure  his  life  work. 

196 


After  receiving  his  M.  D.  from  the  Detroit  Col 
lege  of  Medicine  and  Surgery  Dr.  Johnson  hung 
out  his  shingle  in  the  City  of  Detroit.  At  first  he 
took  up  the  general  practice  of  medicine;  but  in 
19C9  he  was  appointed  Medical  Inspector  for 
schools.  This  caused  the  interest  of  Dr.  Johnson 
to  center  on  children  and  their  ailments.  For  the 
past  ten  years  he  has  given  most  of  his  time  to  the 
study  and  practice  of  this  branch  of  his  work.  This 
is  a  field  that  is  wide  and  is  not  as  yet  overcrowd 
ed.  In  this  line  Dr.  Johnson  has  made  a  marked 
success. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  is  also  a  member  of 
the  firm  of  W.  E.  &  A.  H.  Johnson,  Pharmacists. 
This  firm  is  doing  a  very  good  retail  drug  business. 
They  own  the  building  in  which  the  business  is 
housed  and  get  a  good  trade.  To  this  business  ven 
ture  as  to  his  practice,  Dr.  Johnson  has  applied 
himself  and  made  good.  The  wealth  of  experience 
that  falls  to  the  lot  of  the  physician  doing  a  good 
practice  is  enjoyed  by  the  subject  of  this  sketch. 

Dr.  Johnson  has  taken  a  part  in  the  life  of  the 
city  of  his  choice.  He  is  a  member  of  the  St.  Mat 
thews  Protestant  Episcopal  Church.  Of  this  Church 
he  is  vestryman  and  Senior  Warden.  He  is  a  mem 
ber  of  the  Grand  United  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  and 
of  the  Masonic  Order.  Dr.  Johnson  also  serves  as 
trustee  and  physician  to  the  Phillis  Wheatley 
Home  for  Aged  Women  of  Detroit,  Michigan.  The 
positions  held  by  him  show  the  breadth  of  the  in 
terest  of  Dr.  Johnson.  He  is  very  active  in  the 
National  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Col 
ored  People.  Of  this  organization  he  is  the  treas 
urer  of  the  Detroit  Branch.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Executive  Committee  of  the  Detroit  League  on 
Urban  Conditions  among  Negroes.  Dr.  Johnson 
also  has  the  honor  of  having  served  as  the  first 
president  of  the  Allied  Medical  Association,  an  or 
ganization  consisting  of  doctors,  dentists,  pharma 
cists  of  the  city  of  Detroit. 

During  the  years  he  has  been  out  of  school,  Dr. 
Johnson  has  saved  his  money  and  invested  it  wis 
ely.  He  owns  besides  half  interest  in  the  drug 
business  and  its  business  block  mentioned  earlier 
in  this  sketch,  a  six  family  apartment  house  and  a 
two  family  apartment  house.  The  home  in  which 
his  own  family  lives  is  also  his  property. 

For  business  and  for  pleasure  Dr.  Johnson  has 
traveled  extensively  in  the  United  States  and  in 
Canada,  lie  was  married  to  Miss  Lucile  Russell, 
of  Oberlin,  Ohio,  September  26th,  1900.  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Johnson  are  the  proud  parents  of  one  beauti 
ful  young  daughter,  Phyllis  Mary  Johnson.  Little 
Miss  Johnson  is  ten  years  of  age  and  is  devoting 
her  time  time  to  the  duties  and  pleasures  of  child 
hood. 


EDWARD  WATSON 

DWARD  Watson,  was  born  July 
31.  1890,  in  Detroit,  Michigan.  He 
was  educated  in  thejniblic  schools 
of  his  native  city.  .  Mr.  Watson's 
father  died  before  he  had 
an  opportunity  for  college  work 
and  he  had  to  leave  school  in  order  to  help  his  mo 
ther  with  the  business.  At  the  time  of  his  death 
his  step-father  was  engaged  in  the  undertaking 
business,  which  his  mother  decided  to  continue 
and  undertook  its  management.  This  she  found 
difficult  to  do  without  the  aid  of  her  son,  but  with 
his  assistance  the  business  was  continued  with 
great  success.  He  managed  the  business  jointly 
with  his  mother  until  he  reached  the  age  of  twenty- 
four,  when  he  took  sole  charge  of  it  and  ran  it  suc 
cessfully  for  one  year.  At  the  end  of  that  period, 
Mr.  Watson  joined  Mr.  Gabriel  Davis,  as  a  partner 
in  the  undertaking  business.  The  firm  is  known  as 
Davis  and  Watson.  Together  they  have  done  a 
prosperous  business  and  have  very  good  prospects 
for  the  future. 

Mr.  Watson  is  an  active  member  of  the  St. 
Matthews  Episcopal  Church.  For  seven  years  he 
served  as  Altar  and  C'ross  Bearer.  He  is  a  mem 
ber  of  the  Masonic  Hiram,  Lodge  No.  1.  He  has 
been  a  member  of  the  lodge  for  eight  years. 

Mr.  Watson  is  not  married  and  has  only  twenty- 
eight  years  behind  him.  For  one  so  young  he  is 
doing  an  enviable  business. 


GABRIEL  DAVIS 

Gabriel  Davis  was  born  in  Uniontown,  Kentucky. 
May  22,  1872.  He  lived  on  a  farm  till  thirteen 
years  of  age  when  his  parents  moved  to  Detroit, 
Michigan.  He  worked  for  his  father  till  1887,  and 
then  he  entered  the  employ  of  the  Detroit  Street 
Railway.  He  worked  with  this  company  till  1897, 
and  then  took  up  the  duties  of  motorman,  till  1912. 

It  was  in  the  year  1912,  that  Mr.  Davis  decided 
to  start  in  business  for  himself.  He  chose  for  this 
the  Undertaking  Business  and  has  remained  true 
to  the  business  of  his  choice.  From  the  time  he 
established  his  business  he  has  made  it  earn  for 
him  a  good  living.  By  combining  with  the  Under 
taking  business  of  Edward  Watson  a  joint  interest 
of  decided  proportions  and  lucrative  nature  was  es 
tablished.  He  owns  his  place  of  business  and  three 
other  pieces  of  property. 

In  religious  belief,  Mr.  Davis  is  a  Baptist.  He 
is  liberal  when  it  comes  to  the  support  of  his  de 
nomination  and  he  also  gives  freely  of  his  time  in 
the  interest  of  the  work  of  the  church.  He  is  a 
member  of  the  Masonic  Lodge,  and  the  Flks.  Mr. 
Davis  has  lived  in  Kentucky,  the  State  of  his  birth, 
in  Ontario,  the  State  in  which  he  got  his  education, 
and  in  Michigan,  the  State  in  which  he  has  become 
a  successful  business  man. 

It  is  his  success  in  business  that  earns  for  Mr. 
Davis  mention  in  these  pages.  In  education  he 
was  able  to  go  only  through  the  Grammar  school. 
But  he  is  one  of  the  many  who  demonstrate  the  fact 
that  business  ability  is  not  dependant  wholly  on 
education,  in  the  regular  school  courses. 


197 


WILLIAM   PAUL  KEMP 


ATE  in  life  some  men  find  their 
talent,  some  in  middle  age,  and  a 
few  glide  into  their  life  work, 
almost  unconsciously,  in  their 
youth.  Thus  its  was  with  Will 
iam  Paul  Kemp.  He  was  a  born 
editor,  and  he  commenced  his,  career  as  a  writer  at 
the  early  age  of  seventeen  years. 

Mr.  Kemp  was  born  in  Plattsmouth,  Nebraska, 
March  13th.,  1881,  but  moved  to  Lincoln,  Nebraska 
when  a  child  and  there  received  his  early  educa 
tional  training.  He  attended  the  Public  schools  of 
Lincoln,  and  for  two  years  studied  in  the  High 
school.  He  also  attended  the  University  of  Neb- 
braska  School  of  Music,  and  the  night  school  of 
the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association. 

At  the  age  of  seventeen,  he  left  school  to  take  a 
position  on  Omaha  Bee  (White)  as  assistant 
Capital  correspondent.  This  was  in  1898.  From 
the  money  saved  during  his  connection  with  this 
paper  he  purchased  and  established,  April  29th, 
1899,  The  Lincoln  Leader.  He  gave  up  this  enter 
prise  for  a  time  to  become  assistant  correspondent 
for  the  Nebraska  State  Journal  (White),  at  Wash 
ington,  D.  C,  but  returned  to  Lincoln  the  latter 


part  of  1900,  where  he  resumed  the  publication  of 
the  Lincoln  Leader.  While  engaged  in  this  work 
he  became  active  in  politics,  affiliating  with  the  Re 
publican  party.  For  six  campaigns  he  was  connec 
ted  with  the  Nebraska  Republican  State  Central 
Committee,  rising  from  messenger  to  manager  of 
the  Literature  Department. 

October  8th.,  1907,  he  moved  to  Detroit,  Michi 
gan,  and  December  7th,  of  the  same  year,  he  start 
ed  the  Detroit  Leader.  It  had  a  short  life  and 
passed  out  February  13th.,  1908.  He  entered  the 
Mayor's  office  as  clerk  after  the  failure  of  his  pa 
per,  and  while  still  holding  his  position  as  clerk,  he 
started  in  January,  1909,  the  present  Detroit  Lead 
er.  November  1st.,  1909,  he  resigned  his  position 
in  the  Mayor's  office  and  devoted  his  entire  time 
to  his  business  venture. 

He  purchased  the  Owl  Printing  Co.  plant 
August  13th.,  1912,  which  he  consolidated  with  the 
Howitt  Printing  Co.,  September  26th,  1913,  con 
ducting  all  under  the  name  of  The  Detroit  Leader, 
of  which  he  is  the  sole  owner. 

In  addition  to  his  literary  attainments  Mr.  Kemp 
is  an  accomplished  musician  and  vocalist,  he  is  also 
an  athlete.  For  the  season  of  1902  he  coached  the 
Lincoln  Business  College  Football  team.  He  is  a 
member  of  St.  Mathew's  Episcopal  church,  De 
troit,  and  five  times  has  been  a  delegate  to  the  Dio 
cesan  Convention.  He  is  Past  Master  in  Masonic 
Lodge  and  Ex-Officer  of  Masonic  Grand  Lodge, 
which  position  he  held  from  1905  to  1907;  Past 
Grand  Master  Council  of  G.  U.  O.  O.  F.,  Grand  Di 
rector  of  Michigan  D.  G.  L.,  Delegate  to  1918  B. 
M.  C;  Elk;  Deputy  Supreme  Chancellor  of  Knights 
of  Pythias  of  Michigan  and  Western  Canada  1917- 
1918;  Major  in  Uniform  Rank  Knights  of  Pythias 
At  the  age  of  nineteen  years  he  was  President  of 
Abraham  Lincoln  Political  Club.  He  was  First 
Vice-President  of  the  Republican  League  Clubs 
(White)  of  Nebraska;  only  Colored  member  of 
Delegation  from  Michigan  to  First  Good  Road 
Convention  of  United  States.  He  was  a  Director 
of  Kemp  Military  Band  of  Lincoln  Nebraska,  and 
Palestine  Commandry  Band,  of  Windsor,  Ontario. 
He  polled  the  largest  vote  of  any  colored  man  ever 
received  in  Detroit,  when  a  candidate  for  Board  of 
Estimators.  He  was  President  of  the  District 
Business  League ;  President  Soldier's  Welfare  Lea 
gue  of  Detroit ;  Chairman  of  Publicity,  N.  A.  A.  C. 
P.,  of  Detroit ;  First  Chairman  of  Detroit  Urban 
League  ;  Chairman  of  Negro  Committee  to  coope 
rate  with  National  League  of  Women's  service. 
These  are  but  a  few  of  the  honors  conferred  upon 
him.  To  mention  all  would  make  this  sketch  too 
lengthy  for  the  space  alloted  to  it. 

Mr.  Kemp  was  married  December  24th,  1900,  to 
Miss  Mary  Delia  Elder.     They  have  no  children. 


198 


REVEREND  AUGER  AUGUSTUS  COSEY 


EV.  A.  A.  Cosey,  born  in  Newellton 
County,  Louisiana,  July  2nd,  187d 
has  spent  a  long  and  useful  ca- 
reer  as  pastor  on  the  one  hand 
u  DL(\^?^  al1^  as  ')U"'der  an<l  promoter  on 
the  other.  His  early  days  were 
spent  on  the  farm  engaged  in  performing  such 
tasks  as  one  of  his  age  was  capable  of  performing 
and  attending  school,  when  such  was  possible. 

When  he  was  sixteen  years  of  age,  Rev.  Cosey 
leaving  both  the  farm  and  his  native  state,  en 
rolled  in  Natchez  College,  Natchez,  Mississippi. 
Following  the  example  of  the  vast  majority  who 
sought  education  in  the  nineties  Rev.  Cosey,  as  the 
phrase  goes,  had  to  work  his  way.  Happily  he  had 
so  well  mastered  his  subjects  that  he  could  teach. 
Thus  he  spent  his  summer  vacations  in  the  school 
room  earning  money  to  return  to  his  college.  Fin 
ishing  the  Natchez  College  Academic  course  in  1896 
he  again  went  out  to  teach,  teaching  for  six  years 
in  the  State  of  Mssissippi  before  engaging  exclus 
ively  in  his  chosen  profession.  While  attending 
Natchez  College,  Rev.  Cosey  devoted  much  time  to 
the  study  of  Theology,  having  decided  long  before 
to  enter  the  Baptist  ministry.  In  1896,  the  year  of 
his  graduation,  he  was  ordained  and  united  his 


work  as  school  teacher  and  minister.  One  year  af 
ter  ordination,  he  was  chosen  pastor  of  the  Metro 
politan  Baptist  Church,  Clarksdale,  Mississippi,  a 
post  he  filled  until  1905.  He  held  pastorates  also  at 
Greenville  and  at  Shelby.  For  the  last  ten  years, 
Rev.  Cosey  has  been  pastor  of  the  Green  Grove 
Baptist  Church,  at  Mound  Bayou,  the  famous  Ne 
gro  town,  where  he  has  not  only  been  perfoming 
duties  as  pastor,  but  has  been  lending  a  hand  in 
many  ways  to  the  growth  and  development  of  the 
town. 

From  the  beginnig  of  his  career  Rev.  Cosey 
proved  to  be  an  organizer  and  a  builder  as  well  as  a 
pastor.  He  was  really  the  organizer  of  the  Metro 
politan  Church  at  Clarksdale,  the  Church  in  which 
he  first  preached  as  pastor.  His  pastorate  of  the 
First  Baptist  Church  of  Mound  Bayou  over  which 
he  still  presides  took  on  again  the  form  of  builder. 
This  church  he  also  started,  giving  it  all  the  mod 
ern  equipment,  for  Sunday  School,  social  uplift  and 
communty  work.  Twelve  thousand  dollars  have 
already  been  put  into  this  building,  having  four 
thousand  more  to  be  raised. 

As  a  church  man  and  as  a  man  of  affairs,  Rev. 
Cosey  has  been  a  leader  not  only  in  Mound  Bayou 
but  in  Mississippi  for  many  years.  He  has  been 
Corresponding  Secretary  of  the  General  Misionary 
Baptist  Convention  of  the  state,  has  been  for  many 
years  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  National  Baptist 
Convention  and  served  for  a  number  of  years  as 
the  Corresponding  Secretary  of  the  National  Bap 
tist  Association. 

Powerful  as  well  as  useful  in  the  church,  Rev. 
Cosey  is  also  a  conspicuous  leader  in  fraternal  or 
ders.  He  is  a  Mason,  a  Knight  of  Pythias  and  a 
Knight  of  Tabor.  He  is  International  Chief  Grand 
Orator  of  the  Knights  of  Tabor  and  special  enlist 
ment  Master  for  Mississippi. 

When  the  people  of  Mound  Bayou  organized  a 
bank,  he  became  vice-president  and  stock  holder. 
He  took  an  active  part  in  organizing  and  promot 
ing  the  Mound  Bayou  Oil  Mill  Enterprise  and  lent 
his  influence  to  the  establishment  of  schools  and 
small  businesses  throughout  the  town. 

He  owns  a  splendid  two-story  residence  in 
Mound  Bayou  and  seven  rent  houses,  six  lots  and 
forty  acres  of  delta  farm  land. 

Rev.  Cosey  was  married  in  1901  to  Miss  Ida  Hope 
Carter,  of  Helena,  Arkansas.  Mrs.  Cosey  is  a  grad 
uate  of  A.  &  M.  College,  Normal,  Ala.  She  was 
for  years  a  teacher  both  in  Alabama  and  in  Arkan 
sas.  Throughout  Rev.  Cosey's  work,  she  has  been 
the  power  behind  the  throne.  Both  in  company 
with  Mrs.  Cosey  and  on  behalf  of  his  church  and 
fraternities,  Rev.  Cosey  has  traveled  over  the 
whole  of  the  United  States. 


199 


CHARLES  PRICE  JONES,  D.  D. 

ORN  in  Rome,  Georgia,  educated 
in  the  public  schools  of  his  na 
tive  state  and  in  Arkansas  Baptist 
College,  Dr.  Charles  Price  Jones 
is  celebrated  as  a  writer  of  hymns 
and  as  a.  founder  of  a  religion 
But  he  disclaims  the  latter  title.  He  claims  only  to 
give  emphasis  to  an  old  neglected  doctrine.  He 
was  converted  in  1884,  and  baptized  in  1885  by  Rev. 
J.  D.  Petty.  Two  years  later  he  was  licensed  to 
preach,  and  in  1888  was  ordained  by  Rev.  Chas.  L. 
Fisher  However,  he  felt  that  a  higher  literary 
training  was  essential  to  one  who  has  visions  of  a 
useful  career  in  the  church.  It  was  with  this  in 
view  that  he  entered  Arkansas  Baptist  College,  and 
was  graduated  from  the  academic  Department  in 
1891. 

Dr.  Jones  began  to  ponder  more  deeply  the  words 
of  the  scripture.  To  him  all  things  seemed  possible 
in  Christ.  He  began  to  take  the  Bible  literally. 
Hence  arose  his  belief  in  holiness.  He  says,  "I  pas- 
tored  in  Arkansas  until  1892.  During  this  time  I 
was  corresponding  secretary  of  the  convention,  a 
trustee  of  the  Arkansas  Baptist  College  and  editor 
of  the  Baptist  Vangard. 

In  1892  I  accepted  a  call  fro  mBethlehem  Church, 


Searcy,  Arkansas,  where  I  had  pastored  18  months, 
to  the  Tabernacle  Baptist  Church,  Selma,  Alabama. 
Here  I  was  called  after  a  time,  to  the  life  and 
ministry  of  holiness,  but  had  no  idea  that  it  would 
result  in  a  disruption  with  the  Baptists  ;  for  I  be 
lieved  that  the  more  faithful  a  man  was  to  Christ 
in  his  daily  living  the  more  he  would  and  ought  to 
be  prized  by  the  people  of  God.  But  I  was  mistak 
en.  Yet  I,  myself  was  partly  to  blame.  Like  all 
who  get  an  important  vision,  I  was  extreme  in  my 
views  and  endeavors.  I  understood  it  to  mean, 
the  standing  of  every  believer  in  Christ  in  the  pres 
ence  of  God.  2nd,  the  condition  of  heart  that  the 
Holy  Ghost  imparts  to  make  us  delight  in  God's 
will,  the  daily  effort  of  the  believer's  faith  to  con 
form  to  that  will;  the  inevitable  result  of  living  in 
Christ  by  faith.  Indeed,  I  merely  conceived  it  to  be 
a  trust  in  God  that  obtained  grace  to  walk  before 
Him  in  all  pleasing,  trusting  the  blood  of  Christ 
to  deal  with  the  sin  of  our  nature.  I  do  not  teach  the 
impossibility  of  our  sinning,  but  the  necessity  of 
having  grace  to  live  Godly,  that  "the  wages  of  sin 
is  death," — (Romans). 

"In  Feberuary,  1895,  I  accepted  a  call  to  Mount 
Helm  Baptist  Church,  Jackson,  Miss.  In  1897  I 
called  the  first  Holiness  Convention  to  meet  at 
Jackson,  June  6th  and  study  the  Bible  two  weeks. 
There  were  present  at  this  convention  such  men 
as  Dr.  J.  A.  Jeter  of  Little  Rock,  Arkansas,  Pastor 
W.  S.  Pleasant,  of  Hazelhurst,  Miss.,  and  many 
others. 

"In  1898  the  convention  was  more  largely  at 
tended  and  the  opposition  had  gathered  power ;  and 
in  1898  at  the  convention  at  Winona  steps  were  tak 
en  to  fight  our  extreme  attitude,  then  we  built  the 
present  commodious  building.  We  have  a  school  at 
Jackson  incorporated  as  Christ's  Missionary  and 
Industrial  College.  Through  the  efforts  of  Elders 
W.  S.  Pleasant,  J.  A.  Jeter,  L.  W.  Lee,  Thomas 
Sanders,  F.  S.  Sheriff,  G.  H.  Punches,  Deacon  Hen 
ry  Moore,  Clarke  Kendricks  and  others,  this  work 
was  established.  It  has  carried  in  prosperous  years 
200  students  and  12  instructors.  It  has  turned  a 
number  of  graduates  from  the  12th  grade  who  are 
making  good.  The  value  of  the  property  (encum 
bered)  is  $15,000." 

He  was  for  twenty-one  years  editor  of  the 
"Truth."  He  is  author  of  several  hymn  books, 
which  are  used  widely  by  ministers  and  members 
of  both  races.  In  1915  Arkansas  Baptist  College 
conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divin 
ity.  However,  in  his  own  words,  "I  attended  strict 
ly  to  my  own  business,  no  time  for  worldly  honors." 

He  was  married  in  1892  to  Miss  Fannie  A.  Brown 
of  Little  Rock,  Arkansas.  Mrs.  Jones  died  in  1916. 
Their  one  child  is  also  deceased. 

He  is  now  pastor  of  Christ  Tabernacle,  a  new 
church  at  Los  Angeles,  Calif.,  and  is  General  Over 
seer  of  the  Holiness  work.  Jan.  4,  1918,  he  was 
married  to  Miss  Pearl  Reed  of  that  city. 

The  school  at  Jackson  is  now  under  the  Presi 
dency  of  Dr.  J.  L.  Conic. 


2CO 


EPHRIAM   H.   McKISSACK.   A.   B.,   A.   M. 


OR  many  years  Kphriam  H.  Mc- 
Kissack  has  been  a  leader  in  the 
state  of  Mississippi.  This  lead- 
ershiu  has  radiated  in  many  direc 
tions.  It  first  asserted  itself  in  his 
work  as  a  school  man.  Well  edu 
cated  and  possessing  an  easy  adaptation  he  soon 
became  a  leader  in  business,  in  politics,  in  church 
and  secret  orders. 

Professor  McKissack  was  born  in  Memphis,  Ten 
nessee,  November  22,  1860.  His  parents  were 
William  and  Katie  Mitchell,  both  of  whom  died 
when  he  was  four  years  old.  The  young  lad  was 
adopted  and  reared  by  his  aunt,  Fannie  McKissack, 
from  whom  he  took  his  name. 

As  an  adopted  son  he  fared  well  in  the  home  of 
his  aunt.  He  had  ample  care,  was  provided  gen 
erously  with  clothing,  books,  indeed  everything  to 
encourage  him  to  achieve.  To  all  this  he  readily 
responded..  After  attending  the  public  schools  he 
entered  Rust  University.  From  this  institution  he 
gained  the  degrees  of  Bachelor  of  Arts  and  Master 
of  Arts;  the  former  in  1895,  the  latter  in  1898. 

Long  before  he  completed  his  course  Professor 
McKissack  had  become  active  in  the  affairs  of  his 


state.  He  had  joined  the  Methodist  Church  and 
had  become  one  of  its  leading  directors  and  work 
ers.  He  was  a  trustee,  a  steward  and  a  Sunday 
School  teacher  in  Asbury  Church ;  was  a  member 
of  the  upper  Mississippi  Conference  and  president 
of  the  Conference  Board  of  Church  Extensions.  In 
1896  he  was  a  member  of  the  Church  General  Con 
ference,  then  again  in  1900-1904,  1908-1912-1916. 
He  served  one  year,  the  year  following  his  at 
tainment  of  Master  of  Arts,  as  principal  of  the 
Holly  Springs  City  Schools.  Then  his  alma  mater 
called  him  to  a  chair  within  her  walls.  From  1890 
to  1911  he  was  a  member  of  the  Rust  University 
faculty.  In  1911  he  resigned  his  post  in  Rust  and 
became  manager  of  the  Union  Guaranty  and  In 
surance  Company  of  Holly  Springs. 

His  departure  from  the  schoolroom  did  not  sever 
his  connections  with  the  school,  it  did  signal  how 
ever,  a  wider  activity  in  his  business  and  in  other 
practical  matters.  He  entered  politics  and  became 
an  active  and  aggressive  Republican;  so  effective 
was  his  work  that  he  was  made  chairman  of  the 
seventh  Congressional  District  of  his  State,  and  in 
1908-1912,  he  was  made  delegate  to  the  Republican 
National  Convention.  For  twenty  years  Professor 
McKissack  has  been  secretary  and  treasurer  of  the 
Odd  Fellows  Benefit  Association.  He  has  so  care 
fully  handled  his  accounts  and  adjusted  claims  that 
little  friction  has  ever  arisen,  a  thing  rare  indeed 
in  any  sort  of  benefit  or  insurance  organization 

I  romment  in  the  Odd  Fellows  Association  he  is  a 
conspicuous  worker  in  practically  all  Negro  lodges, 
in  the  state  of  Mississippi,  a  state  thoroughly  in 
fested  with  secret  orders.  He  is  a  Mason,  a  Knight 
of  Pythias,  a  member  of  the  United  Sons  and 
Daughters  of  Jacob,  of  the  Fastern  Star,  of  the  Im- 
maculates,  of  the  Reformers.  He  is  still,  as  in  form 
er  days,  a  pillar  in  the  church  and  in  the  school.  He 
keeps  up  his  connection  with  conferences  and  with 
the  Sunday  School  and  has  added  to  those  his  mem 
bership  in  the  Federated  Commission  of  Colored 
Churches.  Although  he  has  long  since  left  the 
school  room  he  still  keeps  in  close  touch  with  the 
schools  of  the  State,  with  the  schools  in  the  city, 
and  of  course  with  every  twist  and  turn  of  the  af- 
Rust  University.  In  Rust  he  has  reached  a  most 
honored  post,  he  has  not  only  been  elected  a  mem- 
be  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  he  is  vice-president  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees.  Professor  McKissack  has 
done  what  to  some  seems  the  incredible  thing.  He 
has  the  refusal  of  the  presidency  of  the  institution, 
He  had  served  Rust  as  head  of  the  Commercial  de 
partment,  as  professor  of  mathematics,  professor 
of  natural  science  and  as  secretary  of  the  faculty, 
when,  therefore,  Rust  needed  a  president  in  1909, 
the  office  was  tendered  Professor  McKissack  but 
he  declined,  preferring  business  and  a  more  general 
public  career. 

Professor  McKissack  was  married  to  Miss  Mary 
A.  Fxtim  of  Yazoo  City.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  McKissack 
have  one  son.  Dr.  Autrey  C.  McKissack,  M.  D.  who 
is  a  successful  physician  of  Memphis,  Tennessee: 
Professor  and  Mrs.  McKissack  live  in  their  own 
home  in  Holly  Springs,  a  residence  second  to  but 
few  in  the  town. 


201 


WILLIAM    CLAUD   GORDON 


OMETIME  ago,  a  business  census 
of  St.  Louis,  Missiouri,  revealed 
the  fact  that  Mr.  W.  C.  Gordon,  a 
colored  undertaker  of  that  city, 
had  handled  the  largest  number 
of  bodies  of  any  undertaker,  re 
gardless  of  color,  in  the  city  of  St.  Louis.  For  this 
remarkable  fact,  those  who  knew  him  well  account 
ed  in  several  ways  ;  first,  they  say  that  he  is  a  good 
man,  and  they  give  great  stress  to  this  first  point ; 
then  the}'  say  he  is  fair  in  his  business  dealings, 
especially  in  his  dealings  with  the  widows  and  or 
phans  ;  and  the  third  point  on  which  they  lay  stress 
in  that  his  equipment  and  his  headquarters  are  such 
as  to  make  any  customer  proud  to  employ  his  ser 
vices. 

Risen  from  poverty  to  that  envious  stage  of  com 
petence,  if  not  wealth,  Mr.  Gordon  has  kept  an  op 
en  hand  for  aspiring  young  men  and  women,  and 
has  maintained  a  ready  sheckle  for  church,  orphan 
age,  school — indeed  he  has  been  ready  and  willing 
to  help  all  worthy  undertakings  for  the  advance 
ment  of  the  colored  people. 

Unlike  many  who  have  climbed  successfully,  he 
did  not  kick  the  ladder  down,  once  he  gained  the 
ascent  but  remembering  his  own  early  struggles  he 


has  been  always  ready  to  help  another  over  the 
first  rough  stretch.  Mr.  Gordon  was  born  in  Colum 
bia,  Tennessee,  March  15,  1862.  From  this  date, 
we  can  gather  that  Mr.  Gordon  as  a  very  small 
lad  saw  a  little  of  the  last  bitter  days  of  slavery 
and  all  of  the  struggles  for  freedom  and  readjust 
ment.  There  is  therefore  nothing  surprising  in  the 
fact  that  the  young  man  had  no  opportunity  to  de 
velop  his  mind  in  the  school  room.  While  still  a 
young  man,  Mr.  Gordon  went  to  St.  Louis.  Here 
he  found  himself  in  a  very  unfortunate  position — 
he  was  without  means,  without  education  and  with 
out  friends.  To  earn  a  living  for  himself  he  first 
entered  the  employ  of  the  Pullman  service,  where 
for  several  years  he  served  as  a  porter.  But  Mr. 
Gordon  was  an  ambitious  man,  and  so  was  not  sat 
isfied  with  being  a  porter  for  life.  When  he  had 
saved  a  small  sum  of  money,  he  quit  the  service  and 
went  into  the  undertaking  business  for  himself. 
His  first  business  was  on  a  very  small  scale,  and  as 
a  venture  it  was  feeble,  very  feeble.  But  putting 
all  his  mind  and  thought  on  his  work,  it  began  to 
develop  and  Mr.  Gordon  himself,  was  among  those 
who  was  surprised  at  the  very  great  rapidity  of  the 
growth  of  the  venture.  From  his  very  feeble  be 
ginning  his  business  has  developed  until  today  his 
is  among  the  best  equipped  and  largest  firms  of 
Negro  undertakers.  Indeed  west  of  the  Mississippi, 
he  is  one  of  the  leading  men  in  the  undertaking 
business,  regardless  of  race.  He  gives  regular  em 
ployment  to  eight  persons. 

His  natural  habit  of  saving  did  not  leave  him, 
when  he  began  to  make  money  in  larger  sums,  and 
so  after  a  time,  Mr.  Gordon  had  enough  money 
saved  to  invest  in  some  other  line  of  work.  Cast 
ing  about  for  a  profitable  investment  for  this  sur 
plus,  and  investment  which  would  be  yielded  fair 
interest  and  at  the  same  time  give  employment  to 
a  large  number  of  colored  people  Mr.  Gordon  open 
ed  a  steam  laundry.  This  he  has  been  running  for 
the  last  seven  years,  The  laundry  is  equipped  with 
all  modern  appliances,  washers,  mangles,  driers, 
and  the  like.  In  St.  Louis  it  is  well  known  and 
is  liberally  patronized  for  its  prompt  and  efficient 
work.  In  the  operation  of  this  laundry  with  its 
great  number  of  patrons,  Mr.  Gordon  employs 
thirty-five  persons.  This  entails  -a.  payroll  of 
$335.00  per  week. 

A  conservative  valuation  of  the  two  businesses 
is  placed  at  $30,000.00.  Besides  this,  Mr.  Gordon 
owns  his  home,  much  real  estate  and  has  interest 
in  motor  hacks  and  vehicles.  In  all  Mr.  Gordon  is 
worth  about  $70.000.00  Mr.  Gordon  is  a  member 
of  the  National  Negro  Business  Men's  League,  an 
organization  in  which  he  has  taken  a  great  deal  of 
interest.  In  his  religious  belief  he  is  African  Me 
thodist  Episcopal.  He  is  an  active  member  of  the 
St.  Paul  Church,  of  St.  Louis. 

In  1908,  Mr.  Gordon  was  married  to  Miss  Mary 
Hunton,  of  Detroit,  Michigan.  Two  little  children 
have  come  to  help  make  the  home  of  the  Gordon's 
a  happy  one.  They  are  Charity,  age  six  years,  and 
Claud,  age  eight.  The  two  little  pupils  are  in  the 
public  school  of  St.  Louis. 


202 


JOHN  EDWARD   PERRY,  M.  D. 


R.  J.  Edward  Perry,  of  Kansas 
City,  Missiouri,  born  in  Clarks- 
ville,  Texas,  Red  River-  County, 
April  2nd,  1870.  His  parents  were 
ex-slaves  and  refugeed  from  Mis 
souri  and  Arkansas.  They  were 
remarkable  characters,  noted  for  their  integrity, 
industry,  courtesy,  generosity  and  honesty.  Their 
ambition  was  to  provide  a  home  for  their  children 
and  educate  them.  Johnny  had  no  opportunity  to 
go  to  school  until  he  was  nine  years  of  age.  He 
was  then  sent  to  a  log  cabin,  which  was  on  a  small 
plot  of  ground  given  by  his  father. 

His  early  days  were  spent  in  the  cotton  fields  of 
Texas,  going  to  school  about  three  months  in  a 
year  until  he  was  over  thirteen  years  of  age.  When 
he  entered  Bishop  College  he  earned  a  greater  por 
tion  of  his  expenses  by  doing  daily  services  for  the 
teachers  of  the  schools.  This  service  consisted  of 
duties  such  as — milking  the  cows,  scrubbing  floors, 
cutting  wood,  and  building  fires.  He  then  taught  a 
country  school  from  1891  until  1894,  making  and 
saving  sufficient  funds  to  graduate  from  Meharry 
Medical  College,  in  1895,  and  began  his  practice 
February  15,  1895,  and  made  a  competency  from 
the  first  week  of  his  practice.  This  was  begun  in 

203 


Mexico,  Missouri,  where  he  remained  six  months, 
then  moved  to  Columbia,  Missouri  where  the  great 
University  of  the  State  of  Missouri  is  located.  Giv 
ing  up  practice  in  1898,  he  served  his  Country  as 
1st  Lieutenant  in  7th  U.  S.  Vol.  Infantry.  After 
the  close  of  the  war  he  returned  to  Columbia,  re 
suming  his  practice. 

By  his  suave  nature,  genial  disposition  and  effec 
tive  work,  he  pushed  his  way  into  the  State  Hos 
pital  at  Columbia,  Missouri,  where  he  enjoyed  the 
professional  association  of  the  best  talent  that 
money  of  this  State  would  employ.  There  is  as 
much  prejudice  in  Missouri,  as  in  any  other  South 
ern  State,  and  when  those  in  authority  were  brought 
to  task  about  the  consideration  given  Dr.  Perry 
they  denied  the  fact  that  he  was  a  Negro  though 
he  is  extremely  dark  and  no  one  would  ever  think 
of  calling  him  even  a  mulatto. 

He  has  spent  considerable  time  working  for  pro 
fessional  uplift,  built  a  private  Hospital  in  1910, 
loaned  the  hospital  to  the  community  three  years 
later,  and  through  that  medium  created  sentiment 
sufficient  to  raise  quite  an  ample  sum  for  the  erec 
tion  of  an  Institution  for  the  people.  He  has  work 
ed  in  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  was  its  first  president  of  this 
city  and  he  works  in  every  avenue  for  racial  uplift. 
He  has  been  interested  in  a  number  of  business 
enterprises,  always  trying  to  provide  a  place  for 
young  men  and  women.  He  is  Secretary  and 
Treasurer  of  the  S.  P.  L.  Mercantile  and  Invest 
ment  Company,  a  firm  growing  out  of  the  People's 
Drug  Store,  a  very  successful  enterprise. 

He  married  Miss  Fredericka  D.  Sprague,  July  3, 
1912.  Mrs.  Perry  is  the  granddaughter  of  Frede 
rick  Douglass. 

Dr.  Perry  is  considered  the  leading  colored  phy 
sician  in  Kansas  City,  both  as  a  practititioneer  and 
as  a  surgeon.  In  these  later  years  he  has  given 
most  of  his  time  to  surgery,  both  in  connection 
with  the  General  Hospital  and  his  private  Sanita 
rium.  As  evidence  of  his  skill  in  surgery,  he  is 
frequently  called  to  operate,  as  far  south  as  Texas 
and  to  various  points  in  Missouri,  including  St. 
Louis.  He  is  regarded  the  leading  Negro  surgeon 
west  of  Chicago.  After  Dr.  Perry  had  practiced  a 
few  years,  he  sought  further  preparation  speciali 
zing  in  surgery  by  attending  the  Post  Graduate 
Hospital  of  Chicago,  Illinois. 

As  a  physician,  Dr.  Perry  is  progressive.  In  all 
matters  he  is  conservative  and  especially  frank.  He 
can  be  depended  upon  at  all  times  to  be  fair  in  deal 
ings  with  his  patients,  both  in  information  and 
treatment  and  in  his  business  dealings  with  them. 
The  new  hospital  which  has  just  been  acquired  bv 
the  colored  people  of  Kansas  City  is  largely  the 
result  of  Dr.  Perry's  untiring  labors  and  is  indeed 
a  fitting  reward  for  his  unselfish  devotion  to  the 
people  of  Kansas  City. 


ANDERSON  RUSSELL 

R.   Anderson    Russell   was   born   in 
Smith    County,    Mississippi,    April 
1st.,    1864,   and   died   in    St.    Louis 
Missouri,    September    2nd.,     1917, 
after   spending-  a   useful  and   suc 
cessful    life.     His    education    was 
confined  to  the  Rural  Schools    of 
his    neighborhood,    which       were 
greatly  inferior  to  such  schools  of  the  present  day, 
which  even  now  are    far    from    being    what    they 
should  be. 

If  the  schools  failed  to  give  him  a  high  standard 
of  learning  they  still  served  him  a  good  turn  for 
his  contact  with  books  set  his  active  mind  to  work 
and  caused  him  to  form  the  habit  of  thinking  clear- 
ly. 

When  he  was  twenty  years  of  age  his  parents 
left  Mississippi,  and  moved  to  Alton,  Illinois. 

In  his  new  home  he  entered  the  service  of  a  num 
ber  of  private  families.  Here  he  labored  until  1890, 
when  he  left  Alton,  and  went  to  St.  Louis,  to  enter 
the  service  of  the  Pullman  Palace  Car  Co.  His  con 
nection  with  this  company  continued  for  four  years 
At  the  end  of  this  term  he  had  saved  sufficient 
funds  from  his  wages  to  enter  a  business  of  his 
own. 

He  formed  a  co-partnership  under  the  firm  name 
of  Russell  and  Gordon,  and  conducted  an  undertak 
ing  business.  They  remained  together  and  did 
business  under  the  original  firm  name  until  in 
1902,  when  they  separated  and  each  opened  a  busi 
ness  of  his  own. 

Mr.  Russell's  business  continued  to  prosper  and 
he  soon  was  enabled  to  take  from  the  business 
funds  to  purchase  real  estate.  His  investments 
were  wisely  chosen  and  became  a  source  of  reve- 

204 


nue  to  him-  He  purchased  the  building  in  which 
his  business  was  located  and  adjusted  it  to  meet 
his  wants.  He  also  purchased  a  double  flat  and 
four  rent  houses. 

Mr.  Russell  was  a  religious  man,  and  took  an 
active  part  in  the  work  of  the  church.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  Union  Memorial  Church,  which  he 
joined  in  1908. 

At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  serving  as  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  church. 

Mr.  Russell's  business  brought  him  into  inti 
mate  contact  with  the  home  life  of  many  families 
and  he  soon  formed  the  habit  of  thinking  and  plan 
ning  for  their  betterment.  He  saw  the  value  of 
many  of  the  societies  organized  for  their  benefit 
and  became  actively  identified  with  them.  He 
might  be  termed  a  Society  man  for  his  name  was 
on  the  roster  of  most  of  them. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Masons,  Knights  of 
Pythias,  Odd  Fellows,  and  United  Brothers  of 
Friendship. 

His  service  in  the  Pullman  Palace  Car  Company 
gave  him  the  opportunity  for  travel  and  enabled 
him  to  visit  all  parts  of  the  United  States  and  parts 
of  Mexico. 

He  met  his  life  companion,  Miss  Priscilla  Prim- 
gle,  in  St.  Louis,  where  he  was  married  to  her  June 
28,  1906.  Although  their  married  life  was  without 
issue  it  was  thoroughly  congenial  and  happy. 

Mr.  Russell's  health  began  to  fail  him  in  1916, 
and  he  soon  got  too  ill  to  give  attention  to  his  busi 
ness.  He  grew  weaker  continuously  and  was 
never  again  able  to  look  after  his  affairs,  lie  lin 
gered  until  September  2nd,  1917,  when  he  passed 
into  the  other  State. 

The  business  which  he  had  so  carefully  built  up 
and  to  which  he  had  given  so  much  of  his  time  and 
thought  did  not  die  with  him.  It  was  incorporated 
into  a  company,  known  as  the  "A.  Russell  Under 
taking  Company.  Incorporated."  His  sister,  An 
nie  K.  Russell,  was  elected  President  of  the  Com 
pany,  and  carries  on  the  business  along  the  same 
business  principles  employed  by  her  brother,  work 
ing  out  the  plans  outlined  by  him. 

Under  the  new  management  the  business  still 
continues  to  prosper. 


HOME  OF  A.  RUSSELL  UNDERTAKING  CO. 


CHARLES  HYMEN  TURPIN 

JrlARLES  Hymen  Turpin,  is  a  suc 
cessful  business  man  of  St.  Louis, 
Missouri.  Mr.  Turpin  belongs  to 
the  class  of  men  who  do  things. 
He  is  a  man  who  will  meet  an  op 
portunity  squarely  and  use  it  ad 
vantageously.  He  has  a  natural  ability,  is  indus 
trious  and  persistent.  He  is  practical  and  never  en 
ters  a  project  without  first  weighing  that  keen 
competition  which  always  besets  every  venture 
worth  while.  He  is  not  the  type  of  man  who  will 
shrink  from  the  arrows  of  opposition,  but  is  spur 
red  on  by  them  to  the  accomplishment  of  his  aims. 
Once  started,  his  resolute  determination  and  in 
domitable  courage,  backed  by  explicit  confidence 
in  himself,  visually  carries  him  through  all  difficul 
ties  to  the  goal  of  his  ambitions. 

That  these  qualities  are  natural,  is  best  illustrat 
ed  by  a  few  incidents  in  his  boyhood  life.  At  the 
age  of  ten,  when  he  was  a  boot-black,  he  attempt 
ed  to  organize  a  union,  in  order  to  raise  the  price 
of  "shines".  Failing  to  interest  the  other  boys,  he 
aggressively  declared  the  "Union"  in  effect  with 
himself  as  the  only  member,  and  elected  him 
self  president,  secretary  and  treasurer,  raised  the 
price  of  "shines"  and  proceeded  to  monopolize  the 

205 


industry  to  the  detriment  of  his  faint-hearted  com 
petitors.  One  day  at  the  old  St.  Louis  Fairgrounds, 
he  noticed  that  the  paddock  was  not  being  used. 
He  immediately  appo